An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
salt
  نمک   
namak (#)

Fr.: sel   

1) A crystalline compound, sodium chloride, NaCl, occurring as a mineral, used for food seasoning and preservation.
2) Chem.: A solid compound formed when the hydrogen of an acid has been replaced by a metal.

O.E. sealt; cf. O.N., O.Fris., Goth. salt, Du. zout, Ger. Salz from PIE *sal- "salt;" cf. Gk. hals (genitive halos) "salt, sea;" L. sal; O.Ir. salann; Welsh halen; O.C.S. sali "salt."

Namak "salt;" Mid.Pers. namak "salt."

salt finger
  انگشت ِ نمک   
angošt-e namak

Fr.: doigts de sel   

Oceanography: One of several alternating columns of rising and descending water resulting from a → mixing process that occurs when warm salty water overlies a colder and relatively fresher layer of water. If the overlying salty water loses enough heat, it sinks down into the colder, fresher water, lengthening into a finger of salty water. Becuse the finger loses heat faster than it loses salt, the salt finger will continue to sink (salty water is denser than fresh water of the same temperature). Hence the salt finger loses more heat and displaces the colder water around it, which rises up and mixes into the warm salty layer above. Salt fingers are an example of → double-diffusive convection and play an important role in oceanic mixing. See also → fingering instability, → fingering convection.

salt; → finger.

saltpeter
  شوره   
šuré (#)

Fr.: salpètre   

A chemical compound, potassium nitrate, KNO3. It is a naturally occurring mineral source of nitrogen, and is used in the manufacture of fireworks, fluxes, gunpowder, etc.

M.E. sal peter, salpetre, from O.Fr. salpetre, from M.L. sal petrae "salt of rock," from L. sal, → salt + petra "rock, stone."

Šuré, related to šur "salty;" Mid.Pers. šôr "salty," šorag "salt land;" cf. Skt. ksurá- "razor, sharp knife;" Gk. ksuron "razor;" PIE base *kseu- "to rub, whet."

sample
  نمونان   
nemunân

Fr.: échantillon   

Statistics: A portion of the units of a population. The units are selected based on a randomized process with a known probability of selection. The sample is used to make inferences about the population by examining or measuring the units in the sample. → specimen = nemuné (نمونه).

M.E., from O.Fr. essample, from L. exemplum "a sample," literally "that which is taken out," from eximere "to take out, remove."

Nemunân, from nemun, from nemudan "to show;" Mid.Pers. nimūdan, nimây- "to show," from O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; into," → ni- (PIE), + māy- "to measure;" cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure;" Gk. metron "measure;" L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure."

sample point
  نقطه‌ی ِ نمونان   
noqte-ye nemunân

Fr.: point de l'échantillon   

Statistics: Each possible outcome in a → sample space.

sample; → point.

sample size
  اندازه‌ی ِ نمونان   
andâze-ye nemunân

Fr.: taille de l'échantillon   

The number of sampling units which are to be included in the sample. In the case of a multi-stage sample this number refers to the number of units at the final stage in the sampling.

sample; → size.

sample space
  فضای ِ نمونان   
fazâ-ye nemunân

Fr.: espace des échantillons   

Statistics: A set which consists of all possible outcomes of a random experiment.

sample; → space.

sampling
  نمونان‌گیری   
nemunân-giri

Fr.: échantillonnage   

The act, process, or technique of selecting a number of cases from all the cases in a particular population.

sample + → -ing.

Nemunân-giri, literally "taking sample," from nemunânsample + giri verbal noun of gereftan "to take, seize, hold;" Mid.Pers. griftan, gir- "to take, hold, restrain;" O.Pers./Av. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha- "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE *ghrebh- "to seize."

sampling bias
  ورک ِ نمونان‌گیری   
varak-e nemunân-giri

Fr.: biais de l'échantillonnage   

That part of the difference between the expected value of the sample estimator and the true value of the characteristic which results from the sampling procedure, the estimating procedure, or their combination.

sampling; → bias.

sampling error
  ایرنگ ِ نمونان‌گیری   
irang-e nemunân-giri

Fr.: erreur d'échantillonnage   

That part of the difference between a population value and an estimate thereof, derived from a random sample, which is due to the fact that only a sample of values is observed; as distinct from errors due to imperfect selection, bias in response or estimation, errors of observation and recording, etc.

sampling; → error.

sampling theorem
  فربین ِ نمونان‌گیری   
farbin-e nemunân-giri

Fr.: théorème d'échantillonnage   

Same as → Nyquist-Shannon sampling theorem.

sampling; → theorem.

sampling unit
  یکای ِ نمونان‌گیری   
yekâ-ye nemunân-giri

Fr.: unité d'échantillonnage   

One of the units into which an aggregate is divided for the purpose of sampling, each unit being regarded as individual and indivisible when the selection is made.

sampling; → unit.

sand
  ماسه   
mâsé (#)

Fr.: sable   

Hard granular powder, consisting of fine grains of rock or minerals, usually quartz fragments, found on beaches, in deserts, and in soil.

