An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Magellanic Bridge
  پل ِ ماژلانی   
pol-e Magellani

Fr.: pont magellanique   

A filament of → neutral hydrogen which connects the → Small Magellanic Cloud and → Large Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Bridge appears to result from a → close encounter between these two galaxies some 200 million years ago.

Magellanic; → bridge.

Magellanic Clouds
  ابرهای ِ ماژلان   
Abrhâ-ye Magellan

Fr.: Nuage de Magellan   

Two irregular satellite galaxies of our own Galaxy which are visible from the Southern Hemisphere as misty patches in the night sky. → Large Magellanic Cloud; → Small Magellanic Cloud.

Magellanic; → cloud.

Magellanic spiral galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارپیچ ِ ماژلانی   
kakhešân-e mârpic-e Mâželâni

Fr.: galaxie spirale magellanique   

A class of low-mass galaxies with relatively rare features. In particular, these galaxies are characterized by a → stellar bar whose center is displaced from that of the disk and a one-armed spiral. The → Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) is considered the prototype of this class of objects. However, despite a wealth of data, there is still a good deal of uncertainty concerning the nature of the LMC's bar. The majority of the observed Magellanic spirals in the nearby Universe share the LMC's structure, in particular the evidence of an offset bar and a one-armed spiral structure. A good example of these systems is NGC 3906, which shows evidence of the bar offset from the photometric center of the galaxy by 1.2 kpc (Pardy et al., 2016, ApJ 827, 149).

Magellanic; → spiral; → galaxy.

Magellanic Stream
  رابه‌ی ِ ماژلانی   
râbe-ye Magellani

Fr.: courant magellanique   

A thin trail of gas stretching from the → Magellanic System toward our own Galaxy over about 150° on the sky, corresponding to hundreds of thousands of light-years. This gas consists primarily of → neutral hydrogen and is thought to have originated from the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as a result of tidal interactions with the Milky Way. See, e.g., Fox et al. 2013, arxiv/1304.4240, and references therein.

Magellanic; → stream.

Magellanic System
  راژمان ِ ماژلانی   
râžmân-e Magellani

Fr.: système magellanique   

A system consisting of the → Magellanic Clouds, the → Magellanic Bridge, and the → Magellanic stream.

Magellanic Clouds; → system.

Magellanic type galaxy
  کهکشان ِ گونه‌ی ِ ماژلانی   
kahkešân-e gune-ye Magellani

Fr.: galaxie de type magellanique   

A → metal-poor, → irregular galaxy like the → Large Magellanic Cloud or the → Small Magellanic Cloud. Other examples are: NGC 4449, NGC 4214, and NGC 3109.

Magellanic; → type; → galaxy.

magic
  ۱) جادو؛ ۲) جادوانه   
1) jâdu; 2) jâduâné

Fr.: magique   

1a) The power of apparently influencing events by using mysterious or supernatural forces.
1b) Mysterious tricks, such as making things disappear and reappear, performed as entertainment.
2) Having or apparently having supernatural powers (OxfordDictionaries.com)

M.E. magik(e) "witchcraft," from O.Fr. magique "magic, magical," from L.L. magice "sorcery, magic," from Gk. magike (tekhne "art"), from magos "one of the members of the learned and priestly class," from O.Pers. magu-, possibly from PIE root *magh- "to be able, have power."

Mid.Pers. yâtûk "wizard, sorcerer;" Av. yātu-

magic square
  چاروش ِ جادو   
câruš-e jâdu

Fr.: carré magique   

An n × n matrix in which every row, column, and diagonal add up to the same number.

magic; → square.

magistrate
  دادیار   
dâdyâr (#)

Fr.: magistrat   

1) A civil officer charged with the administration of the law.
2) A minor judicial officer, as a justice of the peace or the judge of a police court, having jurisdiction to try minor criminal cases and to conduct preliminary examinations of persons charged with serious crimes (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. magistrat, from L. magistratus "a magistrate, public functionary," from magistrare "to serve as a magistrate," from magister, "chief, director," → master.

Dâdyâr, from dâd, → justice, + yâr, "assistant, helper," → gravity assist.

magma
  ماگما   
mâgmâ (#)

Fr.: magma   

1) Molten → rock material that occurs below Earth's surface.
2) Molten material both below and on top of the surface of a → planet.

From L. magma "dregs of an ointment," from Gk. magma "an ointment," from root of massein "to knead, mold."

Mâgma, loanword from Fr.

magma chamber
  اتاقک ِ ماگما   
otâqak-e mâgmâ (#)

Fr.: chambre magmatique   

A large cavity within the Earth's → crust containing → magma. When a → vent is opened to the surface, magma is extruded onto the surface as → lava.

magma; → chamber.

magnesium
  منیزیوم   
manyeziom (#)

Fr.: magnésium   

A metallic chemical element; symbol Mg. Atomic number 12; atomic weight 24.305; melting point about 648.8°C; boiling point about 1,090°C. The Scottish chemist Joseph Black recognized it as a separate element in 1755. In 1808, the English chemist Humphrey Davy obtained the impure metal and in 1831 the French pharmacist and chemist Antoine-Alexandre Brutus Bussy isolated the metal in the pure state.

