An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
spatial resolution
  واگشود ِ فضایی   
vâgošud-e fazâyi

Fr.: résolution spatiale   

The smallest detail that can be seen in an image. Same as → angular resolution.

spatial; → resolution.

Spörer minimum
  کمینه‌ی ِ اشپورر   
kamine-ye Spörer

Fr.: minimum de Spörer   

A period of low → solar activity that lasted from about A.D. 1420 to 1570. It occurred before → sunspots had been studied, and was discovered by analysis of the proportion of carbon-14 in tree rings, which is strongly correlated with solar activity.

Named for the German astronomer Gustav Spörer (1822-1895); → minimum.

Spörer's law
  قانون ِ اشپورر   
qânun-e Spörer

Fr.: loi de Spörer   

The empirical law that predicts the variation of → sunspot latitudes during a → solar cycle. At the start of a sunspot cycle, sunspots tend to appear around 30° to 45° latitude on the Sun's surface. As the cycle progresses, they appear at lower and lower latitudes, until 5° to 10°, at the end of the cycle. This tendency is revealed on a → butterfly diagram. Although named after Gustav Spörer, the "law" was first discovered by Richard Carrington.

Sporer minimum; → law.

speak
  سخنیدن   
soxanidan (#), soxan goften (#)

Fr.: parler   

To utter words with the ordinary voice (not singing) to communicate; to talk.

From M.E. speken "to speak," from O.E. specan, alteration of earlier sprecan "to speak;" cf. Low Germ. spreken "to speak," Du. spreken, Ger. sprechen "to speak;" ultimately from PIE *spreg- "to make a sound, utter, speak."

From M.P. saxwanitan "to speak, to talk," → speech.

special
  ویژه   
vižé (#)

Fr.: spécial, particulier   

Of a distinct or particular kind or character; having a particular function or purpose; not common, usual, or general.

M.E., from O.Fr. especial, from L. specialis "individual, particular," from → species "appearance, kind, sort."

Vižé, from Mid.Pers. apēcak "pure, sacred," from *apa-vēcak "set apart," from prefix apa- + vēcak, from vēxtan (Mod.Pers. bixtan) "to detach, separate, sift, remove," Av. vaēk- "to select, sort out, sift," pr. vaēca-, Skt. vic-, vinakti "to sift, winnow, separate; to inquire."

special relativistic
  بازانیگی‌مند ِ ویژه   
bâzânigimand-e vižé

Fr.: de relativité restreinte   

Of, relating to, or subject to the theory of → special relativity.

special; → relativistic.

special relativity
  بازانیگی ِ ویژه   
bâzanigi-ye vižé

Fr.: relativité restreinte   

The theory formulated by A. Einstein in 1905, which is based on the following two → postulates:
1) → Principle of relativity: The laws of physical phenomena are the same when studied in terms of two reference systems moving at a constant velocity relative to each other.
2) → Principle of constancy: The → velocity of light in free space is the same for all observers and is independent of the relative velocity of the source of light and the observer.
The term "special theory of relativity" refers to the restriction in the first postulate to reference systems moving at a constant velocity relative to each other (→ inertial reference frame). See also → general relativity.

special; → relativity.

species
  آرز   
âraz

Fr.: espèce   

1) A class of individuals having some common characteristics or qualities; distinct sort or kind.
2) Biology: The major subdivision of a genus or subgenus, regarded as the basic category of biological classification, composed of related individuals that resemble one another, are able to breed among themselves, but are not able to breed with members of another species.
3) Logic: One of the classes of things included with other classes in a genus. The set of things within one of these classes (Dictionary.com).

From L. species "a particular sort, kind, or type," originally "a sight, look, view, appearance," from specere "to look at, to see, behold;" PIE root spek- "to look around," → scope.

Âraz, from intensive/nuance â- + raz-, from Av. razan "order, → rule," from rāz- "to put in line, direct set," cf. Mod.Pers. raj "line, row," variants raž, rak, râk, rezg (Lori), radé, râdé "line, rule, row," rasté, râsté "row, a market with regular ranges of shops;" ris, risé "straight;" → right.

specific
  آبیزه   
âbizé

Fr.: précis, explicite, spécifique   

1) Clearly defined or identified; precise; particular.
2) Belonging or relating uniquely to a particular subject; not general.
3) Biology: Relating to species or a species.
4) Physics: Of or denoting a physical quantity expressed in terms of a unit mass, volume, or other measure, in order to give a value independent of the properties or scale of the particular system studied. → specific angular momentum; → specific charge; → specific density; → specific gravity; → specific heat; → specific humidity; → specific intensity; → specific volume.

