An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
helium II
  هلیوم II   
heliom II

Fr.: hélium II   

1) A → superfluid, colder component of → liquid helium (4He), occurring when → helium I is cooled below the → lambda point.
2) 2) In stellar and interstellar plasma spectroscopy, ionized helium.

helium.

helium shell burning
  سوزش ِ پوسته‌ی ِ هلیوم   
suzeš-e puste-ye heliom

Fr.: combustion de la coquille d'hélium   

A stage in the evolution of an → asymptotic giant branch star, when all the helium in the core is fused into carbon and oxygen. No more fusion takes place in the core, and as a result the core contracts. The core contraction generates a sufficient temperature for fusing the surrounding layers of helium. Since helium shell burning is unstable, it causes → helium shell flashes.

helium; → shell; → burning.

helium shell flash
  درخش ِ پوسته‌ی ِ هلیومی   
deraxš-e puste-ye heliomi

Fr.: flash de la couche d'hélium   

A violent outburst of energy that occurs periodically in an → asymptotic giant branch star. It occurs when helium is being burnt in a thin shell surrounding the inner dense core of carbon and oxygen. → Helium shell burning is unstable, producing energy mainly in short intense flashes. The shell flash causes considerable expansion of the star followed by collapse, thus setting up deep convection. As a consequence, the → convective zone in the outer part of the star goes deeper and may → dredge-up carbon to the surface. See also → late thermal pulse; → very late thermal pulse; → AGB final thermal pulse.

helium; → shell; → flash.

helium star
  ستاره‌ی ِ هلیومی   
setâre-ye heliomi

Fr.: étoile d'hélium   

An → evolved star which has lost most or all of its hydrogen-rich envelope, leaving just a core of helium.

helium; → star.

helium-argon calibration
  کبیزش ِ هلیوم-آرگون   
kabizeš-e heliyom-ârgon

Fr.: calibration hélium-argon   

A wavelength calibration of astronomical spectra using a helium-argon light source.

helium; → argon; → calibration.

helium-argon lamp
  لامپ ِ هلیوم-آرگون   
lâmp-e heliyom-ârgon (#)

Fr.: lampe hélium-argon   

A comparison light source containing the known spectral lines of helium and Argon.

helium; → argon; → lamp.

helix
  پیچار   
picâr

Fr.: hélice   

A curve which lies on a cylinder or cone, so that its angle to a plane perpendicular to the axis is constant.

From L. helix "spiral," from Gk. helix (genitive helikos), related to eilein "to turn, twist, roll."

Picâr "that which twists," from pic, present stem of picidan "to twist, entwine, coil" + -ar agent noun suffix (on the model of parastâr, padidâr, dustâr, xâstâr).

Helix Nebula (NGC 7293)
  میغ ِ پیچار   
miq-e picâr

Fr.: Nébuleuse de l'Hélice   

A large and bright → planetary nebula in the constellation → Aquarius. Its apparent diameter is about half the size of the full Moon, corresponding to about 2.5 → light-years for a distance of about 700 light-years. It is the nearest bright planetary nebulae to Earth and one of the most spectacular examples of such objects. The Helix Nebula possibly consists of at least two separate disks with outer rings and filaments. The brighter inner disk seems to be expanding at about 100,000 km/h and to have taken about 12,000 years to form. High-resolution observations of the inner edge of the Helix's main ring have revealed thousands of cometary knots of gas with faint tails extending away from the central star. The knots have masses similar to the Earth, but are typically the size of our Solar system. The comet-like shape of the knots results from the steady evaporation of gas from the knots, produced by the strong winds and ultraviolet radiation from the central star of the nebula.The origin of the knots is currently not well understood.

helix; → nebula.

Hellas Basin
  حوضه‌ی ِ هلاس   
howze-ye Hallas

Fr.: bassin de Hallas   

One of the largest identified → impact craters both on → Mars and within the → Solar System. Hellas spans more than 2000 km across in the → southern hemisphere, a region that is much more heavily cratered and higher in average elevation than the northern hemisphere. The depth of Hellas from its bottom to its inner rim is more than 4 km. In comparison, the depth of the Grand Canyon in the United States is roughly 1.6 km, that is 2.5 times smaller! The western part of the Hellas basin contains the lowest point on Mars, about 8.2 km below the Mars datum or Martian "sea level." The formation of the impact structure is believed to have taken place in the early Noachian epoch, between 3.9 and 4.6 billion years ago (Planetary Science Institute webpage).

Hellas refers to the classical name for Greece; → basin.

helmet
  خود   
xud (#)

Fr.: casque   

1) Any of various protective head coverings worn by soldiers, policemen, firemen, etc.
2) Something resembling a helmet in form or position. → helmet streamer.

From M.Fr. helmet, diminutive of helme "helmet," from Frank. *helm (cf. O.H.G. helm "helmet"); PIE base *kel- "to cover, to hide;" cf. Av. sar- "shelter;" Laki šârd "hidden, hiddenly," šârden "to hide;" Kurd. šâr-, šârdinawa "to hide;" Skt. śárman- "cover, protection, refuge;" L. celare "to conceal;" Goth. huljan "to cover, conceal;" O.H.G. helan "to hide."

