An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Chandrasekhar limit
  حدِ چاندراسکهار   
hadd-e Chandrasekhar (#)

Fr.: limite de Chandrasekhar   

A limiting mass of about 1.44 Solar masses that the theory predicts a non-rotating → white dwarf can attain without collapsing to become a → neutron star or a → black hole. Over this → critical mass, the degeneracy pressure will be unable to bear the load of the bulk mass.

Named after Subrahmayan Chandrasekhar (1910-1995), Indian-born American astrophysicist who, with William A. Fowler, won the 1983 Nobel Prize for Physics for his research on white dwarfs; → limit.

change
  ۱) گلنیدن؛ ۲) گلناندن؛ ۳) آلشیدن؛ ۴) گلن، گلنه   
1) galnidan; 2) galnândan; 3) âlešidan; 4) galn, galne

Fr.: 1, 2) changer; 3) changement   

1) (v.intr.) To undergo change.
2a) (v.tr.) To → alter, modify, or make different; to make to pass from one state to another; to → exchange.
2b) To transform or convert.
3) To substitute another or others for; exchange for something else, usually of the same kind.
4) The act of changing; alteration or variation of any kind. → adiabatic change, → canonical change, → polytropic change, → secular change, → exchange.

M.E., from O.Fr. changier, from L.L. cambiare, from L. cambire "to exchange, barter," of Celtic origin, cf. Breton kamm "curved, bent;" Gk. kampe "a corner, a joint;" L. campus "a field;" Lith. kampus "corner;" PIE *kamb- "to bend, crook."

Galnidan, variant of gardidan, gaštan "to change, to turn," → Universe, cf. Awromani gelnây, geln- "to turn over" (Cheung 2007).

chaos
  ۱) ورشون؛ ۲) شیوار   
1) varšun; 2) šivâr

Fr.: chaos   

1a) General: A condition or place of great disorder or confusion.
1b) Math., Physics: Highly disordered evolution of some → dynamical systems which is sensitively dependent on → initial conditions. In a → chaotic system the → aperiodic, → nonlinear evolution grows → exponentially with time. Ordinary chaos is not → turbulence, but turbulence is always chaotic.
2) In → astrogeology, a distinctive area of fractured terrain on a planet or satellite, e.g. Gorgonum Chaos located in the southern hemisphere of Mars.

Chaos, in Gk. mythology and cosmology, the void existing at the beginning of the creation, as evoked in Hesiod's (c. 850 B.C.) Theogony. However, the meaning of chaos, used by Hesiod, is a matter of debate. Some have interpreted it as the primeval absence of order (hence → confusion). Subsequently, the Roman writer Ovid (43 BC-17? AD) described Chaos in his Metamorphoses as an unordered and formless primordial mass, and opposed Chaos to Cosmos "the ordered universe."

Chaos "gaping void," from L. chaos, from Gk. khaos "abyss, that which gapes wide open, is vast and empty," from *khnwos, from PIE base *gheu-, *gh(e)i- "to gape."

1) Varšun, from Tabari varâšun, Gilaki varâšin, daršin, uršin all meaning "confused, unordered, untidy," cf. Qomi šur-o-šin "chaos, confusion". The stem šun-/šin- is related to Mod.Pers. šân- in afšândan, šândan "to disperse, scatter, stew" (Mid.Pers. afšândan "to spread, scatter"), Gilaki šondan "to disperse," Hamadani šuândan "to derange, disorder," Laki veršânâ "to disperse, scatter," Šuštari šayn "to shake, agitate," Kermâni owšin "a winnowing fork to separate chaff from the grain," Laki šovâné "scattered household furniture," Tabari timšan "sowing seeds;" all ultimately from Proto-Ir. *šan- "to shake;" see also → confuse. The prefix var-, variant bar- "up, over" (as well as dar- "in"), denotes "disorder, confusion" as in darham barham "upside-down, helter-skelter".
2) Šivâr "depression between two terrains," from Tabari; probably a variant of šiyâr, → groove.

chaos theory
  نگره‌ی ِ ورشون   
negare-ye varšun

Fr.: théorie du chaos   

The theory of unpredictable behavior that can arise in systems obeying deterministic scientific laws.

theory; → chaos.

chaotic
  ورشونگین، ورشونناک   
varšungin, varšunnâk

Fr.: chaotique   

Or, or relating to → chaos.

Chaotic, adj. from → chaos.

chaotic behavior
  رفتار ِ ورشونگین   
raftâr-e varšungin

Fr.: comportement chaotique   

The behavior of a → chaotic system.

chaotic; → behavior.

chaotic system
  راژمانِ ورشونگین   
râžmân-e varšungin

Fr.: système chaotique   

A system that is → deterministic through → description by mathematical rules but can evolve highly → nonlinearly depending on → initial conditions. See also → chaos.

chaotic; → system.

chaoticity
  ورشونگینی   
varšungini

Fr.: chaoticité   

The condition of being → chaotic.

chaotic; → -ity.

Chaplygin gas
  گاز ِ چاپلیگین   
gâz-e Chaplygin

Fr.: gaz de Tchaplyguin   

In → dark energy models, a hypothetical fluid that can lead to cosmic acceleration at late times. In its simplest form, the Chaplygin gas has the → equation of statep = - A/ρ, where p and ρ denote the → pressure and → energy density, respectively, and A is a positive model parameter. This equation was introduced by Chaplygin (1904, Sci. Mem. Moscow Univ. Math., 21) to study the lifting force on a plane wing in aerodynamics.

