An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
sound intensity
  درتنویی ِ صدا   
dartanuyi-ye sedâ

Fr.: intensité de son   

The average → sound power passing through a unit area perpendicular to the direction that the sound is traveling. It is usually expressed in watts per square meter.

sound; → level.

sound intensity level
  تراز ِ درتنویی ِ صدا   
tarâz-e dartanuyi-ye sedâ

Fr.: niveau de l'intensité de son   

The expression of sound intensity in decibel units. The sound intensity level (LI), in decibels, is computed as: LI = 10 log (I/I0), where I is the measured sound intensity and I0 is the reference intensity (1 x 10 -12 watt per square meter).

sound; → intensity; → level.

sound power
  توان ِ صدا   
tavân-e sedâ

Fr.: puissance de son   

The → sound energy emitted by a source per unit time, usually expressed in → watts. Sound power causes → sound pressure.

sound; → power.

sound power level
  تراز ِ توان ِ صدا   
tarâz-e tavân-e sedâ

Fr.: niveau de la puissance de son   

The sound energy emitted by a sound source per unit time and expressed in → decibels. Sound power, in → watts, is converted to sound power level in decibels (L), by L = 10 log (W/W0), where W0 is the reference power (1 x 10 -12 watt).

sound; → power; → level.

sound pressure
  فشار ِ صدا   
fešâr-e sedâ

Fr.: pression de son   

The periodic fluctuation above and below atmospheric pressure created by an oscillating body which provides the → sound power. Instantaneous sound pressure is the peak value of air pressure.

sound; → pressure.

sound quality
  چونای ِ صدا   
cunâ-ye sedâ

Fr.: qualité de son   

The number of → overtones present in a sound and their respective intensity. Like → loudness, it is a subjective quantity and cannot be measured with instruments.

sound; → quality.

sound speed
  تندی ِ صدا   
tondi-ye sedâ

Fr.: vitesse du son   

The velocity of propagation of a → longitudinal wave in a medium under specified conditions. Also known as sonic speed, sonic velocity, acoustic velocity, sound velocity, velocity of sound, speed of sound. The speed of sound is a thermodynamic property that relates to the change in pressure and density of the medium and can be expressed as C = (dP/dρ)1/2, where C is the sound velocity, dP is the change in pressure, and dρ the change in density. It can also be expressed as C = (E/ρ)1/2, where E is the bulk modulus elasticity. This equation is valid for liquids, solids and gases. The sound travels faster through media with higher → elasticity and/or lower density. If a medium is → incompressible the speed of sound is infinite. For → ideal gases, a simple relationship exists between the sound speed and temperature: C = (γR T)1/2, where γ is the → specific heat ratio (CP/CV), and R is the → gas constant. We see that for ideal gases it the speed is independent of pressure. In air at 0°C it is 332 m/sec. The speed of sound in a gas of hydrogen is 1315 m/s. → Mach number.

sound; → speed.

sound wave
  موج ِ صدا   
mowj-e sedâ (#)

Fr.: onde sonore   

A → longitudinal wave which when striking the ear gives rise to the sensation of sound. Such waves can be propagated in solids, liquids, and gases. The material particles transmitting sound waves oscillate in the direction of propagation of the wave itself. There is a large range of frequencies within which longitudinal waves can stimulate the human ear and brain to the sensation of hearing. This range is from about 20 → Hz to about 20,000 Hz and is called the audible range. → ultrasound; → infrasound.

sound; → wave.

sounding
  گمانه‌زنی   
gomâné-zani

Fr.: sondage, radiosondage   

1) In geophysics, any penetration of the natural environment for scientific observation.
2) In meteorology, a free, unmanned balloon carrying instruments aloft to make atmospheric measurements, esp. a radiosonde balloon.
3) The measurement of the depth of water beneath a vessel.

From Fr. sonder, → sonde.

From gomâné, → sonde, + zani verbal noun of zadan "to do; to strike, beat; to play an instrument" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

sounding balloon
  بالون ِ گمانه‌زنی   
bâlon-e gamâne-zani

Fr.: ballon-sonde   

A small, free balloon sent into the upper atmosphere to measure, record, and transmit meteorological reports to a ground station.

sounding; → balloon.

soundness
  دروایی   
dorvâyi

Fr.: santé   

1) The quality of being → sound.
2) Logic: The quality or condition of a → deductive reasoning if it meets the two conditions of → valid arguments and → truepremises. These are the → necessary and sufficient conditions for soundness.

sound; → -ness.

source
  خن   
xan

Fr.: source   

General: Any thing or place from which something comes, arises, or is obtained.
Physics: A point, line, or area in space from which the lines of force in a vector field originate.
Electricity: Any active component, battery, or generator that supplies energy.
Thermodynamics: Any body, device, or system that provides energy.

M.E., from O.Fr. sourse "a rising, beginning, fountainhead of a river or stream," from p.p. of sourdre "to rise, spring up," from L. surgere "to rise," → surge.

