An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
Hubble constant
  پایا‌ی ِ هابل   
pâyâ-ye Hubble (#)

Fr.: constante de Hubble   

Hubble-Lemaitre constant.

Hubble; → constant.

Hubble Deep Field (HDF)
  میدان ِ ژرف ِ هابل   
meydân-e žarf-e Hubble (#)

Fr.: champ profond de Hubble   

An image of a small region in the constellation → Ursa Major, based on the results of a series of observations by the → Hubble Space Telescope. The image was assembled from 342 separate exposures taken over ten consecutive days between December 18 and December 28, 1995. It covers an area 144 arcseconds across.

Hubble; → deep; → field.

Hubble diagram
  نمودار ِ هابل   
nemudâr-e Hubble (#)

Fr.: diagramme de Hubble   

A plot of the → redshift of galaxies against their distance or against their → apparent magnitude.

Hubble; → diagram.

Hubble distance
  دورای ِ هابل   
durâ-ye Hubble

Fr.: distance de Hubble   

The distance from the Earth to the → cosmic horizon which marks the edge of the → observable Universe. Same as → Hubble radius, → Hubble length, and → cosmic horizon.

Hubble; → distance.

Hubble flow
  تچان ِ هابل   
tacân-e Hubble

Fr.: flot de Hubble   

Hubble-Lemaitre flow.

Hubble; → flow.

Hubble law
  قانون ِ هابل   
qânun-e Hubble

Fr.: loi de Hubble   

Hubble-Lemaitre law.

Hubble; → law.

Hubble length
  درازای ِ هابل   
derâzâ-ye Hubble

Fr.: longueur de Hubble   

The distance traveled by light along a straight → geodesic in one → Hubble time. Also called the → Hubble radius, → Hubble distance, and → cosmic horizon.

Hubble; → length.

Hubble parameter
  پارامون ِ هابل   
pârânmun-e Hubble

Fr.: paramètre de Hubble   

Hubble-Lemaitre parameter.

Hubble; → parameter.

Hubble radius
  شعاع ِ هابل   
šo'â'-e Hubble (#)

Fr.: rayon de Hubble   

The size of the observable Universe as derived from the ratio c/H0, where H0 is the → Hubble-Lemaitre constant and c the → speed of light. Same as → Hubble distance, → Hubble length, and → cosmic horizon.

Hubble; → radius.

Hubble sequence
  پی‌آیه‌ی ِ هابل   
peyâye-ye Hubble

Fr.: séquence de Hubble   

A classification scheme in which galaxies are ordered into a sequence based on their morphology. Same as the → Hubble classification.

Hubble; → sequence.

Hubble Space Telescope (HST)
  دوربین ِ فضایی ِ هابل، تلسکوپ ِ ~ ~   
durbin-e fazâyi-ye Hubble, teleskop-e ~ ~ (#)

Fr.: télescope spatial de Hubble   

A telescope of 2.4 m in diameter, a joint NASA and ESA project, launched in 1990 into a low-Earth orbit 600 km above the ground. It was equipped with a collection of several science instruments that worked across the entire optical spectrum (from infrared, through the visible, to ultraviolet light). During its lifetime Hubble has become one of the most important science projects ever.

Hubble; → space; → telescope.

Hubble time
  زمان ِ هابل   
zamân-e Hubble (#)

Fr.: temps de Hubble   

An estimate for the age of the Universe by presuming that the Universe has always expanded at the same rate as it is expanding today. It is the inverse of the → Hubble-Lemaitre constant: tH = 1/H0. Also called the Hubble age or the Hubble period.

Hubble; → time.

Hubble-Lemaitre constant
  پایا‌ی ِ هابل-لومتر   
pâyâ-ye Hubble-Lemaître

Fr.: constante de Hubble-Lemaître   

The → Hubble parameter for the → present epoch. It is the constant of proportionality between the → recession velocities of galaxies and their distances from each other. The latest determinations using the → Hubble Space Telescope observations of → Cepheids give H0 = 72 ± 8 km s-1 Mpc-1 (W. L. Freedman et al., 2001, ApJ 553, 47, arXiv:astro-ph/0012376), the → WMAP observations yield 70.4 ± 1.3 km s-1 Mpc-1 (N. Jarosik et al., 2011, ApJS 192, 14, arXiv:1001.4744), and the → Planck Satellite observations give 67.3 ± 1.2 km s-1 Mpc-1 (Planck Collaboration, 2014, A&A 571, A16, arXiv:1303.5076). More recently, the Hubble constant was derived by a team of astronomers, using the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, with a 2.4% accuracy (Adam G. Reiss et al., 2016, arXiv:1604.01424). The new value, 73.2 km s-1 Mpc-1, suggests that the Universe is expanding between five and nine percent faster than previously calculated. The → Hubble law is only applicable for large distances (> 20 Mpc), when the proper motions of galaxies in groups and clusters cannot confuse the recession due to expansion.

