An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
European Southern Observatory (ESO)
  نپاهشگاه ِ اروپایی ِ دشتری   
nepâhešgâh-e orupâyi-ye daštari

Fr.: Organisation européenne pour la recherche astronomique dans l'hémisphère austral   

An major intergovernmental research organisation in astronomy supported by 14 European countries. ESO was founded in 1962 as a consortium among Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden. The ESO Headquarters are located in Garching near Munich, Germany. The organization operates three outstanding observing sites in the Atacama Desert region of Chile: → La Silla, → Paranal, and Chajnantor. The → Very Large Telescope (VLT), the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical facility, is located on the 2600 m high mountain of Paranal, which also hosts the → VLT Interferometer (VLTI). The Chajnantor site, 5000 m above sea level, near San Pedro de Atacama, operates a submillimeter telescope (APEX). Moreover, a giant array of 12 m submillimeter antennas, called → ALMA, is being constructed in collaboration with North America, East Asia and Chile. ESO is currently planning a 42 m European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the → E-ELT.

European; → southern; → observatory.

European Space Agency (ESA)
  سازمان ِ فضایی ِ اروپا   
Sâzmân-e Fazâyi-ye Orupâ

Fr.: Agence spatiale européenne   

An intergovernmental organisation dedicated to space research and technology as well as peaceful exploration of space, founded in 1975. It is headquartered in Paris and currently comprises 18 member states and one associated state (Canada). ESA has developed the Ariane series of space launch vehicles, and supports a launch facility in French Guiana. Moreover, ESA has four major research centers: The European Space Research and Technology Center (ESTEC), located in Noordwijk, the Netherlands, is the primary research center and manages the satellite projects. The European Space Operations Center (ESOC), situated in Darmstadt, Germany, is responsible for satellite control, monitoring, and data retrieval. The European Space Research Institute (ESRIN), located in Frascati, Italy, supports the ESA documentation service and manages the data obtained from remote sensing satellites. The European Astronaut Center (EAC), located in Cologne, Germany, is responsible for the selection and training of astronauts for space station missions. The European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC), located in Villafranca del Castillo, Madrid, Spain, which holds scientific operations centres as well as archives. Some of the past ESA missions are the following ones. The Giotto space probe, which enabled examination of the core of → Halley's Comet in 1986. ESA also developed the Ulysses spacecraft (launched 1990) to explore the Sun's polar regions. Similarly, ESA established a system of meteorological satellites known as Meteosat. In 2003 ESA launched the Mars Express orbiter and its lander, Beagle 2. In 2009 ESA launched → Planck Satellite, that is designed to study the → cosmic microwave background, and the → Herschel Satellite, an infrared observatory that is the largest telescope in space.

European; → space; agency, from M.L. agentia, from L. ag-, root of agere, → act + -entia noun suffix.

Sâzmân, → organization; fazâyi adj. of fazâ, → space; Orupâ, → Europa.

europium
  اروپیوم   
oropiom (#)

Fr.: europium   

A ductile silvery-white metallic → chemical element; symbol Eu. → Atomic number 63; → atomic weight 151.96; → melting point about 820°C; → boiling point about 1,600°C; → specific gravity 5.25 at 25°C. Europium occurs in monazite and bastnaesite and is used to dope → lasers and to absorb → neutrons in research. It was separated from the mineral samaria in magnesium-samarium nitrate by the French chemist Eugène-Anatole Demarçay (1852-1904) in 1901.

Named after the continent Europe, → Europa.

eutectic
  هوگداز   
hugodâz

Fr.: eutectique   

Mixture of two substances which solidifies as a whole when cooled, without change in composition. The eutectic point is the temperature at which the eutectic mixture solidifies.

From Gk. eutektos "easily melted," from → eu- + tektos "melted" + → -ic.

Hugodâz, from hu-, → eu-, + godâz, → melt.

euthanasia
  آسانمیری   
âsânmiri (#)

Fr.: euthanasie   

The act or practice of putting painlessly to death, or allowing to die, especially in cases of incurable suffering.

From Gk. euthanasia "an easy or happy death," from → eu- "good" + thanatos "death."

Âsânmiri, literally "easy dyind," from âsân, → easy, + miri "dying," from mordan "to die," → death.

evaluate
  ارزیابی کردن   
arzyâbi kardan (#)

Fr.: évaluer   

To determine or set the value or amount of; to judge or determine the significance, worth, or quality of.

