An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
Miranda
  میراندا   
Mirândâ (#)

Fr.: Miranda   

The eleventh of Uranus's known satellites and the innermost of Uranus' large moons. Its is about 470 km in diameter and orbits Uranus at about 130,000 km from its planet. It was discovered by Kuiper in 1948.

Miranda is a daughter of the magician Prospero in Shakespeare's The Tempest.

Mirfak (α Persei)
  مرفق   
Merfaq (#)

Fr.: Mirfak   

The brightest star of Perseus, with a visual magnitude of 1.8. It is a giant of spectral type F5 lying some 590 light-years away.

From Ar. al-Mirfaq (المرفق) "the elbow."

Merfaq, from Ar. al-Mirfaq, as above.

mirror
  آینه   
âyene (#)

Fr.: miroir   

A smooth, highly polished surface, for reflecting light, that may be plane or curved. The actual reflecting surface is usually a thin coating of silver or aluminum on glass.

From O.Fr. mireor "a reflecting glass," earlier miradoir, from mirer "look at," from V.L. *mirare, from L. mirari "to wonder at, admire."

Âyene, from Mid.Pers. êwênag "mirror," from *âdênak, cf. Khotanese âyäna- "mirror," from Proto-Iranian *ādayana-, from prefix ā- + the root of Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees" (cf. Mod.Pers. didan "to see," