An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
bright nebula
  میغ ِ روشن، ~ درخشان   
miq-e rowšan, ~ deraxšân

Fr.: nébuleuse brillante   

In contrast to a → dark nebula, a bright cloud of interstellar gas and dust. The term designates both emission nebulae and reflection nebulae.

bright; → nebula.

brightening
  روشنش   
rowšaneš

Fr.: embrillancement   

The act or process of becoming bright or brighter. → limb brightening, → gravity brightening

Verbal noun of brighten, from → bright.

brightness
  درخشندگی   
deraxšandegi (#)

Fr.: brillance   

General:The state or quality of being bright.
Astronomy:The amount of light or other radiation received from a celestial object. It depends on the intrinsic brightness of the object, its distance and the amount of interstellar extinction. → luminosity.

bright + → -ness.

Deraxšandegi, from deraxš, present stem of deraxšidan "to shine," → bright, + -andé adjective suffix + -gi noun suffix.

brightness distribution
  واباژش ِ درخشندگی   
vâbâžeš-e deraxšandegi

Fr.: distribution de brillance   

A statistical distribution of the brightness of an astronomical extended object.

brightness; → distribution.

Vâbâžeš, → distribution; deraxšandegi, → brightness.

brightness temperature
  دما‌ی ِ درخشندگی   
damâ-ye deraxšandegi

Fr.: température de brillance   

In radio astronomy, the temperature of a source calculated on the assumption that it is a blackbody emitting radiation of the observed intensity at a given wavelength. → antenna temperature.

brightness; → temperature.

Brillouin function
  کریای ِ بری‌یویءن   
karyâ-ye Brillouin

Fr.: fonction de Brillouin   

A mathematical function appearing in the → magnetization equation of a → paramagnetic substance.

Brillouin zone; → zone.

Brillouin scattering
  پراکنش ِ بری‌یویءن   
parâkaneš-e Brillouin

Fr.: diffusion de Brillouin   

Scattering of electromagnetic waves in solids and liquids when, as a result of the scattering process, an acoustic → phonon is emitted or absorbed. Brillouin scattering is analogous to → Raman scattering.

Brillouin zone; → scattering.

Brillouin zone
  زنار ِ بری‌یویءن   
zonâr-e Brillouin

Fr.: zone de Brillouin   

Crystallography: One of the several regions which, in reciprocal space, represent the solution of the wave equations for the propagation of → phonons or electrons in solids. The first Brillouin zone is the Wigner-Seitz cell of the reciprocal lattice. It is a polyhedron obtained by connecting a lattice point to its first neighbors and drawing the planes perpendicular to these connecting lines and passing through their midpoints. The second Brillouin zone is obtained by a similar construction but the second-nearest neighbours.

After Léon Brillouin (1889-1969) French physicist; → zone.

brine
  اژدم   
aždem

Fr.: saumure   

1) Water saturated or strongly impregnated with salt.
2) Any saline solution.

M.E. from O.E. bryne "brine," origin unknown; cognate with Du. brijn.

Aždem, from Gilaki and Tâti aždem "very salty water" used for preserving fish.

BRITE-Constellation
   BRITE-هم‌اختران   
BRITE-hamaxtarân

Fr.: BRITE-Constellation   

An international collaboration between Austria, Canada, and Poland, currently comprising five nano-satellites to investigate stellar structure and evolution of the brightest stars in the sky and their interaction with the local environment. BRITE is also used to study micropulsation, wind phenomena, and other forms of stellar variability. These nano-satellites aim to monitor stars brighter than V ~ 5 mag using two color pass-bands, over various observing campaigns. Each nano-satellite hosts a 3 cm telescope, providing a wide field of view (24° x 20°) to simultaneously observe up to a few dozen stars (Weiss et al. 2014).

BRITE, short for → BRIght Target Explorer; → bright; → target; → explorer.

brittle
  ترد   
tord (#)

Fr.: cassant, friable   

A → substance that has a low → elastic limit. For example → glass, which breaks if its low elastic limit is exceeded.

