An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time (GMST)
  زمان ِ اختری ِ میانگین ِ گرینویچ   
zamân-e axtari-ye miyângin-e Greenwich

Fr.: temps sidéral moyen de Greenwich   

The → sidereal time related to the angle between the → prime meridian and the → mean vernal equinox, measured in the plane of the equator.

mean; → Greenwich Meridian; → sidereal; → time.

Greenwich Meridian
  نیمروزان ِ گرینویچ   
nimruzân-e Greenwich

Fr.: méridien de Greenwich   

The → prime meridian that separates east from west in the same way that the Equator separates north from south. It is defined by the position of the → Airy transit circle.

A borough in southeast London, England, on the Thames River. It is the site of the original Royal Observatory, through which passes the prime meridian, or longitude 0°; → meridian.

Greenwich sidereal date
  روز ِ اختری ِ گرینویچ   
ruz-e axtari-ye Greenwich

Fr.: jour sidéeal de Greenwich   

The number and fraction of → mean sidereal days elapsed on the → Greenwich meridian since 12h January 1, 4773 BC (mean sidereal).

Greenwich meridian; → sidereal; → date.

Greenwich sidereal day number
  شماره‌ی ِ روز ِ اختری ِ گرینویچ   
šomâre-ye ruz-e axtari-ye Greenwich

Fr.: nombre du jour sidéral de Greenwich   

The integral part of the → Greenwich sidereal date.

Greenwich; → sidereal; → day; → number.

Gregorian calendar
  گاهشمار ِ گرگوری   
gâhšomâr-e Gregori (#)

Fr.: calendrier grégorien   

A → solar calendar in which the year length is assumed to be 365.2425 solar days. It is now used as the civil calendar in most countries. The Gregorian calendar is a revision of the → Julian calendar instituted in a papal bull by Pope Gregory XIII in 1582. The reason for the calendar change was to correct for drift in the dates of significant religious observations (primarily Easter) and to prevent further drift in the dates.

Named after Pope Gregory XIII (1502-1585), an Italian, born Ugo Boncompagni, Pope from 1572 to 1585, who ordered the reform of the Julian calendar; → calendar.

Gregorian telescope
  دوربین ِ گرگوری، تلسکوپ ِ ~   
durbin-e Gregori, teleskop-e ~ (#)

Fr.: télescope de Gregory   

A reflecting telescope in which the light rays are reflected from the primary mirror to a concave secondary mirror, from which the light is reflected back to the primary mirror and through the central hole behind the primary mirror. Compare with the → Cassegrain telescope, in which the secondary mirror is convex.

Named after the Scottish mathematician and astronomer James Gregory (1638-1675), who devised the telescope, but did not succeed in constructing it; → telescope.

Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit (GZK)
  حد ِ گریسن-زاتسپین-کوزمین   
hadd-e Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin

Fr.: limite de Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin   

A theoretical limit of approximately 6 × 1019  → electron-volts for the energy of → cosmic rays above which they would lose energy in their interaction with the → cosmic microwave radiation background photons. Cosmic ray protons with these energies produce → pions on blackbody photons via the Δ resonance according to: γCMB + p → p + π0, or γCMB + p → n + π+, thereby losing a large fraction of their energy. These interactions would reduce the energy of the cosmic rays to below the GZK limit. Due to this phenomenon, → Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays are absorbed within about 50 Mpc.

Named after Kenneth Greisen (1966), Physical Review Letters 16, 748 and Georgiy Zatsepin & Vadim Kuzmin (1966), Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics Letters 4, 78; → limit.

grid
  شباک   
šabâk (#)

Fr.: grille   

1) A → grating of crossed bars; gridiron.
2) A → network of → horizontal and → perpendicular lines, uniformly spaced, for locating points on a map, chart, or aerial photograph by means of a system of coordinates.
3) Electricity: i) A metallic framework employed in a storage cell or battery for conducting the electric current and supporting the active material.
ii) A system of electrical distribution serving a large area, especially by means of high-tension lines.

Shortening of gridiron "a utensil consisting of parallel metal bars on which to broil meat or other food," from M.E. griderne, from gridel, from O.Fr. gredil, gridil, from L. craticula "gridiron, small griddle," diminutive of cratis "wickerwork."

Šabâk, from Laki šowâk "a net woven from goat fleece used for carrying chaff or fruits like melon," variants šâvâk (Lori), šavak (Nahâvand).

grinding
  سابش   
sâbeš

Fr.: ébauchage   

A first step in making a telescope mirror, which consists of rubbing the glass blank with hard tools (glass, tile, or metal) and abrasive grit to produce a concave form. → figuring; → polishing.

Grinding, verbal noun of grind, from O.E. grindan, forgrindan "destroy by crushing," from P.Gmc. *grindanan (cf. Du. grenden), from PIE *ghrendh- "crushing" (cf. L. frendere "to crush, grind;" Gk. khondros "granule, groats").

Sâbeš, verbal noun of sâbidan, variants sâyidan, pasâvidan "to touch" (Khotanese sauy- "to rub;" Sogdian ps'w- "to touch;" Proto-Iranian *sau- "to rub").

gripe
  گله   
gelé (#)

Fr.: doléance   

A minor → complaint.

