An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
magnetism
  مغنات‌مندی   
meqnâtmandi

Fr.: magnétisme   

The science of magnetic phenomena, including the fields and forces produced by magnets and, more generally, by moving electric charges.

N.L. magnetismus; → magnet + → -ism.

Magnetism in Massive Stars (MiMeS)
     
MiMeS

Fr.: MiMeS   

An international collaboration devoted to the study of the origin and physics of → magnetic fields in → massive stars. The project uses several observatories and a large number of telescopes equipped with → spectropolarimetric and → asteroseismologic instruments, including → HARPS, → HARPSpol, and → ESPaDOnS (Wade et al., 2016, MNRAS 456, 2).

magnetism; → massive; → star.

magnetization
  مغناتش   
meqnâteš

Fr.: magnétisation   

1) General: The process of magnetizing or the state of being magnetized.
2) Electricity: The → magnetic moment per unit volume induced by an external magnetic field; measured in → amperes per meter.

Verbal noun of → magnetize.

magnetize
  مغناتیدن   
meqnâtidan

Fr.: magnétiser   

To make a magnet of, or impart the properties of a magnet to.

From → magnet + → -ize.

magnetized
  مغناتیده   
meqnâtidé

Fr.: magnétisé   

Having been made magnetic; magnetic properties imparted to.

Past participle of → magnetize.

magnetized plasma
  پلاسمای ِ مغناتیده   
pelâmâ-ye meqnâtidé

Fr.: plasma magnétisé   

A plasma containing a magnetic field which is strong enough to change the path of charged particles. It can be a → collisional plasma or → noncollisional plasma.

magnetized; → plasma.

magnetized vacuum
  خلأ ِ مغناتیده   
xala'-e meqnâtidé

Fr.: vide magnétisé   

Empty space influenced by very strong → magnetic field. Same as → birefringent vacuum.

magnetized; → vacuum.

magneto-
  مغنات-، مغناتو-   
meqnât-, meqnâto-

Fr.: magnéto-, magnét-   

The prefix form of → magnet, representing magnetic or magnetism in compound words, such as → magnetogram, → magnetohydrodynamics.

magnet.

magneto-asteroseismology
  مغنات-اخترلرزه‌شناسی   
meqnât-axtarlarzešenâsi

Fr.: magnéto-astérosismologie   

Combined study of the large-scale → magnetic field (→ magnetometry) and → stellar pulsations (→ asteroseismology). Magneto-asteroseismology provides strong complementary diagnostics suitable for detailed stellar modeling and permits the determination of the → internal structure and conditions within → magnetic massive  → pulsators, for example the effect of magnetism on → mixing processes. More specifically, asteroseismology yields information on the → density, → composition, and → chemical mixing in multiple internal layers (depending on the number of studied frequencies). Additionally, when rotationally split pulsation modes are observed, the internal rotation profile can be retrieved. From magnetometry surface properties are determined, related to the → chemical composition, including → starspots, and the magnetic field, such as its geometry, obliquity, and strength. Magnetic studies also provide constraints about the → stellar wind geometry and the → circumstellar environment. Moreover, the stellar → rotation period period and the → angle of inclination toward the observer are also retrieved (Buysschaert et al., 2017, astro-ph/1709.02619).

magneto-; → asteroseismology.

magnetocentrifugal acceleration
  شتاب ِ مغنات-مرکزگریز   
šetâb-e meqnât-markazgoriz

Fr.: accelération magnetocentrifuge   

The acceleration exerted on the plasma particles according to the → magnetocentrifugal model.

magnetocentrifugal model; → acceleration.

magnetocentrifugal model
  مدل ِ مغنات-مرکزگریز   
model-e meqnât-markazgoriz

Fr.: modèle magnétocentrifuge   

A → magnetohydrodynamic model devised to account for the → bipolar jets and → outflows observed around → protostars. Basically, a → poloidal magnetic field is frozen into a rotating → accretion disk. If the angle between the magnetic field lines threading the disk and the rotation axis of the disk is larger than 30°, the plasma can be accelerated out of the accretion disk along the field lines. The field lines rotate at a constant → angular velocity, and as the gas moves outward along the field lines, it is accelerated by an increasing → centrifugal force (magnetocentrifugal acceleration). At some point, when the rotation velocity is about the same as the → Alfven velocity in the gas, the field lines get increasingly wound up by the inertia of the attached gas and a strong → toroidal magnetic field component is generated. The toroidal component is the main agent in collimating the flow into a direction along the → open magnetic field lines. The earliest version of the model was proposed by Blandford & Payne (1982, MNRAS 199, 883). It has two main versions: → X-wind and → disk wind models. See also → magnetorotational instability.

magneto-; → centrifugal; → model.

magnetogram
  مغنات‌نگاشت   
meqnâtnegâšt

Fr.: magnétogramme   

A graphic representation of solar magnetic field strengths and polarity.