Verbal form of → evaluation.

evaluation
  ارزیابی   
arzyâbi (#)

Fr.: évaluation   

An act or instance of evaluating; to examine and judge carefully.

From Fr. évaluer "to find the value of," from → ex- "out" + value "worth, value," p.p. of valoir "be worth," from L. valere "be strong, be of value;" PIE base *wal- "to be strong."

Arzyâbi, from arz "value" + yâbi "finding." The first component arz, present stem of arzidan "to be worth," arzân "worthy; of small value, cheap," arj "esteem, honour, price, worth;" Mid.Pers. arz "value, worth," arzidan "be worth," arzân "valuable;" Av. arəjaiti "is worth," arəja- "valuable," arəg- "to be worth;" cf. Skt. arh- "to be worth, to earn," árhant- "worthy person;" Gk. alphanein "to bring in as profit," alphein "to ear, obtain;" Lith. algà "salary, pay;" PIE base *algwh- "to earn; price, value." The second component yâbi, verbal noun of yâftan, yâbidan "to find, discover; to obtain, acquire;" Mid.Pers. ayâftan, ayâpênitan "to reach, attain;" Manichean Mid.Pers. 'y'b "to attain;" Parthian, Sogdian (+ *pati-) pty'b "to reach, obtain;" Av. ap- "to reach, overtake," apayeiti "achieved, reached;" Skt. âp- "to reach, gain," âpnoti "reaches, gains;" Gk. hapto, haptomai "to touch, cling to, adhere to;" L. apiscor "touch, reach;" PIE base *ap- "to take, reach."

evanesce
  ونیدن   
venidan

Fr.: évanouir, disparaître   

To disappear gradually.

vanish.

evanescent
  وننده   
venandé

Fr.: évanescent   

Tending to → vanish gradually.

Verbal adj. from → evanesce.

evanescent wave
  موج ِ وننده   
mowj-e venandé

Fr.: onde évanescente   

A wave whose → amplitude → decreases → exponentially with distance from the → interface at which it is formed. Evanescent waves are formed when → sinusoidal waves are internally reflected off an interface at an angle greater than the → critical angle so that → total internal reflection occurs.

evanescent; → wave.

evaporate
  بخاریدن؛ بخاراندن   
boxâridan; boxârândan

Fr.: évaporer   

(v.intr.) To change from liquid state into vapor; (v.tr.) To convert into a gaseous state or vapor.

Verbal form of → evaporation.

evaporation
  بخارش   
boxâreš

Fr.: évaporation   

The physical process by which a liquid is transformed to the gaseous state, usually by means of heat; the opposite of → condensation. Also called vaporization.

From L. evaporationem (nom. evaporatio), from evaporare "to disperse in vapor," from → ex- "out" + → vapor "steam."

Boxârš, verbal noun of boxâridan "to evaporate," from boxâr, → vapor.

evection
  اسبز   
osbaz

Fr.: évection   

A periodic perturbation in the motion of the → Moon caused by the variation in the gravitational pull of the Sun, which causes a change in the → eccentricity of the Moon's orbit during its monthly revolution. As a result, the Moon's → ecliptic longitude oscillates with a amplitude of ± 1°16' during a period of about 31.8 days.

From L. evection- "carrying away, going upwards, flight," from evect(us) p.p. of evehere "to carry forth, move forth," from e-, → ex- + vehere "to carry," cognate with Av. vaz- "to carry, move," as below.

Osbaz "carrying away," from os-, → ex-, + *baz "to carry," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *uaz- "to carry, drive;" from which Av. vaz- "to move, carry, drive (a chariot)," vazaiti "to lead;" Kurd. (Kurmanji) bazin/baz- "to run;" Mod./Mid.Pers. bazidan, vazidan "to blow (as the wind)," parvâz, → flight; cf. Skt. vah- "to ride, drive, transport;" Gk. oxos "carriage;" L. vehere "to carry;" Lith. veži "I ride;" O.H.G. wegan "to move, carry;" PIE base *wegh- "to go, carry, drive." See also: → advection; → convection.

even parity
  همالی ِ زوج   
hamâli-ye zowj

Fr.: parité paire   

A classical variable which does not change upon spatial inversion, such as time, energy, angular momentum and so on. → odd parity.

Even, from O.E. efen "level; equal," from P.Gmc. *ebnaz (cf. Ger. eben; Goth. ibns); → parity.

Hamâli, → parity; zowj "pair, couple; an even number," from Ar.

evening
  ایوار   
ivâr (#)

Fr.: soir, soirée   

The latter part of the → day and early part of the → night. Not an astronomical term proper. → evening star.

