An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

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Babinet compensator
  پاهنگنده‌ی ِ ببینه   
pâhangandeh-ye Babinet

Fr.: compensateur de Babinet   

A crystal device made of two → quartz  → prisms with equal acute angles assembled in a rhombus that is used in analyzing → polarized light. The wedge-shaped prisms are placed against each other and can be displaced along their plane of contact by a → micrometer. Thus they form a parallel plate of variable thickness allowing the optical retardation to be adjusted.

Jacques Babinet (1794-1872), French physicist; → compensator.

Babinet point
  نقطه‌ی ِ ببینه   
noqte-ye Babinet

Fr.: point de Babinet   

One of several points on the sky where the degree of → linear polarization is zero in skylight. See also → neutral point; → Arago point, → Brewster point.

Babinet compensator; → point.

Babinet's principle
  پروز ِ ببینه   
parvaz-e Babinet

Fr.: principe de Babinet   

The → diffraction pattern for an → aperture is the same as the diffraction pattern for its → complementary aperture.

Babinet compensator; → principle.

back
  پس، پشت   
pas (#), pošt (#)

Fr.: dos, arrière   

1) General: Related to or located at the back "the side or surface opposite the front or face."
2) The side of the → planispheric astrolabe opposite the hollow of the → mater, → tympanum, and → rete. At its center is hinged the → alidade, whose rim slides on a set of graduated circular scales engraved on the mater. The number of scales varies from one instrument to another. On this face the user can perform observations and read the data needed to set the front side of the instrument in the proper position (online museo galileo, VirtualMuseum).

Back, from M.E., from O.E. bæc; akin to O.H.G. bah "back."

Pas-, from pas "behind" (e.g.: pas-e pardé "behind the curtain"); Mid.Pers. pas "behind, before, after;" O.Pers. pasā "after;" Av. pasca "behind (of space); then, afterwards (of time);" cf. Skt. paścā "behind, after, later;" L. post "behind, in the rear; after, afterwards;" O.C.S. po "behind, after;" Lith. pas "at, by;" PIE *pos-, *posko-.
Pošt-, from pošt, variant of pas.

back-end
  پس-ته   
pas-tah

Fr.: back-end   

In a radiotelescope, the unit forming the end part of the reception chain. It generally consists of a spectrometer and performs frequency analysis of the signals. → front-end.

Back-end, from → back + end, from M.E., O.E. ende (cf. Du. einde, O.H.G. enti "top, forehead, end," Ger. ende, Goth. andeis "end"), originally "the opposite side," from PIE *antjo "end, boundary," from base *anta-/*anti- "opposite, in front of, before."

Pas-tah, from pas, → back, + tah "end," Mid.Pers. tah "bottom." The origin of this term is not clear. It may be related to Gk. tenagos "bottom, swamp," Latvian tigas<*tingas < *tenegos "depth," PIE *tenegos "water bottom."

background
  پس-زمینه، زمینه   
paszaminé, zaminé (#)

Fr.: fond   

General: That part of a view or scene that serves as a setting for the main objects, persons, etc.
Astro.: The part of an observed field which is not physically related to the objects of interest and lies behind them.

Background, from → back + ground, from M.E., from O.E. grund; akin to O.H.G. grunt "ground."

Paszaminé, from pas-, → back, + zaminé "ground," from zamin "ground," → earth.

foreground.

background noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ پس-زمینه، ~ زمینه   
nufe-ye paszaminé, ~ zaminé

Fr.: bruit du fond   

An unwanted signal in a system which is producing or recording a signal. For instance, a randomly fluctuating signal superimposed on the signal from a cosmic radio source.

background; → noise.

background radiation
  تابش ِ پس-زمینه، ~ زمینه   
tâbeš-e paszaminé, ~ zaminé

Fr.: rayonnement du fond   

The isotropic residual microwave radiation in space left from the primordial → Big Bang. Same as → cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.

background; → radiation.

backscatter
  ۱) پس-پراکندن ۲)، ۳) پس-پراکنش   
1) pas-parâkandan; 2), 3) pas-parâkaneš

Fr.: rétrodiffusion   

1) (v.tr.) To deflect photons or particles in a direction opposite to their initial path.
2) Same as → backscattering.
3) The radiation or particles so deflected.

From → back + → scattering.

backscattered light
  نور ِ پس-پراکنده   
nur-e pas-parâkandé

Fr.: lumière rétrodiffusée   

The light that has undergone → backscattering.

backscatter; → backscattering.

backscattering
  پس-پراکنش   
pas-parâkaneš

Fr.: rétrodiffusion   

Scattering of radiation or particles through angles greater than 90° with respect to the original direction of motion.

scattering.

backup
  پشتوان   
poštvân (#)

Fr.: sauvegarde   

A copy of computer files that is stored separately from the original in order to protect against loss of data.

