An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
binning
  باوینش   
bâvineš

Fr.: binage   

Combining a few adjacent CCD pixels in bins, during readout; the method used to assemble the bins and transfer the charge by means of an electronic clock. Binning improves signal-to-noise ratio at the expense of spatial resolution.

Binning, from → bin.

Bâvineš, from bâvin, → bin.

binoculars
  دوچشمی، دوربین ِ ~   
docašmi (#), durbin-e ~ (#)

Fr.: binoculaire   

A small optical instrument with two tubes that is used to magnify the view of distant or astronomical objects. → prism binoculars.

From Fr. binoculaire, from binocle, from L. bini "double" (L. bis, bi- "twice," Av. biš "twice") + ocularis "of the eye," from oculus "eye" (compare with Av. axš-, aš- "eye," Skt. akshi- "eye," Gk. ops "eye," opsis "sight, appearance," from PIE okw- "to see;" also O.E. ege, eage, from P.Gmc. *augon, Goth. augo, Lith. akis, Armenian aku).

Docašmi "binocular," from do, → two + cašm, → eye, + -i adj. suffix; durbin, → telescope.

binomial
  دونامین   
donâmin

Fr.: 1) binôme; 2) binomial   

1a) An algebraic expression containing 2 terms, as x + y and 2x2 - 3x. In other words, a → polynomial with 2 terms.
1b) Biology: A pair of Latin (or latinized) words forming a scientific name for organisms. The first word represents the genus, and the second the species.
2) Of, pertaining to, or consisting of a binomial.

From L.L. binomi(us) "having two names," + → -al, → nominal.

binomial coefficient
  همگر ِ دونامین   
hamgar-e donâmin

Fr.: coefficient binomial   

The factor multiplying the variable in a term of a → binomial expansion. For example, in (x + y)4 = x4 + 4x3y + 6x2y2 + 4xy3 + y4 the binomial coefficients are 1, 4, 6, 4, and 1. In general, the r-th binomial coefficient in the expression (x + y)n is: (n,r) = n!/[r!(n - r)!].

binomial; → coefficient.

binomial differential
  دگرسانه‌ی ِ دونامین   
degarsâne-ye donâmin

Fr.: binôme différentiel   

An expression of the form xm(a + bxn)pdx, where m, n, p, a, and b are constants.

binomial; → differential.

binomial distribution
  واباژش ِ دونامین   
vâbâžeš-e donâmin

Fr.: distribution binomiale   

A probability distribution for independent events for which there are only two possible outcomes i.e., success and failure. The probability of x successes in n trials is: P(x) = [n!/x!(n - x)!] px.qn - x, where p is the probability of success and q = 1 - p the probability of failure on each trial. These probabilities are given in terms of the → binomial theorem expansion of (p + q)n.

binomial; → distribution.

binomial expansion
  سپانش ِ دونامین   
sopâneš-e donâmin

Fr.: expansion binomiale   

A rule for the expansion of an expression of the form (x + y)n. The variables x and y can be any → real numbers and n is an → integer. The general formula is known as the → binomial theorem.

binomial; → expansion.

binomial nomenclature
  نامگذاری ِ دونامین   
nâmgozâri-ye donâmin

Fr.: nomenclature binomiale   

A system introduced by Carl von Linné (1707-1778), the Swedish botanist, in which each organism is identified by two names. The first is the name of the genus (generic name), written with a capital letter. The second is the name of the species (specific name). The generic and specific names are in Latin and are printed in italic type. For example, human beings belong to species Homo sapiens.

binomial; → nomenclature.

