<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>
mathematical elegance qašangi-ye mazdâhik Fr.: élégance mathématique A mathematical solution or demonstration when it yields a result in a surprising way (e.g., from apparently unrelated theorems), is short, and is based on fundamental concepts. According to Henri Poincaré, what gives the feeling of elegance "is the harmony of the different parts, their symmetry, and their happy adjustment; it is, in a word, all that introduces order, all that gives them unity, that enables us to obtain a clear comprehension of the whole as well as of the parts. ... Elegance may result from the feeling of surprise caused by the un-looked-for occurrence together of objects not habitually associated. ... Briefly stated, the sentiment of mathematical elegance is nothing but the satisfaction due to some conformity between the solution we wish to discover and the necessities of our mind" (Henri Poincaré, Science and Method, 1908). According to Bertrand Russell, "Mathematics, rightly viewed, possesses not only truth, but supreme beauty -- a beauty cold and austere, like that of sculpture, without appeal to any part of our weaker nature, without the gorgeous trappings of painting or music, yet sublimely pure, and capable of a stern perfection such as only the greatest art can show" (Bertrand Russell, A History of Western Philosophy, 1945). → mathematical; → elegance. |
mathematical expectation omid-e mazdâhik, bayuseš-e ~, ~ riyâzi Fr.: espérance mathématique In probability and statistics, of a random variable, the summation or integration, over all values of the random variable, of the product of the value and its probability of occurrence. Also called → expectation, → expected value. → mathematical; → expectation. |
mathematical object barâxt-e mazdâhik, ~ riyâzi Fr.: objet mathématique An → abstract object dealt with in mathematics that has a definition, obeys certain properties, and can be the target of certain operations. It is often built out of other, already defined objects. Some examples are → numbers, → functions, → triangles, martices (→ matrix), → groups, and entities such as → vector spaces, and → infinite series. → mathematical; → object. |
mathematician mazdâhikdân Fr.: mathématicien An expert or specialist in → mathematics. M.E. mathematicion, from M.Fr. mathematicien, from mathematique, from L. mathematicus, → mathematics. Mazdâhikdân, from mazdâhik, → mathematics, + -dân "knower," present stem of dânestan "to know," → science. |
mathematics mazdâhik (#), riyâzi (#) Fr.: mathématique A broad-ranging field of knowledge dealing with the systematic treatment of magnitude, relationships between figures and forms, and relations between quantities expressed symbolically. M.E. mathematic, from L. mathematica (ars), from Gk. mathematike (tekhne) "mathematical science," from mathema (gen. mathematos) "science, knowledge," (+ -ike, → -ics), related to manthein "to learn, to know" from PIE base *men- "to think," (cf. Av. mazdāh- "memory," as below, Lith. mandras "wide-awake," O.C.S. madru "wise, sage," Goth. mundonsis "to look at," Ger. munter "awake, lively"). Mazdâhik, from Av. mazdāh- "memory," mazdā-
"wisdom," mazdāθa- "what must be borne in mind;" from PIE
base *men- "to think," as above; cf.
Skt. medhā- "mental power, wisdom, intelligence;"
Gk. manthein, mathematike, as above. |
matrix mâtris (#) Fr.: matrice 1) An orderly array of numbers, algebraic symbols, or mathematical
functions, especially when such arrays are added and multiplied
according to certain rule; e.g. → Jordan matrix. From O.Fr. matrice, from L. matrix "female animal kept for breeding," in L.L. "womb, source, origin," from mater, → mother. Mâtris, loan from Fr., as above. |
matrix calculus afmârik-e mâtrishâ Fr.: calcul matriciel The treatment of matrices whose entries are functions. |
matrix inverse mâtris-e vârun Fr.: matrice inverse For a → square matrix whose → determinant is not zero, the unique matrix A^{-1} satisfying the relation AA^{-1} = A^{-1}A = I, where I is the → identity matrix. |
matter mâddé (#) Fr.: matière 1) Physical or corporeal substance in general, whether solid, liquid, or
gaseous, especially as distinguished from incorporeal substance, as spirit
or mind, or from qualities, actions, and the like. M.E. mater(e), materie, from O.Fr. mat(i)ere, materie, from L. materia "substance from which something is made," also "hard inner wood of a tree," from mater, → mother, PIE base *mater-, see below. Mâddé, variant mâyé "substance, essence; quantity, amount;"
Mid.Pers. mâtak/mâdak "substance, the essential element of anything; materials"
(Sogd. patmâδé "matter, substance"),
from mât, mâd "mother; substance" (see E. matter, as above),
from O.Pers./Av. mātar-
"mother;" cf. Ossetic mad/madae "mother;" Khotanese mâta "mother;"
Skt. mātár- "mother;" Gk. meter, mater; L. mater
(Fr. mère, Sp. madre);
O.E. môdor from P.Gmc. *mothær (O.S. modar, Dan. moder,
Du. moeder, Ger. Mutter); Lith. mote "wife." |