M.E. gripen, from O.E. gripan; cognate with Du. grijpen, Ger. griefen.

Gelé, → complain.

grism
  گریسم   
grism (#)

Fr.: grism   

An optical dispersing device used in a spectrograph. It is a combination of a prism and a grating, in the sense that the grating is placed side by side to one surface of a small-angle prism.

Grism, from gr(ating) + (pr)ism.

grit
  شن   
šen (#)

Fr.: grain abrasif   

Abrasive particles or granules, classified into predetermined sizes, typically of Silicon Carbide or Aluminum Oxide, used between the mirror and tile tool to grind the glass.

Grit, from O.E. greot "sand, dust, earth, gravel," from P.Gmc. *greutan "tiny particles of crushed rock" (cf. O.S. griot; O.N. grjot "rock, stone;" Ger. Grieß "grit, sand"); PIE base *ghreu- "to rub, pound, crush."

Šen "sand, grit."

groin
  کشال، کشاله   
kašâl (#), kašâlé (#)

Fr.: aine   

Anatomy: The depression on either side of the front of the body between the thigh and the abdomen.

M.E. grynde "groin," originally "depression in the ground," from O.E. grynde "abyss," perhaps also "depression, hollow," related to → ground.

Kašâl, kašâlé, literally "side, edge, margin," cf. Dari Kermâni kašâr, Kermâni kešâl "side, edge," from kašidan "to draw, pull, trace, trail," → galaxy.

groma
  گروما   
gromâ

Fr.: groma   

An instrument composed of a vertical staff and a horizontal cross with a plumb line at the end of each arm. It was used in ancient Roman empire to survey straight lines, squares, and rectangles.

From L. groma, gruma, from Gk. → gnomon, possibly through Etruscan.

groove
  شیار   
šiyâr (#)

Fr.: trait, sillon   

grating groove.

Groove, from O.N. grod "pit," or M.Du. groeve "furrow, ditch," from P.Gmc. *grobo (cf. O.H.G. gruoba "ditch," Goth. groba "pit, cave," O.E. græf "ditch"), related to grave (n.).

Šiyâr "furrow, ploughed ground," from Av. karši-, karša- "furrow," karšuiiā "plowed (land)," related to Mod.Pers. kašidan/kešidan "to carry, draw, protract, trail, drag;" Mid.Pers. kešidan "to draw, pull;" from Av. karš- "to draw; to plow;" cf. Skt. kars-, kársati "to pull, drag, plough," karṣū- "furrow, trench;" Gk. pelo, pelomai "to be in motion, to bustle;" PIE base kwels- "to plow."

ground
  ۱) زمین؛ ۲) زمینه   
1) zamin; 2) zaminé (#)

Fr.: sol, terrain   

1) The surface of the Earth; soil.
2) The foundation or basis on which a belief or action rests.

From O.E. grund "foundation, ground, surface of the earth," from P.Gmc. *grundus (cf. Du. grond, Ger. Grund "ground, soil, bottom").

1) Zamin, variant zami "earth, ground," from Mid.Pers. zamig "earth;" Av. zam- "the earth;" cf. Skt. ksam; Gk. khthôn, khamai "on the ground;" L. homo "earthly being" and humus "the earth" (as in homo sapiens or homicide, humble, humus, exhume); PIE root *dh(e)ghom "earth."
2) Zaminé, from zamin + nuance suffix .

ground state
  حالت ِ زمینه   
hâlat-e zaminé (#)

Fr.: état fondamental   

The lowest energy state of an atom, molecule, or ion, when all electrons are in their lowest possible energy levels, i.e. not excited.

ground; → state.

ground-based observation
  نپاهش از زمین   
nepâheš az zamin

Fr.: observation au sol   

An astronomical observation carried out using a telescope on Earth, as opposed to that from an orbiting satellite.

ground; based, adj. of base, from O.Fr. bas, from L. basis "foundation," from Gk. basis "step, pedestal," from bainein "to step;" → observation.

Nepâheš, → observation; az "from," → ex-; zamin, → ground.

group
  ۱) گروه؛ ۲) گروهاندن؛ گروهیدن   
1) goruh (#); 2) goruhândan; goruhidan

Fr.: 1) groupe; 2) grouper; se grouper   

1a) Any collection or assemblage of persons or things considered together or regarded as belonging together; e.g. → Local Group of galaxies.
1b) Math.: A set of elements a, b, c, ..., finite or infinite in number, with a rule for combining any two of them to form a "product," subject to the following four axioms: → closure axiom, → associative axiom, → identity axiom, and → inverse axiom.
2a) (v.tr.) To place or associate together in a group.
2b) (v.intr.) To be part of a group.

From Fr. groupe "cluster, group," from It. gruppo "cluster, packet, knot," likely from P.Gmc. *kruppa "round mass, lump."

Goruh "group," from Mid.Pers. grôh "group, crowd."

group theory
  نگره‌ی ِ گروه   
negare-ye goruh (#)

Fr.: théorie des groupes   

A branch of mathematics concerned with structures called → groups and the description of their properties. Group theory provides a powerful formal method of analyzing abstract and physical systems in which → symmetry is present. It has a very considerable use in physics, especially → quantum mechanics, notably in analyzing the → eigenstates of energy of a physical system.

group; → theory.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>