An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Aquila
  شاهین   
Šâhin (#)

Fr.: Aigle   

The Eagle. A constellation on the celestial equator representing an eagle (R.A. about 19h30, Dec. about +5 deg). It is marked by the bright star → Altair (α Aquilae). Abbreviation: Aql, genitive form: Aquilae.

L. aquila "black eagle," fem. of aquilus "dark colored" (bird).

Šâhin "eagle," Av. saêna- "eagle," Skt. śyená- "eagle, falcon, hawk".

Aquila Rift
  چاک ِ شاهین   
câk-e Šâhin

Fr.: Rift de l'Aigle   

A long, dark structure located close to the → Galactic plane and occupying an area between longitudes l ~15° and ~35° and latitudes b ± 10° in the constellations Aquila, Serpens, and eastern Ophiuchus. The Aquila Rift is a complex of dust and → molecular clouds making part of → Gould's Belt in the → Orion Arm. The mass of the molecular gas, derived from → carbon monoxide (CO) observations (Dame et al. 2001, ApJ 547, 792), is in the range ~ 1-3 x 105 → solar masses. A distance of ~260 pc has been estimated for the Aquila Rift, but it is uncertain. Recent Herschel observations have revealed a filamentary structure in the Aquila Rift and the presence of a population of → pre-stellar cores as well as → young stellar objects (André et al. 2010, A&A 518, L102; Bontemps et al. 2010, A&A 518, L85; Könyves et al. 2010, A&A 518, L106).

Aquila; → rift.

Ara
  آتشدان   
Âtašdân (#)

Fr.: Autel   

L. ara "fire altar," from PIE as- "to burn".

Âtašdân "a hearth, a fire-place; a movable coal grate," from âtaš "fire" (from Mid.Pers. âtaxš, âzar-, O.Pers. *âtar-, Av. âtar-, from Indo-Iranian *âtar-, compare with L. âter (feminine âtra) "black" (from "blackened by fire"); PIE *âter) + -dân suffix denoting recipient.

Arabic astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ عربی   
axtaršenâsi-ye Arabi (#)

Fr.: astronomie arabe   

The astronomical activities that took place from the 8th to the 14th century in the Middle East, Central Asia, North Africa, and Moorish Spain. Arab/Arabic is not meant as an ethnic but rather a linguistic term. In fact a large number of Non-Arab scholars, mainly Persians, Mongols, and Spanish people, wrote their works in Arabic. Even so, many astronomical works were also produced in the other languages of this civilization, especially Persian and in the later centuries Turkish. For example, the main → zijs were originally written in Persian, a notable example being the Zij of Ulugh Beg (c. A.D. 1394-1449), a landmark in precise observations before the Renaissance. Therefore, the term Arabic astronomy is misleading. It also creates a disparity with respect to Western scholars who wrote in Latin. The term "Latin astronomy" is meaningless and as far as these scholars are concerned, the Latin adjective is not specified. For example, the expressions like "the Latin astronomer Copernicus," "the Latin physicist Newton," or "the Latin philosopher Leibniz" are not used. See also → Islamic astronomy.

M.E. arabik, from O.Fr. arabique, from L. Arabicus; → astronomy.

Arago point
  نقطه‌ی ِ آراگو   
noqte-ye Arago

Fr.: point d'Arago   

A → neutral point located at about 20° above the → antisolar point.

Named for François Arago (1786-1853), French physicist; → point

arbitrary
  کامسر   
kâmsar

Fr.: arbitraire   

1) Based on individual will or choice rather than by reason or necessity.
2) Math.: Undetermined; of unspecified value. → arbitrary constant.

M.E., from O.Fr. arbitraire or directly from L. arbitrarius "depending on the will, uncertain," from → ad- "to" + baetere "to come, go."

Kâmsar, literally "at one's will," from kâm "desire, wish; cause, reason," → despite, + sar "person, individual," originally "→ head."

arbitrary constant
  پایای ِ کامسر   
pâyâ-ye kâmsar

Fr.: constante arbitraire   

A constant quantity in → equations which takes various values but which remains unaffected by the changes in the values of the → variables of the equation. Most → differential equations have more than one → solution. In general, the number of arbitrary constants of an ordinary differential equation is given by the → order of the highest → derivative.

arbitrary; → constant.

arborescence
  شاکه‌داری   
šâkedâri

Fr.: arborescence   

1) In → graph theory, a → rooted tree that has a natural orientation in which all → paths are directed away from the → root. More specifically, a → directed graph in which, for a → vertex u, called the → root, and any other vertex v, there is exactly one → directed path from u to v.
2) Biology: The state of being branched, or treelike, in structure, appearance, growth, or other properties.