The name originally used was magnium and was later changed to magnesium, which is derived from Magnesia, a district in the northeastern region of Greece called Thessalia.

magnet
  آهنربا، مغناتیس   
âhanrobâ (#), meqnâtis (#)

Fr.: aimant   

An object that produces a magnetic field around itself.

From L. magnetum (nom. magnes) "lodestone," from Gk. ho Magnes lithos "the Magnesian stone," from Magnesia region in Thessaly where magnetized ore was obtained.

Âhanrobâ, literally "iron attracting, iron robbing," from âhaniron + robâ agent noun of robudan, robâyidan "to attract, to grab, rob;" Av. urūpaiieinti "to cause racking pain(?);" cf. Skt. rop- "to suffer from abdominal pain," rurupas "to cause violent pain," ropaná- "causing racking pain," rópi- "racking pain;" L. rumpere "to break;" O.E. reofan "to break, tear."
Meqnâtis, from Ar., from Gk., as above.

magnetar
  مگنتار   
magnetâr (#)

Fr.: magnétar   

A highly magnetized → neutron star with fields a thousand times stronger than those of → radio pulsars. There are two sub-classes of magnetars, → anomalous X-Ray pulsar (AXP)s and → soft gamma repeater (SGR)s, that were thought for many years to be separate and unrelated objects. In fact SGRs and AXPs are both neutron stars possessing → magnetic fields of unprecedented strength of 1014 - 1016 G, and that show both steady X-ray pulsations as well as soft gamma-ray bursts. Their inferred steady X-ray luminosities are about one hundred times higher than their → spin-down luminosities, requiring a source of power well beyond the magnetic dipole spin-down that powers → rotation-powered pulsar (RPP)s. New high-energy components discovered in the spectra of a number of AXPs and SGRs require non-thermal particle acceleration and look very similar to high-energy spectral components of young rotation-powered pulsars (A. K. Harding, 2013, Front. Phys. 8, 679).

From magnet, contraction of → magnetic + -(s)tar, from → star.

magnetic
  مغناتیسی، مغناتی، آهنرباییک   
meqnâtisi (#), meqnâti, âhanrobâyik

Fr.: magnétique   

Of or pertaining to a magnet or magnetism.

From → magnet + → -ic.

Meqnâtisi, meqnâti, from meqnâtis, → magnet; âhanrobâyik, from âhanrobâ, → magnet, + → -ik, → -ic.

magnetic advection
  پهنبز ِ مغناتیسی   
pahnbaz-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: advection magnétique   

The transport of the magnetic field by a fluid. It is given by the term ∇ x (v x B) in the → induction equation.

magnetic; → advection.

magnetic axis
  آسه‌ی ِ مغناتیسی   
âse-ye meqnâtisi

Fr.: axe magnétique   

The imaginary straight line joining the two → poles of a → magnet.

magnetic; → meridian.

magnetic bottle
  بطری ِ مغناتیسی   
botri-ye meqnâtisi (#)

Fr.: bouteille magnétique   

Any configuration of → magnetic fields used in the containment of a → plasma during controlled → thermonuclear reaction experiments.

magnetic; → bottle.

magnetic braking
  لگامش ِ مغناتیسی   
legâmeš-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: freinage magnétique   

The process whereby a star which loses mass slows down under the action of its → magnetic field. The stellar material follows the → magnetic field lines extending well beyond the stellar surface. The material gain → angular momentum and the underlying object is slowed down. Magnetic braking is an efficient mechanism for removing angular momentum from the the rotating object. See also → disk locking.

magnetic; → braking.

magnetic braking catastrophe
  نگونزار ِ لگامش ِ مغناتیسی   
negunzâr-e legâmeš-e meqnâtisi

Fr.: catastrophe du freinage magnétique   

The failure of numerical star formation calculations to produce rotationally supported → Keplerian disks because of the → magnetic braking effect, when → magnetic fields of strengths comparable to those observed in → molecular clouds are accounted for. The formation and early evolution of disks is a long-standing fundamental problem in → star formation models. Early work in the field had concentrated on the simpler problem of disk formation from the → collapse of a rotating dense core in the absence of a magnetic field. However, dense star-forming cores are observed to be significantly magnetized. There is increasing theoretical evidence that disk formation is greatly modified, perhaps even suppressed, by a dynamically important magnetic field. This has been found in analytic studies, axisymmetric numerical models and in 3D calculations using → ideal magnetohydrodynamics. By contrast, recent observations suggest the presence of massive, 50-100 AU disks and evidence for associated → outflows in the earliest (→ class 0) stages of star formation around both low and high mass stars. Two primary solutions have been proposed: → turbulence and → non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics. Calculations of the collapse of a massive 100 Msun core have shown that 100 AU scale disk formation in the presence of strong magnetic fields was indeed possible, with some argument over whether this is caused by turbulent reconnection or another mechanism. Studies, using simulations of collapsing 5 Msun cores, have found that turbulence diffuses the strong magnetic field out of the inner regions of the core, and that the non-zero → angular momentum of the turbulence causes a misalignment between the rotation axis and the magnetic field. Both of these effects reduce the magnetic braking, and allow a massive disk to form (Wurster et al. 2016, arxiv/1512.01597 and references therein).

magnetic; → braking; → catastrophe.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>