From → magneto- + → -gram.

magnetohydrodynamic
  مغنات-و-هیدروتوانیک   
meqnâtohidrotavânik

Fr.: magnétohydrodynamique   

Of or relating to → magnetohydrodynamics.

magneto- + → hydrodynamic.

magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
  مغنات-و-هیدروتوانیک   
meqnâtohidrotavânik

Fr.: magnétohydrodynamique   

The dynamics of an ionized plasma in the non-relativistic, collisional case. In this description, charge oscillations and high frequency electromagnetic waves are neglected. It is an important field of astrophysics since plasma is one of the commonest forms of matter in the Universe, occurring in stars, planetary magnetospheres, and interplanetary and interstellar space.

From → magneto- + → hydrodynamics.

magnetometer
  مغنات‌سنج   
meqnâtsanj

Fr.: magnétomètre   

Any of a variety of devices used to measure the strength and direction of a magnetic field.

From → magneto- + → -meter.

magnetometry
  مغنات‌سنجی   
meqnârsanji

Fr.: magnétométrie   

The detection or measurement of a magnetic field, especially its strength and direction. See also → magnetometer.

magneto-; → -metry.

magneton
  مگنتون   
magneton (#)

Fr.: magnéton   

Fundamental constant, first calculated by Bohr, for the intrinsic magnetic moment of an electron. → Bohr magneton.

From → magnet + → -on.

magnetopause
  مغنات‌مرز   
meqnâtmarz

Fr.: magnétopause   

The boundary layer between a planet's → magnetosphere and the → magnetic field of the → solar wind. It borders the → magnetosheath and is defined by the surface on which the pressure of the solar wind is balanced by that of the planet's magnetic field. The front point of the Earth's magnetopause, on the sun-ward side of the Earth, is about 10 terrestrial radii, on average. This point can be closer or farther, because the magnetopause contracts or expands depending on the intensity of the solar wind.

From → magneto- + pause "break, cessation, stop," from M.Fr. pause, from L. pausa "a halt, stop, cessation," from Gk. pausis "stopping, ceasing," from pauein "to stop, to cause to cease."

From meqnât-magnet + marz "frontier, border, boundary," from Mid.Pers. marz "boundary;" Av. marəza- "border, district," marəz- "to rub, wipe;" Mod.Pers. parmâs "contact, touching" (→ contact), mâl-, mâlidan "to rub;" PIE base *merg- "boundary, border;" cf. L. margo "edge" (Fr. marge "margin"); Ger. Mark; E. mark, margin.

magnetorotational instability (MRI)
  ناپایداری ِ مغنات-و-چرخشی   
nâpâydâri-ye meqnâtocarxeši

Fr.: instabilité magnétorotationnelle   

An instability that arises from the action of a weak → poloidal magnetic field in a → differentially rotating system, such as a → Keplerian disk. The MRI provides a mechanism to account for the additional outward → angular momentum transport. To put it simply, the → frozen magnetic field line acts as a spring connecting two radially neighboring fluid parcels. In a Keplerian disk the inner fluid parcel orbits more rapidly than the outer, causing the spring to stretch. The magnetic tension forces the inner parcel to slow down reducing its angular momentum by moving it to a lower orbit. The outer fluid parcel is forced by the spring to speed up, increase its angular momentum, and therefore move to a higher orbit. The spring tension increases as the two fluid parcels grow further apart, and eventually the process runs away. The MRI was first noted in a non-astrophysical context by E. Velikhov in 1959 when considering the stability of → Couette flow of an ideal hydromagnetic fluid. His result was later generalized by S. Chandrasekhar in 1960. The MRI was rediscovered by Balbus and Hawley 1991 (ApJ 376, 214) who demonstrated that this instability does indeed manifest itself in → accretion disks, and could account for the turbulent mixing needed to explain the observed mass → accretion rates.

magneto-; → rotational; → instability.

magnetosheath
  مغنات‌نیام   
meqnâtniyâm

Fr.: magnétogaine   

The region between a planet's magnetopause and the bow shock caused by the solar wind.

From → magneto- + sheath, from O.E. sceað, scæð, from P.Gmc. *skaithiz (cf. M.Du. schede, Du. schede, O.H.G. skaida, Ger. Scheide "scabbard").

From meqnât-, → magnet, + niyâm "sheath," from Proto-Iranian *nigāma-, from ni- "down; into," → ni-, + gāma- "to go, to come" (Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go;" Mod./Mid.Pers. gâm "step, pace," âmadan "to come;" cf. Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come"); cf. Skt. nigamá- "insertion, incorporation."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>