An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Mars Trojan
  ترویایی ِ بهرام   
troyâ-yi-ye Bahrâm

Fr.: trojan de Mars   

A member of the family of → asteroids located at either of the stable → Lagrangian points (L4 or L5) of the orbit of → Mars.

Mars; → Trojan asteroid.

Mars' calendar
  گاهشمار ِ بهرام   
gâhšomâr-e Bahrâm

Fr.: calendrier martien   

A special calendar for time reckoning on Mars in which the year consists of 668 → sols (687 Earth days) and each sol has 24h 39m 35s. For convenience, sols are divided into a 24-hour clock. Each landed Mars mission keeps track of local solar time at its landing site, which depends upon the lander's longitude of Mars. The Martian year begins when Mars arrives at the → vernal point of the orbit in its northward journey; in other words, when the solar longitude Ls is 0°. Mars' other seasons begin when Ls = 90° at → summer solstice, 180° at → autumn equinox, and 270° at → winter solstice. The year counts begin at Mars Year 1, at the northern → vernal equinox of April 11, 1955. The second half of that year was marked by a major dust storm (→ Mars' dust storm). February 7, 2021 marked the start of Year 36 on Mars. Year 37 will start on Dec. 26, 2022, and Year 38 on Nov. 12, 2024. On Earth, spring, summer, autumn, and winter are all similar in length, because Earth's orbit is nearly circular (→ eccentricity = 0.0167), so it moves at nearly constant speed around the Sun. By contrast, Mars' elliptical orbit (→ eccentricity = 0.0934) makes its distance from the Sun change with time, and also makes it speed up and slow down in its orbit. Mars is at → aphelion (249,200,000 km from Sun) at Ls = 70°, near the northern summer solstice, and at → perihelion (206,700,000 km) at Ls = 250°, near the southern summer solstice. The Mars dust storm season begins just after perihelion at around Ls = 260°.

Mars; → calendar.

Mars' dust storm
  توفان ِ غبار ِ بهرام   
tufân-e qobâr-e Bahrâm

Fr.: tempête de poussière martienne   

A violent atmospheric disturbance on Mars marked by high amounts of dust, especially during spring and summer seasons of the planet southern hemisphere. The elongated orbit of Mars has several important consequences. During southern spring and summer, Mars travels near its → perihelion, while its southern pole is tilted toward the Sun. Therefore, its surface receives much more heat . The atmosphere's temperature near surface raises and since the upper layers of the atmosphere are cold, warm air moves up and takes dust particles upward. Each several years big storms occur and cover significant portions of the planet such that dust stays in the atmosphere for several weeks or months. See also → Mars' calendar.

Mars; → dust; → storm.

marsquake
  بهرام-لرزه   
bahrâm-larze

Fr.: tremblement de Mars   

A quake on the → planet Mars, probably caused by some phenomena other than → tectonic plate motions. Unlike Earth, Mars seems to lack tectonic plates. Therefore, its quakes are thought to arise from the slow cooling of the planet over time, which causes the → crust to contract and develop fractures. These quakes can also come from the impact of → meteorites and possibly the movement of → magma deep below the surface. On April 6, 2019, the instrument called Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) on NASA's Mars → InSight Mission lander recorded quakes that appear to have come from inside the planet, the first time ever a likely marsquake.

Mars; → quake.

Martian
  بهرامی، مریخی   
Bahrâmi (#), Merixi (#)

Fr.: martien   

Of, relating to, or like the planet → Mars.

M.E. marcien, from L. Marti(us) of, belonging to → Mars + -an a suffix of adjectives.

Martian meteorite
  شخانه‌ی ِ بهرامی، شهاب‌سنگ ِ ~   
šaxâne-ye Bahrâmi, šahâbsang-e ~

Fr.: météorite martienne   

A piece of rock that was ejected from the Martian surface into space by the impact of an asteroid or comet, and landed on Earth. So far about 100 Martian meteorites have been collected. These meteorites have elemental and isotopic compositions that match those of the Martian crust as measured by NASA's Mars exploration missions.

Martian; → meteorite.

Martian plume
  پرک ِ بهرام   
parrak-e Bahrâm

Fr.: plume de Mars   

A slender, cloudy projection sometimes seen to extend from the surface of → Mars to very high altitudes. Noted and confirmed by amateur astronomers on photos of Mars in March 2012, possibly similar plumes have been found on archived images as far back as 1997. The plumes reach 200 km up, which seems too high for them to be related to wind-blown surface dust. Since one plume lasted for more than 10 days, it seemed too long lasting to be related to → aurora. The origin of this phenomenon is not yet known.

Martian; → plume.

mascon
  جرمتود   
jermtud

Fr.: mascon   

A region on the surface of the → Moon where the → gravitational attraction is slightly higher than normal due to the presence of dense rock.

Short for mass concentration; → mass; → concentration.

masculine
  نرین   
narin (#)

Fr.: masculin   

1) Having qualities appropriate to or usually associated with a man.
2) Of, relating to, or constituting the gender that ordinarily includes most words or grammatical forms referring to males (Merriam-Webster.com).

M.E. masculin, from O.Fr. masculin "of the male sex," from L. masculinus "male, of masculine gender," from masculus "male, masculine; worthy of a man," diminutive of mas "male person, male," of unknown origin.

Narin, from nar, → male.

maser
  میزر   
meyzer (#)

Fr.: maser   

1) A source of very intense, narrow-band, coherent microwave radiation involving → stimulated emission, as in the → laser.
2) A device that generates such radiation.
3) In astronomy, maser emission detected from a number of molecules and associated with several environments: the vicinity of newly forming stars and → H II regions (OH, water, SiO, and methanol masers); the circumstellar shells of evolved stars, i.e. red giants and supergiants (OH, water, and SiO masers); the shocked regions where supernova remnants are expanding into an adjacent molecular cloud (OH masers); and the nuclei and jets of active galaxies (OH and water masers). The hydroxyl radical (OH) was the first interstellar maser detected (Weinreb et al. 1963).