matter era dowrân-e mâddé (#) Fr.: ère dominée par la matière A critical change in the history of the Universe, which occurred after the radiation era, when the density of energy contained within matter exceeded the density of energy contained within radiation. This transition started about 5000 years after the Big Bang, when the temperature had fallen to 3 x 10^{4} K. Later, 380 000 years after the Big Bang, when the temperature was 3000 K, matter and radiation were no longer coupled together and the Universe became transparent. |
matter-dominated Universe giti-ye mâdde-ciré Fr.: Univers dominé par la matière A Universe in which the matter energy density (Ω_{m} ≈ 1) provides most of the total energy density. According to the → Big Bang model, in the early history of the → Universe a → radiation-dominated phase preceded the matter-dominated phase. This phase is characterized by R/R_{0} ∝ t^{2/3}, where R is the → cosmic scale factor and t is time. |
Maunder minimum kamine-ye Maunder Fr.: minimum de Maunder A period from about 1645 to 1715 when the number of → sunspots was unusually low. This → solar activity minimum is attested also through the increased content of carbon 14 in tree rings in that period. The reason is that the cosmic rays which produce ^{14}C reach the Earth in a greater number when there is weak solar activity (see also → radiocarbon dating). The Maunder minimum occurred during a period of cooling of the Earth, called the → Little Ice Age. The Maunder minimum is one of a number of periods of low solar activity, including the → Dalton minimum, the → Sporer minimum, the → Wolf minimum, and the → Oort minimum. After the British astronomer Edward Walter Maunder (1851-1928) who, along with Gustav Spörer of Germany, first called attention to this phenomenon; → minimum. |
maximum bišiné (#) Fr.: maximum The greatest value attained (or attainable) by a function; the opposite of minimum. From L. maximum, neuter of maximus "greatest," superlative of magnus "great, large" cognate with Pers. meh "great, large" (Mid.Pers. mah, mas; Av. maz-, masan-, mazant- "great, important," mazan- "greatness, majesty," mazišta- "greatest;" cf. Skt. mah-, mahant-; Gk. megas; PIE *meg- "great"). Bišiné, from biš "much, more; great" (from Mid.Pers. veš "more, longer; more frequently," related to vas "many, much" (Mod.Pers. bas); O.Pers. vasiy "at will, greatly, utterly;" Av. varəmi "I wish," vasô, vasə "at one's pleasure or will," from vas- "to will, desire, wish") + -in superlative suffix + -é nuance suffix. |
maximum density of water cagâli-ye bišine-ye âb Fr.: densité maximale de l'eau The density of pure water occurring at 3.98 °C, which is 1.0000 g cm^{-3}, or 1000 kg m^{-3}. Water when cooled down contracts normally until the temperature is 3.98 °C, after which it expands. Because the maximum density of water occurs at about 4 °C, water becomes increasingly lighter at 3 °C, 2 °C, 1 °C, and 0 °C (→ freezing point). The density of liquid water at 0 °C is greater than the density of frozen water at the same temperature. Thus water is heavier as a liquid than as a solid, and this is why ice floats on water. When a mass of water cools below 4 °C, the density decreases and allows water to rise to the surface, where freezing occurs. The layer of ice formed on the surface does not sink and it acts as a thermal isolator, thus protecting the biological environment beneath it. This property of water liquid is very unusual; molecules pack more closely than in the crystal structure of ice. The reason is that → hydrogen bonds between liquid water are not stable, they are continuously broken and new bonds are created. In the crystal structure of ice molecules have a fixed pattern creating empty space between molecules. |
maximum entropy method (MEM) raveš-e dargâšt-e bišiné Fr.: méthode d'entropie maximum A deconvolution algorithm which functions by minimizing a smoothness function in an image. The MEM seeks to extract as much information from a measurement as is justified by the data's signal-to-noise ratio. |
maximum light nur-e bišiné Fr.: maximum de lumière Of a → supernova, → peak luminosity. |
maximum likelihood šodvâri-ye bišiné Fr.: maximum de vraisemblance A statistical procedure based on choosing the value of the unknown parameter under which the probability of obtaining an observed sample is highest. → maximum; → likelihood. |
maxwell (Mx) maxwell (#) Fr.: maxwell The unit of → magnetic flux. The flux through 1 square cm normal to a magnetic field of 1 → gauss. It is equal to 10^{-8} → weber (Wb)s. After James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), British outstanding physicist, who made fundamental contributions to electromagnetic theory and the kinetic theory of gases. |
Maxwell bridge pol-e Maxwell Fr.: pont de Maxwell A type of → Wheatstone bridge used for measuring → inductance in terms of → resistance and → capacitance. |
Maxwell gap gâf-e Mawxell Fr.: division de Maxwell A division in Saturn's ring in the outer part of the C ring. It is about 87500 km from Saturn's center and is 500 km wide. The gap was discovered in 1980 by Voyager 1. Not discovered by J. C. Maxwell, but named in his honor; → maxwell; → gap. |
<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>