An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
hard palate
  سختکام   
saxtkâm (#)

Fr.: palais osseux, ~ dur   

The front, bony part of the roof of the mouth. → soft palate.

hard; → palate.

hard X-rays
  پرتوهای ِ X ِ سخت   
partowhâ-ye X-e saxt (#)

Fr.: rayons X durs   

The short wavelength, high energy end of the electromagnetic spectrum. Hard X-rays are typically those with energies greater than around 10 keV. The dividing line between hard and soft X-rays is not well defined and can depend on the context.

hard; → X-rays.

hardware
  سخت‌افزار   
saxt-afzâr (#)

Fr.: matériel   

Any physical equipment. The physical equipment comprising a computer system; opposed to → software.

hard + ware, from M.E., from O.E. waru, from P.Gmc. *waro (cf. Swed. vara, Dan. vare, M.Du. were, Du. waar, Ger. Ware "goods").

Saxt-afzâr, from saxt, → hard + afzâr "instrument, means, tool," from Mid.Pers. afzâr, abzâr, awzâr "instrument, means," Proto-Iranian *abi-cāra- or *upa-cāra-, from cāra-, cf. Av. cārā- "instrument, device, means" (Mid.Pers. câr, cârag "means, remedy;" loaned into Arm. aucar, aucan "instrument, remedy;" Mod.Pers. câré "remedy, cure, help"), from kar- "to do, make, build;" kərənaoiti "he makes" (Pers. kardan, kard- "to do, to make"); cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

harmonic
  هماهنگ   
hamâhang (#)

Fr.: harmonique   

(adj.) Of, pertaining to, or noting a series of oscillations in which each oscillation has a frequency that is an integral multiple of the same basic frequency.
(n.) A wave motion, superimposed on a fundamental wave, having a frequency which is an integral multiple of the fundamental frequency. → overtone.

From L. harmonicus, from Gk. harmonikos "harmonic, musical," from harmonia "agreement, concord of sounds," related to harmos "joint," arariskein "to join together;" PIE base *ar- "to fit together."

Hamâhang, "harmonious, concordant," from ham- "together, with; same, equally, even" (Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-; Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-; Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-) + âhang "melody, pitch, tune; harmony, concord," from Proto-Iranian *āhang-, from prefix ā- + *hang-, from PIE base *sengwh- "to sing, make an incantation;" cf. O.H.G. singan; Ger. singen; Goth. siggwan; Swed. sjunga; O.E. singan "to chant, sing, tell in song;" maybe cognate with Gk. omphe "voice; oracle."

harmonic mean
  میانگین ِ هماهنگ   
miyângin-e hamâhang

Fr.: moyenne harmonique   

A number whose reciprocal is the → arithmetic mean of the reciprocals of a set of numbers. Denoted by H, it may be written in the discrete case for n quantities x1, ..., xn, as: 1/H = (1/n) Σ(1/xi), summing from i = 1 to n. For example, the harmonic mean between 3 and 4 is 24/7 (reciprocal of 3: 1/3, reciprocal of 4: 1/4, arithmetic mean between them 7/24). The harmonic mean applies more accurately to certain situations involving rates. For example, if a car travels a certain distance at a speed speed 60 km/h and then the same distance again at a speed 40 km/h, then its average speed is the harmonic mean of 48 km/h, and its total travel time is the same as if it had traveled the whole distance at that average speed. However, if the car travels for a certain amount of time at a speed v and then the same amount of time at a speed u, then its average speed is the arithmetic mean of v and u, which in the above example is 50 km/h.

harmonic; → mean.

harmonic motion
  جنبش ِ هماهنگ   
jonbeš-e hamâhang (#)

Fr.: mouvement harmonique   

A motion that repeats itself in equal intervals of time (also called periodic motion).

harmonic; → motion.

harmonic oscillator
  نَو ِشگر ِ هماهنگ   
navešgar-e hamâhang (#)

Fr.: oscillateur harmonique   

Any oscillating particle in harmonic motion.

harmonic; → oscillator.

harmonic progression
  فرایازی ِ هماهنگ   
farâyâzi-ye hamâhang

Fr.: progression harmonique   

Math.: Any ordered set of numbers, the reciprocals of which have a constant difference between them. For example 1, ½, 1/3, ¼, ..., 1/n. Also called → harmonic sequence.

harmonic; progression.

harmonic sequence
  پی‌آیه‌ی ِ هماهنگ   
peyâye-ye hamâhang

Fr.: suite harmonique   

harmonic progression.

harmonic; → sequence.

harmonic series
  سری ِ هماهنگ   
seri-ye hamâhang

Fr.: série harmonique   

Overtones whose frequencies are integral multiples of the → fundamental frequency. The fundamental frequency is the first harmonic.

harmonic; → series.

Haro galaxy
  کهکشان ِ هارو   
kahkešân-e Hâro (#)

Fr.: galaxie de Haro   

A type of galaxies characterized by strong emission in the blue and violet regions of the spectrum. They are often elliptical or lenticular.

Named after the Mexican astronomer Guillermo Haro (1913-1988), who first compiled a sample of these objects; → galaxy.