Maser stands for Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation; → laser.

maser emission
  گسیل ِ میزری   
gosil-e meyzeri (#)

Fr.: émission maser   

An emission arising from the → maser process.

maser; → emission.

mask
  ۱) ماسک؛ ۲) ماسک زدن   
1) mâsk (#); 2) mâsk zadan (#)

Fr.: 1) masque; 2) masquer   

1) Something that serves to cover or conceal.
Electronics: A pattern used to control the configuration of conducting material deposited or etched onto a semiconductor chip.
2) Electronics: To override one signal with a stronger one.

From M.Fr. masque "covering to hide or guard the face," from It. maschera, from M.L. masca "mask, specter, nightmare," of uncertain origin.

1) Mâsk, loan from Fr., as above; 2) with verb zadan "to make, to do," originally "to strike, beat; to do; to play an instrument" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

masking
  ماسک‌زد   
mâskzad

Fr.: masque, masquage   

1) A method of improving → spatial resolution of images. → pupil masking; → unsharp masking.
2) Computers: The process of specifying a number of values that allow extracting desired information from a set of characters or bits while suppressing the undesired information.

Verbal noun of → mask.

mass
  ۱) جرم، غند؛ ۲) توده، انبوه   
1) jerm (#), qond (#); 2) tudé (#), anbuh (#)

Fr.: masse   

1) A measure of the amount of material in an object, defined either by the inertial properties of the object or by its gravitational influence on other bodies. See also → inertial mass, → gravitational mass.
2) A considerable assemblage, number, or quantity.

From O.Fr. masse "lump," from L. massa "kneaded dough, lump," from Gk. maza "barley cake, lump, mass, ball," related to massein "to knead."

Jerm, from Ar. jirm.
Qond "assembled, collected; a crowd," related to gondé "coarse, thick; big;" Mid.Pers. gund "troop, group, gathering;" loaned into Arm. gund and Ar. jund.
Tudé "heap, stack, tumulus;" cf. Kurd. tavda "all, total;" Tati tâya "heap, mass;" Sogd. tuδē "heap, mass." Perhaps related to PIE *teuta- "people, tribe;" cf. Lith. tauta, Oscan touto, O.Irish tuath, Goth. þiuda, O.E. þeod "people, folk, race."
Anbuh "numerous, abundant," from Proto-Iranian *ham-buH- "to come together," from ham- "together," → com- + *buH- "to be , become," Av. ham.bauu- "to come together, unite," from ham- as above + bauu-, bu- "to be, become," O.Pers. bav- "to be, become," Mod.Pers. budan "to be," Skt. bhavati "becomes, happens," PIE base *bheu-, *bhu- "to grow, become;" cf. Gk. phu- "become," P.Gmc. *beo-, *beu-, E. be.

mass absorption coefficient
  همگر ِ درشم ِ جرمی   
hamgar-e daršm-e jermi

Fr.: coefficient d'absorption de masse   

A measure of the rate of absorption of radiation, expressed as the linear absorption coefficient divided by the density of the medium through which radiation is passing.

mass; → absorption; → coefficient.

mass defect
  کاست ِ جرم   
kâst-e jerm

Fr.: défaut de masse   

The difference between the rest mass of an atomic nucleus (made up of protons and neutrons) and the sum of the masses of its individual protons and neutrons. The mass difference is equal to the released binding energy. Also called mass deficiency

mass; → defect.

mass density
  چگالی ِ جرمی   
cagâli-ye jermi

Fr.: densité massique   

The mass per unit area of the ring material, integrated through the thickness of the ring. Sometimes called → surface density (Ellis et al., 2007, Planetary Ring Systems, Springer).

mass; → density.

mass discrepancy
  ناهم‌خوانی ِ جرم   
nâhamxâni-ye jerm

Fr.: écart de masse   

1) For → massive stars and → supergiants, the difference between the → spectroscopic mass and the → evolutionary mass. Early studies found that the spectroscopic mass was systematically less than the evolutionary mass by as much as a factor of 2 for supergiants. Improvements in the stellar atmosphere models (taking into account → line blanketing) have decreased or eliminated the size of the discrepancy for Galactic stars. There is still a mass discrepancy for the hottest → O stars in the → Magellanic Clouds (See, e.g. Massey et al. 2009, ApJ 692, 618).
2) For a → cluster of galaxies, the apparent difference between the mass of the cluster obtained by using the → virial theorem, and the mass inferred from the total luminosities of the member galaxies.

mass; → discrepancy.

mass energy
  کاروژ ِ جرم   
kâruž-e jerm

Fr.: énergie de masse   

The energy (E) associated with a mass (m), as specified by the → mass-energy equivalence  E = mc2, where c is the → speed of light. For a moving body the total energy of the particle is expressed by: E2 = m2c4 + p2c2, where m is → rest mass and p → momentum.

mass; → energy.

mass extinction
  خاموشی ِ انبوه   
xâmuši-ye anbuh

Fr.: extinction en masse   

An event in the history of life on Earth in which large numbers of species (sometimes more than 90% of some species) vanish in a relatively short period of time. In spite of controversy, it is generally recognized that there have been at least six major mass extinctions. These occurred in the late Cambrian (500 million years ago), in the late Ordovician (440 million years ago), in the late Devonian (365 million years ago), at the end of the Permian (245 million years ago), in the late Triassic (208 million years ago), and at the end of the Cretaceous (65 million years ago).

mass; → extinction.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>