From O.E. verb æfnung "to grow toward evening," from æfnian "to become evening," from æfen "evening," from P.Gmc. *æbando- (cf. O.H.G. aband, Ger. abend).

Ivâr "evening" (Lori, Laki êvâra; Borujerdi ivâra; Kurd. ewâra); Mid.Pers. êwârak "evening," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *upa-ayara- "end of the day," from *upa- "up, on," + *ayara- "day;" cf. Av. ayar- (aiiar-) "day;" Shughni, Roshani, Bartangi prefixed (*api-) biyôr, Sariqoli biyur "yesterday;" PIE *ayer- "day, morning;" cf. Gk. eerios "at breakfast," ariston "breakfast;" Du. eer, Ger. eher "earlier;" E. ere "soon, before (in time)."

evening star
  ستاره‌ی ِ شامگاه   
setâre-ye šâmgâh (#)

Fr.: étoile du soir   

Any bright → planet, often → Venus, seen low in the western sky after → sunset. → Hesperus.

evening; → dusk; → star.

event
  رویداد   
ruydâd (#)

Fr.: événement   

1) General: Something that happens or is regarded as happening; an occurrence, especially one of some importance.
2) Einstein's relativity: An occurrence in the → space-time continuum referenced by three spatial coordinates and a complementary temporal ordinate. → world line; → space-time diagram.
3) Statistics: A subset of the → sample space.

From M.Fr. event, from L. eventus "occurrence, issue," from evenire "to come out, happen, result," from → ex- "out" + venire "to come," from PIE base *gwem- "to go, come;" cf. Mod/Mid.Pers. gâm "step, pace;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go;" Av. gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" Mod.Pers. âmadan "to come;" Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come.

Ruydâd, noun from ruy dâdan "to occur, happen," originally "to appear," from ruy "face; aspect; appearance" (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height") + dâdan "to give; to command" (Mid.Pers. dâdan "to give;" O.Pers./Av. dā- "to give, grant, yield," dadāiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadáti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. dare "to give, offer," facere to make;" PIE base *do- to give").

event horizon
  افق ِ رویداد   
ofoq-e ruydâd (#)

Fr.: horizon d'événement   

1) The surface surrounding a → black hole with the property that any light ray emitted inside it cannot escape to the outer space because of the strength of the → gravitational field. The radius of the event horizon is called the → Schwarzschild radius. See also → photon sphere.
2) For an observer A at the instant t0, the surface in the → space-time that divides the collection of all events into two non-empty classes: those events that have been, are being, or will be observed by A, and those that A has never observed and will never be able to observe (J. Plebanski, A. Krasinski, 2006, An Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology, Cambridge Univ. Press).

event; → horizon.

Event Horizon Telescope (EHT)
  تلسکوپ ِ افق ِ رویداد   
Teleskop-e Ofoq-e Ruydâd

Fr.: Télescope de l'horizon des évènements   

An international collaboration using a → very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) array comprising millimeter- and → submillimeter- wavelength telescopes separated by distances comparable to the diameter of the Earth. At a nominal operating wavelength of ~1.3 mm, the EHT → angular resolution (λ/D) is ~25 μas (→ micro- → arcseconds), which is sufficient to resolve nearby → supermassive black hole candidates on spatial and temporal scales that correspond to their → event horizons. EHT observations toward the elliptical → galaxy M87 succeeded in obtaining the first ever image of its supermassive black hole (EHT Collaboration, 2019, ApJL 875, L1-L6). The telescopes contributing to this result were ALMA, APEX, the IRAM 30-m telescope, the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, the Large Millimeter Telescope Alfonso Serrano, the Submillimeter Array, the Submillimeter Telescope, and the South Pole Telescope. Petabytes of raw data from the telescopes were combined by highly specialized supercomputers hosted by the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy and MIT Haystack Observatory. The construction of the EHT and the M87 black hole observation result from decades of observational, technical, and theoretical work in close collaboration by researchers from around the world. Thirteen partner institutions worked together to create the EHT, using both pre-existing infrastructure and support from a variety of agencies. Key funding was provided by the US National Science Foundation (NSF), the EU's European Research Council (ERC), and funding agencies in East Asia.

event; → horizon; → telescope.

ever-expanding Universe
  گیتی ِ هماره‌سپانا   
giti-ye hamâré sopânâ

Fr.: Univers en expansion continue   

Same as → accelerating Universe.

expand; → Universe.

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