An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
ideal gas
  گاز ِ آرمانی، ~ ِ مینه‌وار   
gâz-e ârmâni, ~-e minevâr

Fr.: gaz idéal   

Theoretical gas assumed to consist of perfectly elastic molecules of negligible volume and mutual attraction force. Also called → perfect gas.

ideal; → gas.

ideal gas law
  قانون ِ گاز ِ آرمانی، ~ ~ مینه‌وار   
qânun-e gâz-e ârmâni, ~ ~ minevâr

Fr.: loi des gaz parfaits   

An → equation of state that relates pressure (P), temperature (T), and volume (V) of an ideal or → perfect gas: PV = nRT, where n is the number of → moles of gas present and R is the → universal gas constant. Equivalently: PV = NkT, where N is the number of atoms of gas present and k is → Boltzmann's constant.

ideal; → gas; → law.

ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD)
  مغنات-و-هیدروتوانیک ِ آرمانی، ~ مینه‌وار   
meqnâtohidrotavânik-e ârmâni, ~ minevâr

Fr.: magnétohydrodynamique idéale   

Magnetohydrodynamics of a → plasma with very large (infinite) → conductivity. In this condition, → Ohm's law reduces to E = -v × B, where E represents → electric field, B → magnetic field, and v the → fluid velocity. Ideal MHD is the simplest model to describe the dynamics of plasmas immersed in a magnetic field. It is concerned with → one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics and neglects → resistivity. This theory treats the plasma composed of many charged particles with locally neutral charge as a continuous single → fluid. Ideal MHD does not provide information on the velocity distribution and neglects the physics relating to wave-particle interactions, as does the two-fluid theory as well. It does have the advantage that the macroscopic dynamics of the → magnetized plasma can be analyzed in realistic three-dimensional geometries (K. Nishikawa & M. Wakatani, 2000, Plasma Physics, Springer). See also → non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics.

ideal; → magnetohydrodynamics.

idealism
  مینه‌باوری   
minebâvari

Fr.: idéalisme   

Any one of a variety of systems of philosophical thought, which would make the ultimate reality of the Universe expressible or intangible only in terms of idea in mind, rather than in terms of matter in space.

From → ideal, see also → idea, + → -ism.

identical
  یکسان، همیدان   
yeksân (#), hamidân

Fr.: identique   

Similar or alike in every way; being the very same; agreeing exactly.

From M.L. identicus "the same," from L.L. identitas "identity," from idem "the same," from id "it, that one" + demonstrative suffix -dem.

Yeksân "the same, similar," from yek, → one, + -sân "manner, semblance" (variant sun, Mid.Pers. sân "manner, kind," Sogdian šôné "career").
Hamidân, from Mid.Pers. hamêtôn "identical."

identification
  ایدانش   
idâneš

Fr.: identification   

1) An act or instance of identifying; the state of being identified.
2) Psychology: The process of associating the self closely with other persons and assuming their characteristics or views unconsciously or partially so.
3) In psychological theories, a phase of recognition, the way in which the child's personality is formed by modeling it on a chosen parent.

Verbal noun of → identify.

Idâneš, verbal noun of idânidanidentify.

identification of lines
  ایدانش ِ خطها   
idâneš-e xatthâ

Fr.: identification de raies   

Recognizing the lines in the spectrum of a star, nebula, galaxy, etc. using a calibration template.

identification; → line.

identifier
  ایدانگر   
idângar

Fr.: identifiant   

Computers: 1) One or more characters used to identify, name, or characterize the nature, properties, or contents of a set of data elements.
2) A string of bits or characters that names an entity, such as a program, device, or system, in order that other entities can call that entity.
3) In programming languages, a lexical unit that names a language object, such as a variable, array, record, label, or procedure.

Agent noun of → identify.

identify
  ایدانیدن   
idânidan

Fr.: identifier   

To recognize or establish as being a particular person or thing; e.g. → identification of lines.

Identify, from Fr. identifier, from identité, → identity.

Idânidan, infinitive from idâni, → identity.

identity
  ایدانی، این‌همانی، کیستی، چیستی   
idâni, inhamâni (#), kisti (#), cisti (#)

Fr.: identité   

1) Math.: An equation that is valid for all values of its variables. A mathematical relationship equating one quantity to another.
2) Logic: An assertion that two terms refer to the same thing.
3) Psychology: The character of persisting unchanged. The feeling that one knows who one really is.