Backup "substitute, support," from → back + up.

Poštvân "prop, support, help" from pošt, → back, + -vân suffix denting protection, variant of -bân.

backup program
  برنامه‌ی ِ یدکی   
barnâme-ye yadaki (#)

Fr.: programme de remplacement   

An auxiliary observing program to be carried out at telescope in case the atmospheric conditions make the main program unfeasible.

Backup, from → back + up; → program.

Barnâmé, → program; yadaki "reserve, substitute," from yadak "a led horse."

backward
  پس-سو   
pas-su

Fr.: en arrière   

1) Toward the back or rear.
2) Directed toward the back or past.

back; → -ward.

backwarming effect
  ا ُسکر ِ فروگرمی   
oskar-e forugarmi

Fr.: effet de rétro-réchauffement   

A sort of → greenhouse effect in → stellar atmospheres where the deeper layers heat up due to overlying → opacity. The presence of numerous → bound-bound opacities of → metals amplifies the → scattering of → photons, in particular their → backscattering, forcing the → temperature to increase in order to conserve the radiation flux and the transport of energy from the interior to the outer parts of the atmosphere.

back; → warming; → effect.

bad column
  ستون ِ بد   
sotun-e bad

Fr.: mauvaise colonne   

Column of a → CCD detector that does not correctly read out charge.

Bad, from M.E. badde, but the origin of the word is not clear; → column.

Sotun, → column; bad, from Mid.Pers. wad, maybe from Old Iranian *vata- "small;" cf. Scythian bata- "small, bad," Sogdian wtγy "suffer, sorrow."

Baily's beads
  مهره‌های ِ بیلی   
mohrehâ-ye Beyli (#)

Fr.: perles de Baily   

A phenomenon that occurs during a total eclipse of the Sun. Just prior to and after totality, sunlight shines through the lunar valleys on the Moon's limb, causing the dark face of the Moon to appear to be surrounded by a shining "necklace of pearls".

Baily, from Francis Baily (1774-1844), English amateur astronomer, who discovered the phenomenon during the solar eclipse of 1836. Beads "a necklace of beads or pearls; a rosary," from bead "a small, often round piece of material, such as glass, plastic, or wood, that is pierced for stringing or threading," from M.E. bede "rosary bead," from O.E. bed, bedu, gebed "prayer;" PIE *gwhedh- "to ask, pray".

Mohrehâ "beads," from mohré "a kind of small shell resembling pearls; glass or coral beads," cf. Khotanese mrâhe, may be related to morvârid, → pearl, + -hâ suffix of plurals.

bait
  چشته   
cašté (#)

Fr.: appât   

Something edible placed on a hook or in a trap to attract fish or other animals as prey.

M.E., from O.Norse beita "food," O.E. bat "food," literally "to cause to bite."

Cašté "bait," related to câšni "taste," cašidan, caš- "to taste," câšt "breakfast;" Mid.Pers. câšt "meal," câšnig "taste;" cf. Skt. cas- "to eat;" Proto-Ir. caš- "to eat, to drink; to drip."

balance
  ۱) ترازو؛ ۲) تراز، ترازمندی   
1) tarâzu; 2) tarâz, tarâzmandi

Fr.: balance   

1a) A weighing device.
1b) The constellation → Libra.
2) A state of equilibrium.

M.E balaunce, from O.Fr. balance "balance, scales for weighing," from M.L. bilancia, from L.L. bilanx, from L. (libra) bilanx "(scale) having two pans," possibly from L. bis "twice" + lanx "dish, plate, scale of a balance."

Tarâzu, → Libra.

bald
  کل، گر، کچل، تاس   
kal, gar, kacal, tâs

Fr.: chauve   

Having little or no hair on the scalp. → bald patch.

Bald from M.E. ball(e)d; Celtic bal "white patch, blaze;" Gk. phalios "having a white spot;" L. fulica "coot;" → patch.

Kal "bald," Mid.Pers. gar "bald;" Av. kaurva- "bald;" cf. Skt. kulva- "bald, thin-haired;" L. calvus "naked, bald."
Kacal may be related to kal.
Tâs, variant taz "bald;" Tabari tisâ, Saraxsi, Lâsgardi, Sangesari tusâ "empty;" related to tohi "empty;" Mid.Pers. tuhig; Av. taoš- "to become empty," pres. tusa-, caus. taošaya-, tusən "they lose their posture;" cf. Skt. tuccha-, tucchya- "empty;" L. tesqua, tesca "deserted place;" Russ. tošcij "hollow;" PIE base *teus- "to empty."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>