An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
ammonia maser
  میزر ِ آمونیاک   
meyzer-e âmoniyâk

Fr.: maser à ammoniac, ~ NH3   

A maser source in which excited → ammonia molecules (NH3) produce → maser emission. The first device to demonstrate the principle of → stimulated emission of radiation used ammonia molecules (Gordon et al. 1954). The hydrogen atoms of ammonia molecules have a rotation motion whereas the nitrogen atom oscillates between two positions, above and below the plane of the hydrogen atoms. These arrangements do not represent exactly the same energy, and therefore the molecule exists in two energy states. The difference in energy between the states corresponds to a frequency of 23.87 GHz, or 1.25 cm. In astrophysics, ammonia maser emission has been detected toward active star formation regions, such as W51. → interstellar masers.

ammonia; → maser.

Amor asteroid
  سیارک ِ آمور   
sayyârak-e Amor

Fr.: astéroïde Amor   

A → near-Earth asteroid (NEA) with → perihelion distances between 1.017 and 1.3 → astronomical units. The Amor asteroids approach the orbit of the Earth from beyond, but do not intersect it. Most Amors do cross the orbit of Mars. It is estimated that 32% of the total number of NEAs are Amors. One of the larger Amors is → Eros.

Amor; → asteroid.

amount
  مساک   
masâk

Fr.: quantité   

Quantity; measure; the sum total of two or more quantities or sums.

From M.E. amounten "to ascend," from O.Fr. amonter, from amont "upward," from L. ad montem "to the hill," from ad "to" + mons, mont "hill," → mountain.

Masâk, from Mid.Pers. masâk "size, amount, magnitude," from mas "great, large," Av. masan "greatness, importance," from mas-; maz- "long, large; great"; cp. Skt. maha "great, mighty" (Mod.Pers. meh "great, large"), Gk. megas "great, large" L. magnus "great," PIE *meg- "great".

ampere
  آمپر   
âmper (#)

Fr.: ampère   

The → SI unit of → electric current; symbol A. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the → elementary charge, e, to be 1.602 176 634 × 10-19 when expressed in the unit → coulomb (C), which is equal to A s, where the → second (s) is defined in terms of ΔνCs.

Named after the French physicist and mathematician André-Marie Ampère (1775-1836), one of the pioneers in studying electricity, who laid the foundation of electromagnetic theory.

Ampere's law
  قانون ِ آمپر   
qânun-e Âmper

Fr.: loi d'Ampère, théorème ~   

One of the basic relations between → electricity and → magnetism, stating quantitatively the relation of a → magnetic field to the → electric current or changing electric field that produces it. Ampere's law states that the line integral of the magnetic field around an arbitrarily chosen path is proportional to the net electric current enclosed by the path. Also known as Ampère's theorem, Ampère's circuital law.

ampere; → law.

amplification
  دامنه‌دهی، دامنه‌گیری   
dâmane-dehi, dâmane-giri (#)

Fr.: amplification   

1) General: The act or result of amplifying, enlarging, or extending.
2) Physics: The process of increasing the magnitude of a variable quantity, especially the magnitude of voltage, power, or current, without altering any other quantity.

Verbal noun of → amplify.

amplification factor
  کروند ِ دامنه‌دهی   
karvand-e dâmane-dahi

Fr.: facteur d'amplification   

1) Electronics: The extent to which an → analogue → amplifier boosts the strength of a → signal. Also called → gain.
2) In → gravitational lensing, the ratio of the lensed brightness to unlensed brightness. This factor depends on the mass of the → lensing object and the closeness of the alignment between observer, lens, and source (→ impact parameter).

amplification; → factor.

amplifier
  دامنه‌ده   
dâmane-deh

Fr.: amplificateur   

Device for reproducing an electrical input at increased intensity.

Agent noun of → amplify.

amplify
  دامنه‌دادن، دامنه‌گرفتن   
dâmané dâdan, dâmané gereftan (#)

Fr.: amplifier   

General:To make larger, greater, or more powerful.
Physics:To increase the amplitude of an input signal.

From M.F. amplifier, from L. amplificare "to increase, augmant," from L. amplus "wide, large."

Dâmané, → amplitude; dâdan "to give" (Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give," O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" Skt. dadáti "he gives," Gk. didomi "I give," tithenai "to put, set, place;" L. dare "to give, offer;" Rus. delat "to do;" O.H.G. tuon, Ger. tun, O.E. don "to do"); gereftan "to take, seize, catch," (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").

amplitude
  دامنه   
dâmané (#)

Fr.: amplitude   

General:The greatness, size, or extent of something.
In any periodically varying function, the maximum absolute value of the quantity.
The magnitude range of a variable star.

