An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara arc Ari arr Asi ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal ban bar bar bea Bel Bes bia Big bin bin bip Bla bla bli blu Boh Bon bos Bou bra bri bro bur cal cal can Cap car Car cat Cau cea Cen cen cha Cha cha che chi chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor CoR cor cos cos Cou cou CP- cre cri cro cub cur cya Cyg dan dar dau de- deb dec dec dee def deg del den den dep des deu dew dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc dop dou DQ dry dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hul Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf inh inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel Mer Mes met met met mic mid Mil min mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul muo mys nan nat Nav nec nep neu new New NGC Noa nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nyc obj obs obs oce odd OH Omi Oor ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par Par Par par pas pea Pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad raf ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret rev ric rig rin roc ROS rot Rox rus Sad sal sat sca sca Sch sci scy sec sec see sel sem sen Ser sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sle SMA SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str Sty sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru tum tur TY Typ ult una und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel ytt zer zon > >>

Number of Results: 13046 Search : far
high-power laser
  لیزر ِ پُرتوان   
leyzer-e por-tavân (#)

Fr.: laser de puissance   

A laser beam with the output power in the range 1012-1015 watts/cm2, capable of depositing kilo-joule order energies during nano-second time intervals in small volumes (about 1 mm3). High power lasers, which can produce temperatures of 10-50 million degrees and pressures of 10-100 million bars, are used to simulate astrophysical conditions in laboratories.

high; → power;, → laser.

leyzer, → laser; por "much, many, full," → full; tavân, → power.

high-resolution observation
  نپاهش ِ مه-واگشود   
nepâheš-e mehvâgošud

Fr.: observation à haute résolution   

An observation that provides a particularly narrow, peaked image of a point source. → point spread function.

high; → resolution; → observation.

high-velocity clouds (HVCs)
  ابرهای ِ تندرو   
abrhâ-ye tondrow

Fr.: nuages à grande vitesse   

A population of neutral or partly ionized gas clouds in the → Galactic halo which are seen as high-altitude structures in the atomic hydrogen 21 cm emission at high radial velocities (vLSR> 100 km/sec). They have substantial neutral column densities (> 1019 cm-2) and their metallicities range from 0.1 to about 1.0 times solar. The distances to the majority of them remain unknown. They may represent the continuing infall of matter onto the → Local Group. See also → compact high-velocity clouds.

high; → velocity; → cloud.

Abr, → cloud; tondrow "fast moving," from tond "fast," → speed; row, present stem of raftan "to go, walk; to flow" (Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

highland
  کوهسار   
kuhsâr (#)

Fr.: région montagneuse, hauts plateaux   

A mountainous or elevated region; → plateau.

high; → land.

Kuhsâr "mountainous, hilly area," from kuh, → mountain, + -sâr suffix denoting profusion, abundance, variant -zâr, → catastrophe.

highly siderophile element (HSE)
  بن‌پار ِ بسیار آهندوست   
bonpâr-e besyâr âhandust

Fr.: élément hautement sidérophile   

A → chemical element that is → geochemically characterized as having a strong → affinity to partition into → metals relative to → silicates. The highly siderophile elements, → ruthenium (Ru), → rhodium (Rh), → palladium (Pd), → rhenium (Re), → osmium (Os), → iridium (Ir), → platinum (Pt), and → gold (Au), are of interest to planetary scientists because they give insights into the early history of → accretion and → differentiation. HSEs prefer to reside in the metal of planetary cores. Therefore, the HSEs found in planetary → mantles are considered to be overabundant relative to their known preferences for metal over silicate. Therefore, it has been inferred that processes other than → equilibrium partitioning have been responsible for establishing the abundances of → mantle siderophiles. A detailed understanding of the absolute → concentrations and relative abundances of the HSEs may therefore give important insights into the earliest history of a planet (Jones et al., 2003, Chemical Geology 196, 21).

From Gk. sidero-, from sideros "iron" + → -phile.

Âhandust, from âhan, → iron, + -dust, → -phile.

hike
  ۱) ونیژ؛ ۲) ونیژیدن   
1) vaniž 2) vanižidan

Fr.: 1) randonnée; 2) marcher à pied   

1) A long walk or march for recreational activity, military training, or the like.
2) To walk or march a great distance, especially through rural areas, for pleasure, exercise, military training, or the like (Dictionary.com).

From E. dialectal hyke "to walk vigorously," maybe a Northern form of hitch "to move or draw (something) with a jerk," of unknown origin.

Vaniž, from Sangesari wəniž-/wəništ "to walk about, go round;" cf. Shughni näγ-, Roshani niγ-, naγên- "to turn round;" Book Pahlavi/Zoroastrian Mid.Pers. nâz-, nâž- "to roll, turn;" Mid.Pers. nâys- "be proud, delicate."