Hubble; → Friedmann-Lemaitre Universe; → constant.

Hubble-Lemaitre flow
  تچان ِ هابل-لومتر   
tacân-e Hubble-Lemaître

Fr.: flot de Hubble-Lemaître   

The general outward motion of → galaxy clusters resulting from the → expansion of the Universe.

Hubble-Lemaitre law; → flow.

Hubble-Lemaitre law
  قانون ِ هابل-لومتر   
qânun-e Hubble-Lamaître

Fr.: loi de Hubble-Lemaître   

The speed with which a → galaxy cluster recedes from us is directly proportional to its distance. It can be stated as v = H0d, where v is the recessional velocity, H0 the → Hubble-Lamaitre constant, and d the distance. See also → Hubble-Lemaitre flow. It should be underlined that Hubble was not the first to discover the → velocity-distance relation. Two years before Hubble, in 1927, Georges Lemaître (1894-1966) had derived the relation and published it in a paper in French which remained neglected (→ Friedmann-Lemaitre Universe).

The International Astronomical Union (IAU) at its 30th Meeting approved the Resolution B4 proposed by the IAU Executive Committee recommending the use of Hubble-Lemaitre law instead of Hubble's law, after Edwin Hubble (1889-1953), the American astronomer who published his results in 1929 and Georges Lemaître, Belgian priest and astronomer, who published a paper on the expansion of the Universe in 1927; → law.

Hubble-Lemaitre parameter
  پارامون ِ هابل-لومتر   
pârânmun-e Hubble-Lemaître

Fr.: paramètre de Hubble-Lemaître   

The rate pf change of the → cosmic scale factor: H(t) = (dR/dt)/R. The Hubble parameter is a time-dependent quantity and therefore is not constant. The → Hubble-Lemaitre constant is the Hubble-Lemaître parameter measured today.

Hubble-Lemaitre law; → parameter.

Hubble-Lemaitre tension
  تنش ِ پایای ِ هابل-لومتر   
taneš-e pâyâ-ye Hubble-Lemaître

Fr.: Tension sur la constante de Hubble-Lemaître   

The discrepancy between the value of the → Hubble-Lemaitre constant inferred from a ΛCDM fit (→ Lambda cold dark matter model) to the → cosmic microwave background (CMB) and local measurements. The Universe appears to be expanding much faster now than predicted even with our latest understanding of its initial conditions and contents. Based on the → Hubble Space Telescope observations, the Hubble-Lemaitre constant is very recently estimated to be 74.03 km s-1 Mpc-1. This value indicates that the Universe is expanding at a rate about 9% faster than that implied by the → Planck satellite's observations of the → early Universe, which give a value for the Hubble constant of 67.4 km s-1 Mpc-1. For discussion, see D'Arcy Kenworthy et al. (2019, ApJ 875, 145).

Hubble-Lamaitre constant; → tension.

Hubble-Sandage classification
  رده‌بندی ِ هابل-سندیج   
radebandi-ye Hubble-Sandage

Fr.: classification de Hubble-Sandage   

Same as the → Hubble classification.

Hubble; → Hubble-Sandage variable; → sequence.

Hubble-Sandage variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ هابل-سندیج   
vartande-ye Hubble-Sandage

Fr.: variable de Hubble-Sandage   

A type of highly luminous → blue supergiant star with variable light, first discovered in the M31 and M33 galaxies; also called → S Doradus stars. They are now believed to be part of the class of → Luminous Blue Variable stars.

Hubble; Allan Rex Sandage (1926-2010), American cosmologist.

Huge Hole
  سوراخ ِ کلان   
surâx-e kalân

Fr.: Trou Géant   

A region of the Universe, nearly a billion light-years across, mostly devoid of stars, gas, other normal matter, and also → dark matter. Situated at about 6 billion light-years from us, in projection on the the constellation → Eridanus, it shows up as a particularly cold region in the map of the → cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Observations made using the → Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show a relative absence of matter in that area.

Huge, from M.E. huge, hoge, from O.F. ahuge, ahoge "enormous," from a variant of → ad- + hoge "height," → high; → hole.

Surâx, → hole; kalân "great, large, bulky."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>