Xan "source," variant xân (Gilaki xoni, Tabari xoni,Laki kyani, Tâleši xâni, xoni,); Mid.Pers. xân, xânig "source, spring," Av. xâ-, xan- "source, fountain, spring," xayana- "belonging to a spring;" cf. Khotanese khâhâ- "spring, fountain;" Skt. khâ'- "spring, source."

source function
  کریای ِ خن   
karyâ-ye xan

Fr.: fonction source   

For a radiating material, the ratio of emissivity to opacity.

source; → function.

south
  دشتر   
daštar

Fr.: Sud   

The cardinal point which is opposite to north. It is also the direction of the Sun at local noon (in the northern hemisphere).

M.E. suth(e), south(e), from O.E. suth "southward, in the south;" cf. O.S., O.Fris. suth "southward, in the south," M.Du. suut), O.H.G. sund, perhaps related to base of *sunnon "sun," with sense of "the region of the sun."

Note: South is related to right since it is to the right when one faces the rising Sun. This occurs in, for example, in Av., Skt., and O.Ir., as below.

Daštar, from Mid.Pers. dašn "right hand;" Av. dašina- "right;" Ossetic dæsni "skillful, dexterous;" cf. Skt. dáksina- "right; southern;" Gk. dexios (<*deks-i-uo-) "right," dexiteros "located on the right side;" L. dexter "right;" Goth. taihswo "right hand;" O.Ir. dess "on the right hand, southern;" PIE base *deks- "right." The second element -tar direction suffix, as in Mid.Pers. ošastar "east" (Av. ušastara- "eastern"), dôšastar "west" (Av. daôšatara-, daôšastara- "western"), abâxtar "north" (Av. apāxtara- "northern"), Mod.Pers. bâxtar, → west.

South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA)
  ناسانی ِ اتلسی ِ دشتر   
nâsâni-ye Atlas-e daštar

Fr.: Anomalie Atlantique Sud   

A region of the Earth where the inner → Van Allen belt comes closest to the Earth's surface. It is due to the fact that the → geomagnetic field is offset from the center of the Earth. The region is centered near 25 degrees South 50 degrees West, close to the Atlantic coast of Brazil. The excess of trapped energetic particles in that region presents a problem for satellites in orbit around the Earth.

south; → Atlantic; → anomaly.

south celestial pole
  قطب ِ آسمانی ِ دشتر   
qotb-e âsmâni-ye daštar

Fr.: pôle sud céleste   

The point in the → southern hemisphere where the → rotation axis of the Earth touches the → celestial sphere. In contrast to the → north celestial pole, no bright star is visible in that direction.

north; → celestial; → pole.

South point
  نقطه‌ی ِ دشتر   
noqte-ye daštar

Fr.: point Sud   

The point on → horizon in direction of → geographic south pole.

south; → point.

South Polar Layered Deposits (SPLD)
  لردهای ِ لایه-لایه‌ی ِ قطب ِ دشتر   
Lerdhâ-ye Laye-laye-ye Qotb-e Daštar

Fr.: couches de dépôt du pôle sud   

A large area of the south polar region of → Mars which is covered with layers of → water ice and → dust. The SPLD, like the NPLD, has a maximum relief relative to the surrounding terrain of ~ 3.5 km and ~ 1,000 km across. Above the SPLD lies a very thin temporary (1-10 m) cap of → carbon dioxide ice/frost that snows out in the winter and sublimates over the spring and summer seasons. It is believed that the rhythmic nature of the deposits is related to oscillations in Mars' → orbital parameters (J. J. Plaut et al., 2007, Science 316, 92).

south; → polar; → layer; → deposit.

south pole
  قطب ِ دشتر   
qotb-e daštar

Fr.: pôle Sud   

1) An → imaginary point in the → southern hemisphere representing the intersection of the → Earth's → rotation axis with the → globe with the → celestial sphere.
2) For a → magnet, the pole which points toward the geographic south.
3) In a → magnetic field, the point which receives a → line of force coming from the → north pole.

south; → pole.

South Pole Star
  ستاره‌ی ِ قطب ِ دشتر   
setâre-ye qotb-e daštar

Fr.: étoile du pôle sud   

A star that would mark the south → celestial pole. Presently no bright visible star is situated along the → rotation axis of the Earth in the southern hemisphere. But, because of the Earth's → axial precession, about 7,000 years from now the star → Delta Velorum in the constellation → Vela, the Sail, will come to within 0.2 degrees of the South Celestial Pole (around the year 9250 B.C.). That is closer to marking the celestial pole than → Polaris or → Sirius ever do during their reigns as pole stars! Sirius will become the South Pole Star some 60 thousand years from now (around the year 66270 B.C.). In that time, Sirius will come to within 1.6 degrees of the South Celestial Pole.

south; → celestial; → pole.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>