O.E. sand; cf. O.N. sandr, O.Fris. sond, M.Du. sant, Ger. Sand; PIE base *samatha- (cf. Gk. psammos "sand," L. sabulum).

Mâsé "sand," of unknown origin.

sandstone
  ماسه‌سنگ   
mâse-sang (#)

Fr.: grès   

Variously colored → sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-like quartz grains cemented by calcite, clay, or iron oxide. The sand accumulated originally underwater in shallow seas or lakes, or on the ground along shorelines or in desert regions.

sand; → stone.

sandstorm
  ماسه‌باد   
mâse-bâd (#)

Fr.: tempête de sable   

A strong wind carrying sand through the air.

sand; → storm.

Sanduleak catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ سندیولیک   
kâtâlog-e Sanduleak

Fr.: catalogue de Sanduleak   

A deep → objective prism survey of the → Large Magellanic Cloud carried out with the Curtis Schmidt telescope on Cerro Tololo in Chile. A total of 1272 stars, generally brighter than → photographic magnitude ~ 14, are listed in the catalog as proven or probable LMC members. The stars are identified on the charts in the LMC Atlas of Hodge & Wright (1967).

By Nicholas Sanduleak (1933-1990), American astronomer, published in 1970 as Contribution No. 89 of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory; → catalog.

sansculottide
  سان‌کولوتید   
sanculottide (#)

Fr.: sans-culottide   

One of the 5 or 6 → epagomenal days added to the 12 months of 30 days each in the → French Republican Calendar. Sansculottides began on September 17 or 18 and approximately ended on the → autumnal equinox, on September 22 or 23 of the → Gregorian calendar. These days were kept as festivals of Virtue, Genius, Labor, Opinion, and Rewards. There was a sixth Sanculottide, called Revolution, in → leap years.

From Fr. sans-culotte, literally "without knee breeches," a revolutionary of the lower class in the French revolution. The appellation was originally a term of contempt applied by the aristocrats but later was adopted as a popular name by the French revolutionaries. It refers to the fashionable culottes (silk knee breeches) of the aristocrats as distinguished from the working class sans-culottes, who traditionally wore pantalons (long trousers).

SAO Star Catalog
  کاتالوگ ِ ستاره‌ای ِ SAO   
kâtâlog-e setâre-yi-ye SAO

Fr.: catalogue SAO   

A general whole-sky catalog compiled by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory which results from the combination of several earlier catalogs. The compilation gives positions and proper motions for 258,997 stars, of which 8,712 are double and 499 variable, with an average distribution of 6 stars per square degree. The star positions have an average standard deviation of 0''.2 at their original epochs (0''.5 at epoch 1963.5). The equinox is 1950.0 and the system that of the FK4.

SAO acrynome of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory; → star; → catalog.

Saros
  ساروس   
Sâros (#)

Fr.: saros   

The period of 223 → synodic month, equaling 6585.32 days or 18 years, 11.33 days, after which the Sun, Earth, and Moon return to approximately the same relative geometry. When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and at the same time of year. Thus, the Saros is a useful tool for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 or 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses (F. Espenak, NASA).

Gk. saros, from Akkadian shār, Sumerian shar "multitude, large number." The ancient astronomers knew the Saros cycle, but they did not use the term Saros. In the Almagest, Ptolemy refers to the Saros as the "periodic time" (periodikos chronos) and gives it the following properties: 223 → synodic months = 239 → anomalistic months = 242 → draconistic months = 6,585 1/3 days = 241 revolutions in longitude plus 10 2/3 degrees. Edmund Halley seems to have been the first to apply this term to an eclipse cycle, in 1691.

satellite
  ۱) ماهواره؛ ۲) بنده‌وار   
1) mâhvâré; 2) bandevâr

Fr.: satellite   

1) A body that revolves around a planet; a moon. → Galilean satellite; → regular satellite; → irregular satellite.
2) Something that depends on, accompanies, or serves something else. → satellite galaxy; → satellite line.

From M.Fr. satellite, from L. satellitem "attendant."

1) Mâhvâré, from mâh, → moon, + -vâré, -vâr similarity suffix.
2) Bandevâr, from bandé "bound, fastened; (devoted) servant, domestic;" Mid.Pers. bandag, from bastan, band-, vastan "to bind, shut" (O.Pers./Av. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind).

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>