From Fr. spécifique and directly from L.L. specificus "constituting a kind or sort," from L. species "kind, sort," → species.

Âbizé, from Mid.Pers. apēcak "pure, sacred" (older form of vižé, → special), from *apa-vēcak "set apart," from prefix apa- + vēcak, from vēxtan (Mod.Pers. bixtan) "to detach, separate, sift, remove," Av. vaēk- "to select, sort out, sift," pr. vaēca-, Skt. vic-, vinakti "to sift, winnow, separate; to inquire."

specific angular momentum
  جنباک ِ زاویه‌ای ِ آبیزه   
jonbâk-e zâvie-yi-ye âbizé

Fr.: moment angulaire spécifique   

Angular momentum per unit mass.

specific; → angular; → momentum.

specific charge
  بار ِ آبیزه   
bâr-e âbizé

Fr.: charge spécifique   

The electric charge to mass ratio of an elementary particle.

specific; → charge.

specific density
  چگالی ِ آبیزه   
cagâli-ye âbizé

Fr.: densité spécifique   

Same as → relative density.

specific; → density.

specific gravity
  گرانی ِ آبیزه   
gerâni-ye âbizé

Fr.: gravité spécifique   

The ratio of the density of a substance at the temperature under consideration to the density of water at the temperature of its maximum density (4 °C).

specific; → gravity.

specific heat
  گرمای ِ آبیزه   
garmâ-ye âbizé

Fr.: chaleur spécifique   

1) The quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of a substance through 1 °C. More generally, the → heat capacity of a unit mass of a substance. For a homogeneous body it is expressed as: C = dQ/M dT, where dQ is the quantity of heat transferred to a mass of M to raise the temperature by dT. It is often convenient to use the gram-mole as a unit of mass, → molar heat capacity.
2) For a gas there are two principal specific heats depending on the way in which the temperature is increased: i) that measured at constant pressure, CP, and ii) that measured at constant volume, CV. The specific heat CP is greater than CV, because a gas heated at constant pressure expands, and heat energy must be supplied equivalent to the work done in the expansion. The ratio γ = CP/CV is called the → adiabatic index. It varies from 1.66 for mono-atomic gases to a little over 1 for gases with complex molecules.

specific; → heat.

specific humidity
  نم ِ آبیزه   
nam-e âbizé

Fr.: humidité spécifique   

The dimensionless ratio of the mass of water vapor to the total mass in a particular volume. → humidity

specific; → humidity.

specific intensity
  درتنویی ِ آبیزه   
dartanuyi-e âbizé

Fr.: intensité spécifique   

A measure of the amount of radiation received per unit solid angle per unit time per unit area normally from an element of surface.

specific; → intensity.

specific star formation rate (sSFR)
  نرخ ِ آبیزه‌ی ِ دیسش ِ ستارگان   
nerx-e âbize-ye diseš-e setâregân

Fr.: taux de formation d'étoiles spécifique   

Star formation rate per unit → mass. More specifically, the → star formation rate in a galaxy divided by the → stellar mass of the galaxy. Observations of galaxies over a wide range of → redshifts suggest that the slope of the SFR-M* relation is about unity, which implies that their sSFR does not depend strongly on stellar mass. Specific star formation rates increase out to z ~ 2 and are constant, or perhaps slowly increasing, from z = 2 out to z = 6, though with a large scatter, sSFR ~ 2-10 Gyr-1 (Lehnert et al., 2015, A&A 577, A112, and references therein).

specific; → star; → formation; → rate.

specific volume
  گنج ِ آبیزه   
gonj-e âbizé

Fr.: volume spécifique   

The volume occupied by unit mass of a substance. Specific volume is the reciprocal of density.

specific; → volume.

specification
  آبیزش   
âbizeš

Fr.: précision, spécification   

1) The act of specifying.
2) A particular item, aspect, calculation, etc., in such a description.
3) Something specified, as in a bill of particulars; a specified particular, item, or article (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → specify.

specifity
  آبیزگی   
âbizegi

Fr.: spécifité   

The state or character of being → specific.

specific; → -ity.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>