From M.Fr. identité, from L.L. identitas "sameness," from ident-, combining form of L. idem "the same; at the same time; also; moreover," from id "it, that one" + demonstrative suffix -dem + -itas a suffix used to form abstract nouns expressing state or condition.

Idâni, from iduni, from Mid.Pers. êdônih "being this, being that, being so, the manner of being," from êdôn "thus, so," Mod.Pers. idun "this, in this manner, now;" O.Pers. aita- demonstrative pronoun "this;" Av. aēta- "this; this here; this now," aētaδ- (adv.) "here, there; then, thus; thereupon;" cf. Skt. etad "this," iti "thus, in this manner;" akin to L. idem, as above.

identity axiom
  بنداشت ِ ایدانی   
bondâšt-e idâni

Fr.: axiome d'identité   

A basic rule in → group theory stating that there exists a unit group element e, called the identity, such that for any element a of the group a * e = e * a = a.

identity; → axiom.

identity element
  بن‌پار ِ ایدانی   
bonpâr-e idâni

Fr.: élément neutre   

In a mathematical system, an element which leaves unchanged any other element on which it operates. Thus 0 is the identity element for addition: a + 0 = a. And 1 is the identity element for multiplication: a . 1 = a.

identity; → element.

identity function
  کریای ِ ایدانی   
karyâ-ye idâni

Fr.: fonction d'identité   

Math.: Any function f for which f(x) = x for all x in the domain of definition.

identity; → function.

identity matrix
  ماتریس ِ ایدانی   
mâtris-e idâni

Fr.: matrice identité   

In linear algebra, the simplest nontrivial diagonal matrix, an n-by-n square matrix with ones on the main diagonal and zeros elsewhere.

identity; → matrix.

identity operator
  آپارگر ِ ایدانی   
âpârgar-e idâni

Fr.: opérateur d'identité   

An operator which takes a real number to the same real number.

identity; → operator.

if
  اگر   
agar (#)

Fr.: si   

(Conjunction) in case that; granting or supposing that; on condition that. → if and only if.

M.E., from O.E. gif; akin to O.H.G. ibu "if."

Agar "if," from Mid.Pers. agar, hakar "if;" O.Pers. ha-karam "once;" from ha- "one," variant ham-, → com- (cf. Av. ha-; Skt. sa-; Gk. ha-; L. sem-; PIE *sem- "one"), + karam- "a time," maybe from kar- "to do; doing," → work; cf. Av. hakərət "once;" Skt. sakrt "once;" Gk. hapaks "once;" L. semel "once."

if and only if (iff)
  اگر و ایواز اگر، ~ ~ تنها ~   
agar va ivâz agar, ~ ~ tanhâ ~

Fr.: si et seulement si   

Logic, Math.: An → expression indicating that two → statements so connected are → necessary and sufficient conditions for one another. The corresponding logical symbols usually used are: ↔, ⇔, ≡, and iff.

if; → and; → only.

igneous rock
  سنگ ِ آذرین   
sang-e âzarin (#)

Fr.: roche ignée   

A → rock formed by the solidification of molten material that originated within the Earth (as → magma or → lava).

Igneous, from L. igneus "of fire, fiery," from ignis "fire," from PIE *egni- (cf. Skt. agni- "fire, sacrificial fire," O.C.S. ogni, Lith. ugnis "fire"); → rock.

Sang "stone, rock," → stone; âzarin "fiery," from âzar, variants âtaš, taš, from Mid.Pers. âtaxš, âtur "fire;" Av. ātar-, āθr- "fire," singular nominative ātarš-; O.Pers. ātar- "fire;" Av. āθaurvan- "fire priest;" Skt. átharvan- "fire priest;" cf. L. ater "black" ("blackened by fire"); Arm. airem "burns;" Serb. vatra "fire;" PIE base *āter- "fire" + -in adj. suffix.

ignite
  ۱) گیراندن؛ ۲) گرفتن   
1) girândan; 2) gereftan (#)

Fr.: 1) enflammer, allumer; 2) s'enflammer, s'allumer   

1) To set on fire.
2) To take fire, to begin to burn.

From L. ignitus, p.p. of ignire "to set fire," from ignis "fire, flame, light."

Girândan transitive form of gereftan "to take, catch" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").

ignition
  گیرانش؛ گیرش   
girâneš; gireš (#)

Fr.: inflammation, allumage   

1) The act or fact of igniting; state of being ignited.
2) The process of setting something on fire.

Verbal noun of → ignite.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>