Xud "helmet," from O.Pers. xaudā- "hat, cap," tigra-xauda- "wearing the pointed cap" (as is shown in the sculpture of Skunkha the Scythian at Behistan); Av. xaoδa- "hat, cap, helmet;" Ossetic xodä; Arm. (borrowed) xoir "headband."

helmet streamer
  درفشک ِ خودوار   
derafšak-e xudvâr

Fr.: grand jet en bulbe, ~ ~ en casque prussien   

A large-scale → coronal feature with apparent → cusp, seen during a → solar eclipse. They usually arise from → sunspots and → active regions, so at the base of a helmet streamer one will often find a → prominence.  They form magnetic loops that connect the sunspots and suspend material above the surface of the Sun.  The magnetic field lines trap the material to form the streamers. The action of the → solar wind is at the origin of the peak feature.

helmet; → streamer.

Helmholtz free energy
  کاروژ ِ آزاد ِ هلمهولتس   
kâruž-e âzâd-e Helmholtz

Fr.: énergie libre de Helmholtz   

Of a system, the quantity whose decrease gives the maximum amount of external work which is performed when any physical or chemical process is carried out reversibly at constant temperature. It is defined by F = U - TS, where U is the → internal energy, T the → absolute temperature, and S the final → entropy.

After the German physicist and physician Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz (1821-1894), who made important contributions to the thermodynamics of gaseous systems; → free; → energy.

Helmholtz's theorem
  فربین ِ هلمهولتس   
farbin-e Helmholtz

Fr.: théorème de Helmholtz   

A → decomposition theorem, whereby a continuous → vector field, F, can be broken down into the sum of a → gradient and a → curl term: F = -∇φ + ∇ xA, where φ is called the → scalar potential and A the → vector potential.

Helmholtz free energy; → theorem.

Helmi stream
  رابه‌ی ِ هلمی   
râbe-ye Helmi

Fr.: courant de Helmi   

A systematic trend in the motion of some → Galactic haloold stars thought to be a relic of the → merging of a dwarf satellite galaxy devoured by our Milky Way. Using kinematic data from the → Hipparcos satellite, Helmi et al. (1999, Nature 402, 53) found two halo star streams which share a common progenitor: a single coherent object disrupted during or soon after the Milky Way's formation, and which probably resembled the Fornax and Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxies.

See also Helmi & White 1999, MNRAS 307, 495; → stream.

help desk
  یاری‌گاه   
yârigâh

Fr.: centre d'assistance   

A service in an organization or computer system where users are directed for technical support or assistance.

M.E., O.E. help (m.), helpe (f.) "assistance, succor," helpan "o help" (cf. O.N. hjialp, hjalpa, M.Du., Du. hulp, helpen, O.H.G. helfa, helfan, Ger. Hilfe, helfen); PIE base *kelb- "to help" (cf. Lith. selpiu "to support, help"); desk, from M.E. deske; M.L. desca, descus "table to write on," from L. discus "quoit, platter, dish," from Gk. diskos "disk, dish."

Yâigâh, from yâri "help, assistance," → gravity assist, + -gâh "place; time," → station.

hematite
  هماتیت   
hemâtit (#)

Fr.: hématite   

A mineral that is often found in meteorites. It is an oxide of iron (Fe2O3) that is similar to magnetite. It does not attract a magnet. When it is rubbed against an object harder than itself, it leaves a reddish-brown stain. Hematite is also sometimes called bloodstone.

From M.Fr. hematite, from L. hæmatites, from Gk. haimatites lithos "bloodlike stone," from haima (genitive haimatos) "blood" + -ites, → -ite, + lithos "stone."

hemeralopia
  روزکوری   
ruzkuri (#)

Fr.: héméralopie   

A defect of the eyes in which sight is normal in the night or in a dim light but is abnormally poor or wholly absent in the day or in a bright light. Also called day blindness. Opposite of → nyctalopia

From N.L., from Gk hemeralop- (stem of hemeralops having such a condition, from hemer(a) "day" + al(aos) "blind" + -ops having such an appearance) + -ia a noun suffix.

Ruzkuri, from ruz, → day, + kuri "blindness," from kur, → blind.

hemisphere
  نیم‌سپهر، نیمکره   
nimsepehr (#), nimkoré (#)

Fr.: hémisphère   

Half of a sphere bounded by a great circle, especially one of the halves into which the earth or the celestial sphere is divided.

From L. hemisphærium, from Gk. hemisphairion, from hemi- "half," (from PIE base *semi-; cf. Skt. sami, L. semi-, O.H.G. sami- "half," and O.E. sam-) + sphaira, → sphere.

From nim-, → half + sepehr, koré, → sphere.

Henry Draper system
  راژمان ِ هنری دریپر   
râžmân-e Henry Draper

Fr.: système de Henry Draper   

A catalog of stars in which every star is classified by its stellar spectrum. This system is named for the astronomer Henry Draper, but was cataloged by Annie J. Cannon (225,300 stars), and later extended by Margaret W. Mayall.

Henry Draper (1837-1882), an American pioneer of astronomical spectroscopy who established the observing techniques and program for the work that would bear his name when published, seven years after his early death; → system.

Henyey method
  روش ِ هنی   
raveš-e Henyey

Fr.: méthode de Henyey   

A powerful numerical technique to solve the stellar structure equations where the star is sub-divided in a finite number of grid cells for which the local conditions are evaluated and computed from the surface inwards to the center by utilizing a Newton-Raphson solver. Relevant physical quantities are either defined at the cell boundaries or as mean values over the complete cell.

Henyey, L. G.; Forbes, J. E.; Gould, N. L., 1964, ApJ 139, 306; → method.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>