L. amplitudo "wide extent, width," from amplus "large".

Dâmané "the foot or skirt of a mountain," from dâman "skirt."

an-
  ا-، ان-؛ بی-؛ نا-   
a- (#), an- (#); bi- (#); nâ- (#)

Fr.: an-   

Prefix same as → a- "not, without" occurring before a vowel or h in loanwords from Greek.

a-.

ana-
  آنا-   
ânâ- (#)

Fr.: ana-   

Prefix meaning: 1) up, upward (anode); 2) back, backward (ananym); 3) again, anew (anagenesis); 4) exceedingly (anamorphism).

From Gk. ana- "up, on, upon, throughout, again," cognate with Av. ana "on, over, along," O.Pers. anâ "throughout," O.E. on; PIE base *ano- "on, upon, above".

Ânâ-, from ana, anâ, Av. and O.Pers. counterparts of Gk. ana-, as above.

analemma
  هورپیچک   
hurpicak

Fr.: analemme   

The shape resembling a figure of 8 obtained by following the Sun's position in the sky at the same time of day throughout the year. It is a graphical presentation of the → equation of time. Because the Earth's orbit around the Sun is elliptical, the two loops of analemma have different sizes. Analemma figures for different latitudes or different times of day would appear slightly different. The analemma is widest in the period when the Earth is closest to the Sun (December). This is because in this situation the Earth advances in its orbit faster due to the stronger gravitational attraction of the Sun. On the other hand, since the Earth rotates at a constant rate, the Sun appears to rise earlier than average because the Earth advances further in its orbit in one day when the Earth is close to the Sun. The opposite occurs in June when the Earth is further from the Sun.

From L. analemma "the pedestal of a sundial," hence the sundial itself, from Gk. analemma "prop, support," from analambanein, from → ana- "up" + lambanein "to take".

Hurspicak from hur "Sun;" Av. hvar- "sun" (cf. Skt. surya; Gk. hlios; L. sol; O.H.G. sunna; Ger. Sonne; E. sun; PIE *sawel- "sun") + picak "a curled, a twisted figure or object," from picidan "to twist, invove, enttwine, coil."

analog-to-digital converter
  هاگردگر ِ آناگویه-رقمی   
hâgardgar-e ânâguyé-raqami

Fr.: convertisseur analogique-numérique   

In electronics, a device that converts the analog signal to → analog-to-digital units or counts.

analogue; → digital; → converter.

analog-to-digital unit (ADU)
  یکای ِ آناگویه-رقمی   
yekâ-ye ânâguyé-raqami

Fr.: unité analogue-numérique   

A number that represents a → charge-coupled device (CCD)'s output and is proportional to the → electron charge created by the → photons, plus the constant → bias offset. The relationship between the ADUs generated and the number of electrons acquired on the CCD is defined by the → CCD gain. Intensities given in ADUs provide a convenient method for comparing images and data generated by different cameras. Also referred to as → count and digital number. In most cases, the analog signal is digitalized by an analog-to-digital (A/D) converter and fed into a computer where further manipulation and analysis are done on what the detector originally produced from the star's photons (Howell, S.B., Handbook of CCD Astronomy, Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000).

analogue; → digital; → unit.

analogical
  آناگوییک   
ânâguyik

Fr.: analogique   

Of, relating to, or based on analogy; expressing or implying analogy.

analogy + -i + → -al.

analogous
  آناگو   
anâgu

Fr.: analogue   

1) Similar or corresponding in some respect; having → analogy.
2) Biology: Similar in function but having different evolutionary origins, as the wings of birds and insects.
3) Chemistry: Similar in chemical properties and differing in chemical structure only with respect to one element or group.

L. analogus, from Gk. analogos "proportionate," → analogy.

analogue
  آناگویه؛ آناگو، آناگوییک   
ânâguyé; ânâgu, ânâguyik

Fr.: analogue, analogique   

1) (n.) Something that has → analogy to something else.
2) Chemistry: (n.) A chemical compound whose molecular structure is closely similar to that of another.
3) Relating to or using signals or information represented by a continuous variable physical quantity such as spatial position or voltage. Often contrasted with → digital.

From Fr. analogue, from Gk. analogon, → analogy.

analogue computer
  رایانگر ِ آناگوییک   
râyângar-e ânâguyik

Fr.: ordinateur analogique   

A computer in which data is stored and processed in the form of continually varying signals representing a physical quantity rather than in the form of individual numerical values. The simplest analogue computers are side rules, thermometers, voltmeters, and speedometers.

analogue; → computer.

analogy
  آناگویی   
ânâguyi (#)

Fr.: analogie   

1) A similarity or comparability between two things.
2) Math.: A general similarity between two problems or methods. Analogy is used to infer new theorems from existing ones. Hypotheses based on analogy must still be proved.
3) Logic: A form of reasoning which asserts that if two or more entities are similar in one or more respects, then they would be similar in other respects.
4) Biology: An analogous relationship.
5) Linguistics: The process by which a word or form is either created or changed according to existing patterns in the language.

M.E., from O.Fr. analogie or directly from L. analogia, from Gk. analogia "proportion," from → ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio; word, speech, reckoning," → -logy.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>