HARPSpol
     
HARPSpol

Fr.: HARPSpol   

A → polarimeter using the → spectrographic capabilities of the → High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) to measure the → Zeeman effect indicating the presence of a → magnetic field at the surface some stars. This combined instrument is installed at the ESO 3.6-m telescope at → La Silla Observatory (Chile) and covers the 3800-6900 Å wavelength region with an average → spectral resolution of 110,000 (Piskunov, et al., 2011, ESO Messenger 143, 7). HARPSpol is mainly used in research on → magnetic fields in stars. See also → magnetic star, → magnetic massive star, → magneto-asteroseismology

HARPS + -pol, from → polarimeter.

Harshad number
  عدد ِ هرشد   
adad-e Harshad

Fr.: nombre Harshad   

A number that is divisible by the sum of its digits. For example, 18 is a Harshad number because 1 + 8 = 9 and 18 is divisible by 9 (18/9 = 2). The simplest Harshad numbers are the two-digit Harshad numbers: 10, 12, 18, 20, 21, 24, 27, 30, 36, 40, 42, 45, 48, 50, 54, 60, 63, 70, 72, 80, 81, 84, 90. They are sometimes called Niven numbers.

The name Harshad was given by Indian mathematician Dattaraya Kaprekar (1905-1986) who first studied these numbers. Harshad means "joy giver" in Sanskrit, from harṣa- "joy" and da "to give," → datum.

Hartle-Hawking initial state
  استات ِ آغازین ِ هارتل-هاؤکینگ   
estât-e âqâzin-e Hartle-Hawking

Fr.: état initial de Hartle-Hawking   

A proposal regarding the initial state of the → Universe prior to the → Planck era. This → no boundary hypothesis assumes an imaginary time in that epoch. In other words, there was no real time before the → Big Bang, and the Universe did not have a beginning. Moreover, this model treats the Universe like a quantum particle, in an attempt to encompass → quantum mechanics and → general relativity; and attributes a → wave function to the Universe. The wave function has a large value for our own Universe, but small, non-zero values for an infinite number of other possible, parallel Universes.

Hartle, J., Hawking, S., 1983, "Wave function of the Universe," Physical Review D 28; → initial; → state.

Hartley band
  باند ِ هارتلی   
bând-e Hartley

Fr.: bande de Hartley   

A band in the → absorption spectrum of → ozone (O3) extending in the → ultraviolet from 200 nm to 300 nm. It is stronger than the → Huggins band. See also: → Hartley band.

W. N. Hartley, J. Chem. Soc. 39, 111 (1881).

Hartmann test
  آزمون ِ هارتمان   
âzmun-e Hârtman (#)

Fr.: test de Hartmann   

A way of testing the quality of optical systems. In this method, incident rays from a point source are isolated by small holes in an opaque screen located close to the lens or mirror under test. Photographic plates are inserted into the beam within and beyond the focal region. The black dots on the exposed plates, which reveal differences of optical focus in the various zones of the lens or mirror, are analyzed to yield the objective's figure. → Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor.

Named after the German astronomer Johannes Hartmann (1865-1936), who developed the method. → test.

hartree
  هارتری   
hartree

Fr.: hartree   

A unit of energy used in atomic and molecular physics; symbol Ha or Eh. It is defined as: 1 Ha = mee4/(4ε02ħ), where me is the mass of electron, e its charge, ε0 the → permittivity of vacuum, and ħ → reduced Planck's constant. Its value is 2 → rydbergs, or 4.3597 x 10-18 → joule, or 27.213 → electron-volts.

Named for the British physicist and mathematician Douglas R. Hartree (1897-1958).

Harvard classification
  رده‌بندی ِ هاروارد   
radebandi-ye Hârvârd (#)

Fr.: classification de Harvard   

A classification of stellar spectra published in the Henry Draper catalogue, which was prepared in the early twentieth century by E. C. Pickering and Miss Annie Canon. It is based on the characteristic lines and bands of the chemical elements. The most important classes in order of decreasing temperatures are as follows: O, B, A, F, G, K, M.

Harvard, named for John Harvard (1607-1638), the English colonist, principal benefactor of Harvard College, now Harvard University. → classification

harvest
  ۱) خرمن؛ ۲) خرمن کردن، ~ برداشتن   
1) xarman; 2) xarman kardan, ~ bardâštan

Fr.: 1) moisson, récolte; 2) récolter   

1a) The gathering of a ripened → crop.
1b) (Agriculture) the crop itself or the yield from it in a single growing season.
2) To gather or reap (a ripened crop) from (the place where it has been growing) (TheFreeDictionary).

M.E. hervest, from O.E. hærfest "autumn;" cognate with Du. herfst, Ger. Herbst "autumn"); PIE *(s)kerp- "to gather, pluck, harvest," from *(s)ker- "to cut" (cf. Skt. krpāna- "sword, knife;" Gk. karpos "fruit;" L. carpere "to cut, divide, pluck;" Av. karət- "to cut," Mod.Pers. kârd "knife," as below).

Xarman, ultimately from *xramana-, from *xram- "to thresh;" cf. Ormuri šraməd, Parâci khamör, Yidgha xurom, xuräm; Nuristâni Kati kram- "to thresh;" Skt. kram- "to stride out, to go" (H. W. Bailey, 1979).

harvest moon
  ماه ِ خرمن‌برداری   
mâh-e xarman bardâri

Fr.: lune de moisson   

The → full moon that appears closest in time to the → autumnal equinox.

harvest; → moon.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>