M.E. britel, from brit-, akin to O.E. brytan "to crush, break to pieces," + -el adj. suffix.

Tord "brittle, fragile;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *tard- "to split, pierce;" related to tâlidan (Dehxodâ) "to spoliate, plunder," eftâlidan "to tear, break," → dissipate; cf. Shughni tidarδ- "to tear, pluck," zidarδ- "to tear, break;" Skt. tard- "to split, to pierce."

broad
  پهن   
pahn (#)

Fr.: large   

Wide in extent from side to side.

M.E. bro(o)d, from O.E. brad; cf. O.N. breiðr, Du. breed, Ger. breit, Goth. brouþs.

Pahn "wide, broad," from Mid.Pers. pah(a)n; Av. paθana- "broad, wide, spacious;" PIE root *pete- "to spread;" cf. L. patere "to be open," Gk. petannynai "to spread out," petalon "a leaf."

broad-band photometry
  شیدسنجی ِ پهن-باند   
šidsanji-ye pahn-bând

Fr.: photométrie à bande large   

Photometric measurements carried out through filters with a band-width (about one-tenth the central wavelength) in the range 30-100 nm. Typical examples are Johnson photometry, Krons-Cousins RI photometry, and the six-color system.

broad; → band; → photometry.

broad-line radio galaxy (BLRG)
  رادیو‌کهکشان ِ پهن-خط   
radio kahkašân-e pahn-xatt

Fr.: galaxie radio à raies larges   

A radio galaxy that shows broad optical emission lines. → broad-line region.

broad; → line; → radio galaxy.

broad-line region (BLR)
  ناحیه‌ی ِ پهن-خط   
nâhiye-ye pahn-xatt

Fr.: région à raies larges   

The inner region of a → quasar or an → active galactic nucleus exhibiting broad → spectral lines which indicate ionized matter moving with speeds in excess of 10,000 km sec-1, probably due to the presence of an → accretion disk surrounding a → supermassive black hole. Also called Type I AGN. See also → obscuring torus.

broad; → line; → region.

broaden
  پهنیدن   
pahnidan

Fr.: élargir   

To make or become broad or broader.

borad.

Pahnidan, from pahn, → broad, + -idan infinitive suffix.

broadening
  پهنش   
pahneš

Fr.: élargissement   

The act of making something wider. → instrumental broadening; → line broadening.

Broadening, from → broad + → -ing noun froming suffix.

Pahneš, from pahn (→ broad, present tense stem of pahnidan "to broaden" + -idan infinitive suffix) + verbal-noun suffix.

Brocchi's Cluster
  خوشه‌ی ِ بروکی   
xuše-ye Brocchi

Fr.: amas de Brocchi   

Same as the → Coathanger and Collinder 399.

Named after the American amateur astronomer D. F. Brocchi who created a map of the cluster in the 1920s for calibrating photometers; → cluster.

broken line
  خط ِ شکسته   
xatt-e šekasté (#)

Fr.: ligne brisée   

A system of connected line → segments joined end to end.

Past participle of → break; → line.

bromine
  بروم   
brom (#)

Fr.: brome   

The only liquid non-metallic chemical element; symbol Br. → Atomic number 35; → atomic weight 79.904; → melting point -7.2°C; → boiling point 58.78°C; → specific gravity of liquid 3.12 at 20°C; → valence -1, +1, +3, +5, or +7. A member of the halogen group of elements. Volatilizes readily at room temperature to a red vapor with strong disagreeable odor and very irritating effect on the eyes and throat. Occurs in combination with various metals, as potassium, sodium and magnesium bromides, which are found in mineral waters, in river and sea-water, and occasionally in marine plants and animals. Its compounds are widely used in photography and medicine. Discovered by Antoine-Jerome Balard (1802-1876) in 1826. Its two stable → isotopes are 79Br (50.69%) and 81Br (49.31%).

From Fr. brome, from Gk. bromos for "stench, bad odor," coined by its discoverer.

Brom, loan from Fr., as above.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>