Hilbert space
  فضا‌ی ِ هیلبرت   
fazâ-ye Hilbert (#)

Fr.: espace de Hilbert, espace hilbertien   

A generalization of Euclidean space in a way that extends methods of vector algebra from the two- and three-dimensional spaces to infinite-dimensional spaces.
Multi-dimensional space in which the eigenfunctions of quantum mechanics are represented by orthogonal unit vectors.

Named after the German mathematician David Hilbert (1862-1943), recognized as one of the most influential mathematicians of the 19th and early 20th centuries for his numerous contributions to various areas of mathematics; → space.

Hilda asteroids
  سیارک‌های ِ هیلدا   
sayyârakhâ-ye Hilda (#)

Fr.: astéroides Hida   

The asteroids found on the outer edge of the main asteroid belt in a 2:3 orbital resonance with Jupiter. The group is not an asteroid family since the members are not physically related. The group consists of asteroids with semi-major axes between 3.70 AU and 4.20 AU, eccentricities less than 0.30, and inclinations less than 20°. It is dominated by D- and P-type asteroids.

Named for the prototype 153 Hilda, discovered by Johann Palisa (1848-1925) on November 2, 1875, and named Hilda after a daughter of his teacher, the astronomer Theodor von Oppolzer (1841-1886); → asteroid.

hill
  تپه   
tappé (#)

Fr.: colline   

A natural elevation of the earth's surface, smaller than a mountain.

M.E.; O.E. hyll, from P.Gmc. *khulnis (cf. M.Du. hille, Low Ger. hull "hill," O.N. hallr "stone," Goth. hallus "rock," O.E. holm "rising land, island"), from PIE base *kel- "to rise, to be prominent" (cf. Skt. kuta- "summit, peak;" Mod.Pers. kutal, kotal high hill, the skirts of a hill;" Tabari dialect keti "hill; top of the head; L. collis "hill," culmen "top, summit," cellere "raise," celsus "high;" Gk. kolonos "hill," kolophon "summit;" Lith. kalnas "mountain," kalnelis "hill").

Tappé "hill."

Hill sphere
  سپهر ِ هیل   
sepehr-e Hill

Fr.: sphère de Hill   

The spherical region around a → secondary in which the secondary's gravity is more important for the motion of a particle about the secondary than the tidal influence of the → primary. The radius is described by the formula: r = a (m/3M)1/3, where, in the case of the Earth, a is the semi-major axis of the orbit around the Sun, m is the mass of Earth, and M is the mass of the Sun. The Hill sphere for the Earth has a radius of 0.01 → astronomical units (AU). Therefore the Moon, lying at a distance of 0.0025 AU, is well within the Hill sphere of the Earth.

Named for George William Hill (1838-1914), an American astronomer who described this sphere of influence; → sphere.

Hill stability
  پایداری ِ هیل   
pâydâri-ye Hill

Fr.: stabilité de Hill   

The condition for the stability of a → three-body system. Three-body systems exist widely in the → solar system and → extrasolar systems, including Sun-planet-moon systems, planets-star systems, and → triple star systems. This concept of stability was introduced by Hill (1878). He used the → Jacobi integral to construct bounds of motion for → conservative systems with time-independent → potentials, which was introduced to study the stability of the Moon in the Sun-Earth → restricted three-body problem. The stability is defined by the → zero-velocity surface based on the Jacobi integral. The concept of the Hill stability has been used by many researchers to study the stability of three-body systems. The studies include the Hill stability in the full → three-body problems, the hierarchical three body problems, and the restricted three body problems (See, e.g., S. Gong & J. Li, 2015, Astrophys Space Sci. 358,37).

Hill, G.W.: Researches in the lunar theory. Am. J. Math. 1(2), 129-147 (1878); → stability.

Hills mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ِ هیلز   
sâzokâr-e Hills

Fr.: mécanisme de Hills   

A process in which a → close encounter between a → tightly bound binary star system and a → supermassive black hole causes one binary component to become bound to the black hole and the other to be ejected at very high velocities, up to 4,000 km s-1. → hypervelocity star.

Hills, J. G, "Hyper-velocity and tidal stars from binaries disrupted by a massive Galactic black hole," Nature 331, 687; → mechanism.

Himalia (Jupiter VI)
  هیمالیا   
Himâliyâ (#)

Fr.: Himalia   

The tenth of Jupiter's known satellites, 186 km in diameter revolving at a mean distance of 11,480,000 km from Jupiter. Discovered in 1904 by the Argentine-American astronomer Charles Dillon Perrine (1867-1951).

Himalia was a nymph of the island of Rhodes. She was seduced by the god Zeus (Jupiter).

Hindu-Arabic numeral system
  راژمان ِ عددهای ِ هندی-عربی   
râžmân-e adadhâ-ye Hendi-Arabi

Fr.: numération indo-arabe   

Same as → Indian numeral system.

numeral; → system.

hip
  شنج   
šanj (#)

Fr.: hanche   

O.E. hype "hip," akin to Du. heup, O.H.G. huf, Ger. Hüfte, Swed. höft, Goth. hups "hip," of uncertain origin.