From Fr. arborescence, from → arborescent + → -ance.

Šâkedâri, nous from šâkedâr, → arborescent.

arborescent
  شاکه‌دار   
šâkedâr

Fr.: arborescent   

Having the shape or characteristics of a tree in growth, structure, or appearance.

From Fr. arborescent, from L. arborescent-, p.p. of arborescere "to grow into a tree," from arbor, arboris "tree."

Šâkedâr "having branches," from šâké, from šâxé, → branch, + dâr "having, possessor," from dâštan "to have, to possess," → charged.

arc
  کمان   
kamân (#)

Fr.: arc   

1) General: Something shaped like a → curve or → arch.
2) Math.: A → segment of a → circle.
3) Electricity: A continuous luminous → discharge across a gap between two → electrodes, as in an arc lamp. → electric arc.
4) Astro.: The apparent path of a celestial body above and below the horizon.

M.E. ark, from M.Fr. arc "bow," from L. arcus "bow, arch" (cf. Goth. arhwazna "arrow," O.E. earh), PIE *arqu- "bowed, curved."

Kamân "arc, bow" from Mid.Pers. kamân, related to xam "curve," cf. Breton kamm "curved, bent," Gk. kampe "a corner, a joint," L. campus "a field," Lith. kampus "corner," PIE *kamb- "to bend, crook."

arc minute
  کمان-دقیقه، دقیقه‌ی ِ کمانی   
kamân-daqiqé, daqiqe-ye kamâni

Fr.: minute de degré   

A unit of angular size equal to 1/60 of a degree.

arc; → minute.

arc of light
  کمان ِ نور   
kamân-e nur

Fr.: arc de lumière   

The apparent angular separation (→ elongation) between the → centers of the → Sun and the → Moon.

arc; → light.

arc of separation
  کمان ِ جدایی   
kamân-e jodâyi

Fr.: arc de séparation   

The difference in → right ascension between the → Sun and the → Moon, measured in degrees.

arc; → separation.

arc of vision
  کمان ِ دید   
kamân-e did

Fr.: arc de vision   

The → angular  → difference in → altitude between the → Sun and the → Moon.

arc; → vision.

arc second
  کمان-ثانیه، ثانیه‌ی ِ کمانی   
kamân-sâniyé, sâniye-ye kamâni

Fr.: seconde de degré   

A unit of angular size equal to 1/3.600 of a degree.

arc; → second.

arc spectrum
  بیناب ِ کمان   
binâb-e kamân

Fr.: spectre d'étincelle   

The spectrum produced by an atom or mixture of atoms as a result of vaporization within an electric arc generated between two electrodes.

arc; → spectrum.

arch
  تاغ   
tâq (#)

Fr.: arc   

1) A curved structure, normally in the vertical plane, that spans an opening.
2) Any overhead curvature resembling an arch. → Arches cluster.

M.E. arch(e), from O.Fr. arche "arch of a bridge," from L. arcus "a bow," → arc.

Taq "arch," from tâk, contraction of târak, → vertex.

arch of foot
  تاغ ِ پا   
tâq-e pâ

Fr.: arche du pied   

Any of the four vaulted structures in the foot: the internal (medial) longitudinal, the outer (lateral) longitudinal, and two transverse (Medical Dictionary, Farlex).

arch; → foot.

archaeoastronomy
  باستان‌اخترشناسی   
bâstânaxtaršenâsi

Fr.: archéoastronomie   

The study that deals with the astronomical knowledge of prehistoric peoples (season events, calendars, observing sites, astronomical alignments) and its influence on their cultures and societies (mythologies, religions, life). Archaeoastronomy covers the intersection between astronomy and archaeology. Same as → astroarchaeology, megalithic astronomy.

Archeoastronomy, from L. archaeo-, archeo "ancient; earlier; primitive," from Gk. arkhaio-, from arkhaios "ancient" + → astronomy.

Bâstânaxtaršenâsi, from bâstân "ancient" + axtaršenâsi, → astronomy.

arche-
  سر   
sar- (#)

Fr.: arché-, archi   

A prefix meaning "principal, prior, original, first, early" Same as archi-. → archetype.

From Gk. arkhe-, from arckhon "ruler," noun use of p.p. of arkhein "to rule."

Sar-, from sar "top, summit, the capital of a pillar," → head.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>