An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Cygnus OB association
  آهزش ِ OB ماکیان   
âhazeš-e OB Mâkiyân

Fr.: association OB Cygne   

One of nine → OB associations located in the Cygnus → constellation. The central association, → Cygnus OB2, is the most famous and the youngest of the Cygnus region. (L. Mahy et al. 2013, astro-ph/1301.0500 and references therein).

Cygnus; → OB star; → association.

Cygnus OB2 (Cyg OB2)
   OB2 ماکیان   
OB2 Mâkiyân

Fr.: Cygnus OB2   

The nearest example of a → massive star region of → star formation, containing 65 known → O-type stars and hundreds of → B-type stars. Cygnus OB2 lies at a distance of 1.45 → kpc. It is the central association, the most famous, and one of the youngest of the Cygnus region. Cyg OB2 possibly has two → populations with ages of 3.5-5 Myr, while the → O stars seem to belong to a younger population, aged about 2 Myr.

Cygnus; → OB association; 2 because there are several OB associations in Cygnus; → Cygnus OB association.

Cygnus X-1
  ماکیان X-۱   
Mâkiyân X-1

Fr.: Cygnus X-1   

A → binary system containing one of the best candidates for a → black hole. Cygnus X-1 was discovered as an → X-ray source in 1965. It is one of the brightest X-ray sources on the sky, so that it was detected by the earliest → X-ray observation attempts. This binary system, distant of 2.5 kpc, consists of the O9.7 Iab type → supergiant HDE 226868 and a → compact object orbiting around with a period of 5.6 days. The mass of the unseen companion, significantly larger than 5 → solar masses, suggests that it is a black hole. Focused → wind accretion from a → primary star being extremely close to filling the → Roche lobe drives the powerful source of the X-ray radiation.

Cygnus.

cylinder
  استوانه   
ostovâné (#)

Fr.: cylindre   

The surface traced by one side of a rectangle rotating about its parallel side, the latter serving as axis.

From Fr. cylindre, from L. cylindrus "roller, cylinder," from Gk. kylindros "a cylinder, roller, roll," from kylindein "to roll."

Osotvâné, from sotun "column," Mid.Pers. stun, from O.Pers. stênâ "column," Av. stuna-, Skt. sthuna- "column."

cylindrical
  استوانه‌ای   
ostovâne-yi (#)

Fr.: cylindrique   

Of, pertaining to, or having the form of a cylinder.

From L. cylindricus, from Gk. kylindrikos, see → cylinder; → -ic; → -al.

cylindrical coordinates
  هماراهای ِ استوانه‌ای   
hamârâhâ-ye ostovâne-yi (#)

Fr.: coordonnées cylindriques   

A coordinate system for a point in space, using an origin (O) and three perpendicular axes (Ox, Oy, Oz), in which a point (P) in space is specified by three numbers ρ, φ, z. The two first numbers, ρ and φ, are → polar coordinates for the vertical projection of P on the xy-plane, and z is the vertical distance of P from the xy-plane.

cylindrical; → coordinate.

cylindrical lens
  عدسی ِ استوانه‌ای   
adasi-ye ostovâneyi (#)

Fr.: lentille cylindrique   

A lens in which at least one surface is formed like a portion of a cylinder. Also called astigmatic lens.

cylinder; → lens.

Cynthian
  ماهی، مانگی   
mâhi (#), mângi (#)

Fr.: cynthien   

Referring to the Moon.

From L. Cynthia "the Moon," from Gk. Kynthia "woman from Kynthos." Kynthos was the mountain on Delos on which she and her twin brother Apollo were born.

Mâhi, mângi referring to mâh, mâng, → moon.

Cytherean
  ناهیدی   
Nâhidi (#)

Fr.: cythérien   

Referring to the planet Venus.

From Cythera, in Gk. mythology another name of Aphrodite (Roman equivalent Venus), goddess of love and beauty, since she was believed to emerge from the Mediterranean island Cythera.

Nâhidi referring to Nâhid, planet Venus, Mid.Pers. Anahid "immaculate, unstained," goddess of pure waters and fertility, from Av. arədvi-sûra-anâhita, from arədvi- "increasing, rising," + sûra- "strong, powerful" (Skt. śūra- "valient, courageous") + anâhita "unstained," from an- negation prefix + âhita "spotted."

D line
  خط ِ D   
xatt-e D

Fr.: raie D   

One of the pair of yellow lines in emission spectra of neutral sodium (Na I). D1 has a wavelength of 5895.94 Å and D2 is 5889.97 Å. This sodium doublet is one of the strongest absorption features in the spectra of late-type stars.

Labelled D in a sequence of alphabetical letters first used by Joseph von Fraunhofer to designate spectral features in the solar spectrum, → Fraunhofer line.

D ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ D   
halqe-ye D

Fr.: anneau D   

The inner → Saturn's rings, with a width of 7,500 km, lying before the → C ring, at 66,900 km from the center of Saturn.

ring.

d'Alembert's paradox
  پارادخش ِ دالامبر   
pârâdaxš-e d'Alembert

Fr.: paradoxe de d'Alembert   

A hydrodynamical paradox arising from the neglect of → viscosity in the → steady flow of a fluid around a submerged solid body. According to this paradox, the submerged body would offer no resistance to the flow of an → inviscid fluid and the pressure on the surface of the body would be symmetrically distributed about the body. This paradox may be traced to the neglect of the viscous forces, which are indirectly responsible for fluid resistance by modifying the velocity field close to a solid body (Meteorology Glossary, American Meteorological Society).

d'Alembert's principle; → paradox.

d'Alembert's principle
  پروز ِ دالامبر   
parvaz-e d'Alembert

Fr.: principe de d'Alembert   

The statement that a moving body can be brought to a → static equilibrium by applying an imaginary inertia force of the same magnitude as that of the accelerating force but in the opposite direction. More specifically, when a body of mass m is moving with a uniform acceleration a under the action of an external force F, we can write: F = m . a, according to Newton's second law. This equation can also be written as: F - ma = 0. Therefore, by applying the force -ma, the body will be considered in equilibrium as the sum of all forces acting on it is zero. Such equilibrium is called → dynamic equilibrium. Owing to this principle, dynamical problems can be treated as if they were statical.

Named after the French mathematician and philosopher Jean le Rond d'Alembert (1717-1783), who introduced the principle in his Traité de dynamique (1743).

d'Alembert-Lagrange principle
  پروز ِ دالامبر-لاگرانژ   
parvaz-e d'Alembert-Lagrange

Fr.: principe d'Alembert-Lagrange   

d'Alembert's principle.

d'Alembert's principle; → Lagrangian.

d'Alembertian operator
  آپارگر ِ دالامبر   
âpârgar-e d'Alembert

Fr.: d'alembertien   

A second order, → partial differential operator in space-time, defined as: ▫2 = ∂2/∂x2 + ∂2/∂y2 + ∂2/∂z2 - (1/c2)∂2/∂t2, or ▫2 = ∇2 - (1/c2)(∂2/∂t2), where ∇2 is the → Laplacian and c is the → speed of light. This operator is the square of the → four-dimensional operator  ▫, which is Lorentz invariant.

d'Alembert's principle; → operator.

D-type ionization front
  پیشان ِ یونش ِ گونه‌ی ِ D   
pišân-e yoneš-e gune-ye D

Fr.: front d'ionisation de type D   

An → ionization front of → H II regions whose expansion speed is comparable to the → sound speed in the gas (~ 10 km/sec for hydrogen at 104 K). A D-type ionization front results from → R-type ionization front when its propagation speed decreases as the volume of gas ahead of the ionization front grows. If front velocity is equal to a lower limit (C12 / 2C2, where C1 and C2 are the sound speed ahead and behind the front respectively), the front is called D critical.

D referring to a dense gas; → type; → ionization; → front.

D3 line
  خط ِ D3   
xatt-e D3

Fr.: raie D3   

The → neutral → helium  → spectral line at 5876 Å.

D3, because of confusion with the sodium → D lines. When Joseph N. Lockyer first observed this line in the solar spectrum at the eclipse of 1868, helium was not yet isolated on Earth. Initially, this line was thought to be the third member of the D1 and D2 line family of sodium which lie in the same yellow part of the spectrum; → line.

DA white dwarf
  سفید‌کوتوله‌ی ِ DA   
sefid kutule-ye DA

Fr.: naine blanche DA   

A → white dwarf whose spectrum shows the → Balmer lines of hydrogen only, with no helium or metals.

D short for → dwarf; A a convention; → white.

Dalton minimum
  کمینه‌ی ِ دالتون   
kamine-ye Dalton

Fr.: minimum de Dalton   

A 40-year period of unusually low → solar activity, from about 1790 to 1830. See also the → Maunder minimum.

Named after John Dalton (1766-1844), British meteorologist; → minimum.

damping
  میرایی   
mirâyi (#)

Fr.: amortissement   

Of an oscillating system, the progressive decrease with time in the amplitude of the oscillation, due to friction (internal or external) or other resistance.

M.E. damp "black damp, a poison gas occurring in a mine," from Mid.Du. or Mid. Low German; akin to O.H.G. damph "vapor."

Mirâyi, noun from mirâ "getting extinguished, going out, expiring, dying," from mordan, present tense stem mir- "to die," Mid.Pers. murdan "to die," O.Pers. mrt- "to die," amriyta "dies," martiya- "(mortal) man" (Mod.Pers. mard "man"), Av. mərəta- "died," Skt. mar- "to die," mrti- "death;" PIE base *mor-/*mr- "to die." Cognates in other IE languages: Gk. emorten "died," ambrotos "immortal," L. morior "I die," mortuus "dead" (Fr. mourir "to die," mort "dead"), Arm. merani- "to die," O.C.S. mrutvu "dead," O.Ir. marb, Welsh marw "died," O.E. morþ "murder," Lith. mirtis "man."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>