Šanj (Dehxodâ) "hip, buttock, thigh, haunch," of unknown origin.

Hipparcos
  هیپارکوس   
Hipparcos (#)

Fr.: Hipparcos   

A → European Space Agency satellite, which was launched in August 1989 and operated until March 1993. It was the first space mission devoted to → astrometry with an unprecedented degree of accuracy. The telescope on Hipparcos had a main mirror of diameter 29 cm. Calculations from observations by the main instrument generated the Hipparcos Catalogue of 118,218 stars charted with the highest precision (published in 1997) containing positions, distances, → parallaxes, and → proper motions. An auxiliary star mapper pinpointed many more stars with lesser but still unprecedented accuracy, in the Tycho Catalogue of 1,058,332 stars. The Tycho 2 Catalogue, completed in 2000, brings the total to 2,539,913 stars, and includes 99% of all stars down to magnitude 11. → Gaia.

Hipparcos, acronym for → High  → Precision  → Parallax  → Collecting → Satellite, chosen for its similarity to the name of the Greek astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea (c. 190-125 BC), one of the most influential astronomers of antiquity, who compiled an extensive star catalogue in which he gave the positions of over 1,000 stars and also classified them according to their magnitude (on a scale of 1 to 6, brightest to faintest). Ptolemy later incorporated this information into his → Almagest. In addition, he discovered the → precession of the equinoxes.

Hippocamp
  هیپوکامپ   
Hipokâmp

Fr.: Hippocampe   

The smallest known moon orbiting the planet → Neptune, discovered in 2013. Hippocamp has an estimated diameter of only about 34 km and orbits close to → Proteus, the outer and the second largest of Neptune's moons. The orbital → semi-major axes of the two moons differ by only 10%. Hippocamp is probably an ancient fragment of Proteus. Billions of years ago a comet collision would have chipped off a chunk of Proteus. Images from the Voyager 2 space probe from 1989 show a large → impact crater on Proteus, whose size compares with Hippocamp's (Showalter et al., 2019, Nature 566, 350).

Formerly known as S/2004 N 1, Hippocamp is named after the sea creatures in Greek and Roman mythology. The mythological Hippocampus possesses the upper body of a horse and the lower body of a fish. The Roman god Neptune would drive a sea-chariot pulled by Hippocampi.

hippopede
  هیپوپد   
hipoped

Fr.: hippopède   

A curve described by the → polar equation  r2 = 4b (a - b sin2θ), where a and b are positive constants. For appropriate values of a and b, the curve looks like the infinity symbol, ∞. See also → spheres of Eudoxus.

Hippopede, literally "a horse's foot," denoting a "horse fetter (hobble)," from Gk. hippos, → horse, + -pede variant of -ped, combining form of pos,→ foot.

histogram
  نمودار ِ ستونی   
nemudâr-e sotuni (#)

Fr.: histogramme   

A type of graphical representation, used in statistics, in which frequency distributions are illustrated by rectangles.

Histogram, from Gk. histo-, a combining form meaning "tissue," from histos "mast, loom, beam, warp, web," literally "that which causes to stand," from histasthai "to stand," from PIE *sta- "to stand" (cf. Pers. ist-, istâdan "to stand;" O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan); → -gram.

Nemudâr, → diagram + sotuni "column-like," from sotun "column," from Mid.Pers. stun, from O.Pers. stênâ "column," Av. stuna-, Skt. sthuna- "column."

historical
  تاریخی   
târixi (#)

Fr.: historique   

Of, pertaining to, treating, or characteristic of → history or past events (Dictionary.com). → historical supernova.

history; → -al.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara arc Ari arr Asi ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal ban bar bar bea Bel Bes bia Big bin bin bip Bla bla bli blu Boh Bon bos Bou bra bri bro bur cal cal can Cap car Car cat Cau cea Cen cen cha Cha cha che chi chr cir cir civ cla clo clo CMB coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cop Cor CoR cor cos cos Cou cou CP- cre cri cro cub cur cya Cyg dan dar dau de- deb dec dec dee def deg del den den dep des deu dew dia dif dif dih dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu doc dop dou DQ dry dus dwa dyn Dys Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hul Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imm imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf inh inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L d Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lea len lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon Los low lum lun Lut Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec mel Mer Mes met met met mic mid Mil min mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul muo mys nan nat Nav nec nep neu new New NGC Noa nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nyc obj obs obs oce odd OH Omi Oor ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par Par Par par pas pea Pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad raf ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret rev ric rig rin roc ROS rot Rox rus Sad sal sat sca sca Sch sci scy sec sec see sel sem sen Ser sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sle SMA SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou Sou spa Sp spe spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str Sty sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru tum tur TY Typ ult una und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel ytt zer zon > >>