binomial theorem
  فربین ِ دونامین   
farbin-e donâmin

Fr.: théorème du binôme   

A rule for writing an equivalent expansion of an expression such as (a + b)n without having to perform all multiplications involved. → binomial expansion. The general expression is (a + b)n = &Sigma (n,k)akbn - k, where the summation is from k = 0 to n, and (n,k) = n!/[r!(n - k)!]. For n = 2, (a + b)2 = a2 + 2ab + b2. Historically, the binomial theorem as applied to (a + b)2 was known to Euclid (320 B.C.) and other early Greek mathematicians. In the tenth century the Iranian mathematician Karaji (953-1029) knew the binomial theorem and its accompanying table of → binomial coefficients, now known as → Pascal's triangle. Subsequently Omar Khayyam (1048-1131) asserted that he could find the 4th, 5th, 6th, and higher roots of numbers by a special law which did not depend on geometric figures. Khayyam's treatise concerned with his findings is lost. In China there appeared in 1303 a work containing the binomial coefficients arranged in triangular form. The complete generalization of the binomial theorem for all values of n, including negative integers, was established by Isaac Newton (1642-1727).

binomial; → theorem.

bio-
  زیست-   
zist- (#)

Fr.: bio-   

Bio-, Gk., from bios "life," from PIE base *gweie- "to live;" cf. O.Pers./Av. gay- "to live," Av. gaya- "life," gaeθâ- "being, world, mankind," jivya-, jva- "aliving, alive," Skt. jivah "alive, living;" Mid.Pers. zivastan "to live," zivik, zivandag "alive, living," L. vivus "living, alive," vita "life," O.E. cwic "alive," E. quick, Lith. gyvas "living, alive."

Zist "life, existence," from zistan "to live," Mid.Pers. zivastan "to live," zivižn "life," O.Pers./Av. gay-, as explained above.

bioastronomy
  زیست‌اخترشناسی   
zistaxtaršenâsi (#)

Fr.: bioastronomie   

A common branch of astronomy and biology dealing with the study of life throughout the Universe; synonymous with → astrobiology and → exobiology.

Bioastronomy, from → bio- + → astronomy.

Zistaxtaršenâsi, from zist-, → bio-, + axtaršenâsi, → astronomy.

biodiversity
  زیست‌گوناگونی   
zistgunâguni

Fr.: biodiversité   

The → variety of → plant and → animal → species in a particular → environment.

bio-; → diversity.

bioinformatics
  زیست-ازداییک   
zist-azdâyik

Fr.: bioinformatique   

The retrieval and analysis of biochemical and biological data using mathematics and computer science, as in the study of genomes (Dictionary.com).

bio-; → informatics.

biologist
  زیست‌شناس   
zistšenâs (#)

Fr.: biologiste   

An expert or specialist in biology.

Biologist, from → biology + → -ist.

biology
  زیست‌شناسی   
zistženâsi (#)

Fr.: biologie   

The study of living organisms and their interactions with the non living world.

Biology, from → bio- + → -logy.

bioluminescence
  زیست-فروزستی   
zist-foruzesti

Fr.: bioluminescence   

The production and emission of light by a living organism as the result of a chemical reaction (→ chemiluminescence). In other words, bioluminescence is chemiluminescence from living organisms. It is widespread in the marine environment, but rare in terrestrial and especially freshwater environments.

chemi-; → luminescence.

biomarker
  زیست-داجگر   
zist-dâjgar

Fr.: biomarqueur   

A biologic feature that is measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. For example, prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker for cancer of the prostate.

bio-; → marker.

biophysicist
  زیست‌فیزیکدان   
zistfizikdân (#)

Fr.: biophysicien   

A specialist in → biophysics.

bio-; → physicist.

biophysics
  زیست‌فیزیک   
zistfizik (#)

Fr.: biophysique   

The science that deals with biological structures and processes involving the application of physical principles and methods.

Biophysics, from → bio- + → physics.

Zistfizik, from zist-, → bio- + fizikphysics.

biosignature
  زیست-نشانزد   
zist-nešânzad

Fr.: biosignature   

A substance or phenomenon whose presence in an object such as a → meteorite or an → exoplanet indicates the existence of life.

bio-; → signature.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>