An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
space telescope
  تلسکوپ ِ فضایی   
teleskop-e fazâyi (#)

Fr.: télescope spatial   

A telescope which is placed in an orbit around the → Earth and operates through commands from sent from the control center on Earth, such as → Hubble space telescope, → Herschel satellite, → Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), → Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), → International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), → Planck Satellaite , → Spitzer Space Telescope.

space; → telescope.

space velocity
  تندای ِ فضایی   
tondâ-ye fazây

Fr.: vitesse spatiale   

The velocity of a star relative to the Sun.

space; → velocity.

space weather
  هواشناسی ِ فضا   
havâšenâsi-ye fazâ

Fr.: météorologie de l'espace   

The varying conditions in space and specifically in the near-Earth environment. Space weather is chiefly solar driven, resulting from solar activities such as → solar flares, → solar wind, and → coronal mass ejections that affect → magnetosphere, → ionosphere, and → thermosphere. Non-solar sources such as Galactic → cosmic rays, → meteoroids, and → space debris can all be considered as altering space weather conditions at the Earth. Space weather may affect the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and can endanger human life or health. The research in this field aims at monitoring and diagnosis of space weather conditions and constructing reliable numerical prediction models. See also → Space Situational Awareness.

space; → weather; → meteorology.

space weathering
  سایند ِ فضایی   
sâyand-e fazâyi

Fr.: altération spatiale   

The slight erosion of Solar System bodies (planets, moons, asteroids) caused by the → solar wind, → cosmic rays, and → micrometeorite bombardments. Space weathering affects the physical and optical properties of the surfaces of these bodies. Understanding this process is therefore important for the interpretation of remotely obtained spectral data, such as space probe photographs of outer Solar System moons.

space; → weathering.

space-time
  فضا-زمان   
fazâ-zamân (#)

Fr.: espace-temps   

A physical entity resulting from the union of space and time concepts. In its most simple version space-time is the four-dimensional continuum, having three spatial coordinates and one temporal coordinate, in which any → event or physical object is located. In → special relativity it is Minkowski's flat space-time. In → general relativity, it is described by a curved entity characterized by a → metric. Free-fall motion describes the → geodesic of this curved space-time. It may have additional dimensions in the context of speculative theories, such as → string theory.

space; → time.

space-time curvature
  خمیدگی ِ فضا-زمان   
xamidegi-ye fazâ-zamân

Fr.: courbure de l'espace-temps   

curvature of space-time.

space; → time; → curvature.

space-time diagram
  نمودار ِ فضا-زمان   
nemudâr-e fazâ-zamân (#)

Fr.: diagramme espace-temps   

A simple way of representing the → space-time continuum, usually including time and only one spatial dimension. The curve of a particle's equation of motion on a space-time diagram is called a → world line. Same as → Minkowski diagram.

space; → time; → diagram.

space-time interval
  اندروار ِ فضا-زمان   
andarvâr-e fazâ-zamân

Fr.: intervalle espace-temps   

1) In Einstein's → theory of relativity, ds2 = c2dt2 - dx2 - dy2 - dz2.
2) In → Newtonian mechanics, time interval: dt; space interval at fixed time: dl2 = dx2 + dy2 + dz2.

space-time; → interval.

spacecraft
  فضاناو   
fazânâv (#)

Fr.: vaisseau spatial   

A vehicle designed to travel or operate, with or without a → crew, in a controlled → flight pattern in space beyond the Earth's atmosphere or in → orbit around the Earth. Also called spaceship.

space; → craft.

spacelike
  فضاسان   
fazâsân

Fr.: genre espace   

Of, pertaining to, or describing an → event being outside the → light cone.

space; → like.

spacelike interval
  اندروار ِ فضاسان   
andarvâr-e fazâsân

Fr.: intervalle genre espace   

The → space-time interval between two → events if it is imaginary, i.e. ds2< 0.

spacelike; → interval.

spacetime
  فضا-زمان   
fazâ-zamân

Fr.: espace-temps   

space-time.

space; → time.

spade
  بیل   
bil (#)

Fr.: pelle   

A digging tool with a flat blade attached to a shaft so that it can be pushed into the ground with the foot.