Named after Sergey Chaplygin (1869-1942), Russian physicist; → gas.

Chappuis band
  باند ِ شپویی   
bând-e Chappuis

Fr.: bande de Chappuis   

A band in the → absorption spectrum of → ozone (O3) extending in the → visible from 400 nm to 700 nm. → Hartley band, → Huggins band.

J. Chappuis, Acad. Sci., Paris, C. R. 91, 985 (1880).

character
  ۱) سرشت، سرشتار؛ ۲) سرشتار؛ ۳) دخشه   
1) serešt (#), sereštâr; 2) sereštâr; 3) daxšé (#)

Fr.: 1, 3) caractère; 2) personnage   

1a) The aggregate of features and traits that form the individual nature of some person or thing.
1b) One such feature or trait; characteristic.
2) A person represented in a play, film, story, etc; role. See also → personage (Dictionary.com).
3) Computers: One of a set of symbols, such as letters or numbers, that are arranged to express information; the numerical code representing such a character.

M.E. carecter "distinctive mark," from O.Fr. caractère, from L. character, from Gk. kharakter "graving tool, its mark," from kharassein "to engrave," from kharax "pointed stick."

1, 2) Serešt "nature, temperament, constitution; mixed," sereštan "to mix, mingle; knead;" serišom "glue;" Mid.Pers. srištan "to mix, knead;" cf. Av. ham-sriš- "to put together;" Skt. śres- "to cling, stick, be attached;" Proto-Ir. root *sraiš- "to put together, attach" (Cheung 2007).
Sereštâr with -âr, contraction of âvar agent noun of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce," → format.
3) Daxšé, variants dâq "a brand, a mark burned on the skin of an animal with a hot iron," Gilaki dajé "a brand," Hamadani daj "sign placed on a heap of harvest indicating identity or ownership," Mid.Pers. daxšag "mark, sign, charactersitic; (monthly) signs (of women)", dazidan "to burn, scorch," Av. daxša- "sign, mark, defect," from dag- "to burn," dažaiti "burns," cf. Skt. dah- "to burn," dahati "burns," Gk. tephra "ash," L. favilla "glowing ashes," Lith. dagas "hot season," O.Prus. dagis "summer," P.Gmc. *dagaz, Ger. Tag, E. day; PIE *dhegwh- "to burn."

characteristic
  ۱) سرشتار؛ ۲) سرشتاری   
1) serežtâr; 2) serežtâri

Fr.: caractéristique   

1a ) A distinguishing feature or quality.
1b) The integer part of a → common logarithm. For example, log10 (23) = 1.362, where the characteristic is 1 and the → mantissa is 0.362.
2) Pertaining to, constituting, or indicating the character or peculiar quality of a person or thing; typical; distinctive.

character; → -istic.

characteristic age
  سن ِ سرشتاری   
senn-e sereštâri

Fr.: âge caractéristique   

Of a pulsar, a normalized period of rotation assumed to be a good approximation to pulsar's true age.

characteristic; → age.

characteristic curve
  خم ِ سرشتاری   
xam-e sereštâri

Fr.: courbe caractéristique   

Graph representing an optical film's response to the amount of light falling on it.

characteristic; → curve.

characteristic equation
  هموگش ِ سرشتاری   
hamugeš-e sereštâri

Fr.: équation caractéristique   

Physics: An analytical relationship between a set of physical variables that determines the state of a physical system.
Math.: The equation which is solved to find a matrix's eigenvalues, also called the characteristic polynomial.

characteristic; → equation.

characteristic mass
  جرم ِ سرشتاری   
jerm-e sereštâri

Fr.: masse caractéristique   

A typical or most likely mass for the formation of an astronomical object. In current star formation models, it is of order of a few tenths of a → solar mass.

characteristic; → mass.

characteristic thermal energy
  کاروژ ِ گرمایی ِ سرشتاری   
kâruž-e garmâyi-ye sereštâri

Fr.: énergie thermique caractéristique   

The quantity kT in the → Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law, where k is → Boltzmann's constant and T the gas temperature. See also → thermal energy.

characteristic; → thermal; → energy

characterization
  ۱) سرشتارش؛ ۲) تنومسا سازی   
1) sereštâreš 2) tanumsâ sâzi

Fr.: 1) caractérisation; 2) représentation des caractères   

1) The act of describing the character or qualities of someone or something.
2) The artistic representation (as in fiction or drama) of human character or motives (Merriam-Webster.com).

characterize; → -tion.

characterize
  سرشتاردن   
sereštârdan

Fr.: caractériser   

1) To mark or distinguish as a characteristic; be a characteristic of.
2) To describe the character or individual quality of.
3) To attribute character to (Dictionary.com).

character; → -ize.

charcoal
  زغال   
zoqâl (#)

Fr.: charbon de bois   

A black amorphous substance produced by heating wood or other natural organic matter in the absence of air. It is used as a fuel.

M.E. charcole, maybe from cherre "char" + cole, → coal.

Zoqâl "live coal, charcoal," variant sokâr; Sogd. askâr; Pashto skor-; Khotanese skara, probably ultimately from Proto-Ir. *uz-gar-, from *uz- "out," → ex-, + *gar "to heat, kindle fire, cook;" cf. Tabari kalə "furnace," kəlen "ash;" Laki koira; Kurd. kulan, kulandan "to cook;" related to garm "warm;" cf. Skt. ghar- "to burn," PIE root *gwher- "to warm, be warm," → warm.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>