M.E., from O.E. spadu; cognate with Gk. spathe "blade of a sword or oar."

Bil "spade," variants Kurd. bêr, Baluci bard, Gabri bard(a); Mid.Pers. bêl, bêr; Proto-Iranian *barda- metathesis of *badar-; cf. Av. vadar- "weapon" (Gershevitch 1962).

spall
  ۱) تریشه؛ ۲) تریشیدن   
1) terišé; 2) terišidan

Fr.: 1) éclat; 2) cliver   

1) A chip or splinter.
2) To break up into small chips, flakes, or splinters, or to cause to break off in flakes.

M.E. spalle "a chip," verb spald "to split," from M.L.G. spalden, cognate with O.H.G. spaltan "to split."

Terišé "a chip," from tarâšidan "to cut, hew; scape; shave;" Mid.Pers. tâšitan "to cut, cleave; create by putting together different elements;" Av. taš- "to cut off, fashion, shape, create," taša- "axe" (Mod.Pers. taš, tišé "axe"), tašan- "creator;" cf. Skt. taks- "to form by cutting, tool, hammer, form," taksan- "wood-cutter, carpenter;" Gk. tekton "carpenter," tekhne "art, skill, craft, method, system;" L. textere "to weave;" PIE *teks- "to fashion."

spallation
  تریشش   
tarišeš

Fr.: spallation   

A nuclear reaction in which a high energy particle that collides with a nucleus causes the target to eject several particles, thus changing both its mass number and its atomic number.

From → spall + -ation.

Verbal noun from terišidan, → spall.

span
  بازه   
bâzé (#)

Fr.: envergure   

1) Aeronautics: The distance between the wing tips of an airplane.
2) Math.: The smallest subspace of a → vector space that contains a given element or set of elements.

M.E. spanne, sponne, spayn; O.E. span(n), spon(n) "distance between the thumb and little finger of an extended hand;" cf. Ger. Spanne, Du. span.

Bâzé "extension of both arms when streched out," related to bâzu "arm" (Mid.Pers. bâzûk "arm;" Av. bāzu- "arm;" cf. Skt. bāhu- "arm, forearm;" Gk. pechys "forearm, arm, ell;" O.H.G. buog "shoulder;" Ger. Bug "shoulder;" Du. boeg; O.E. bôg, bôh "shoulder, bough;" E. bough " a branch of a tree;" PIE *bhaghu- "arm"); from Av. vībāzu- "fathom, measure of the outstretched arms."

spark
  اخگر، جرقه   
axgar (#), jaraqé (#)

Fr.: étincelle   

Visible disruptive discharge of electricity between two places at opposite high potential. It is preceded by ionization of the path.

M.E., from O.E. spearca; cf. M.L.G. sparke, M.Du. spranke.

Laki âger "fire accompanied by flame," Lori azgel daaneh-ye aatash-e sorx shodeh va godaaxteh Kurd. agir "fire" Gilaki val "prominence, flame" Tâleši kel "blazing flame" standard Pers. gorr Laki gorron "flame;" jaraqé, probably word made by sound imitation.

spark gap
  گاف ِ جرقه   
gâf-e jaraqé (#)

Fr.: éclateur   

A device consisting of two electrodes separated by a small gap that is filled by a gas, usually air. A high → potential difference applied to the electrodes ionizes the gas and current flows across it for a brief time causing a spark across the gap. Spark gaps have a wide application. As spark plugs, they are used to ignite a mixture of fuel and air in the piston cylinders of an internal combustion engine. The electricity is provided by the battery and ignition coil, and the spark timing is controlled by the distributor. Spark gaps are also used as safety devices on equipment to prevent damage from voltage surges.

spark; → gap.

spark spectrum
  بیناب ِ اخگر، ~ جرقه   
binâb-e axgar, ~ jaraqé

Fr.: spectre d'étincelle   

The emission spectrum produced through a gas or vapor as a result of a high-voltage discharge between metallic electrodes.

spark; → spectrum.

spatial coherence
  همدوسی ِ فضایی   
hamdusi-ye fazâyi

Fr.: cohérence spatiale   

In a wave train, a correlation between the phases of waves at points separated in space at a given time.

spatial; → coherence.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>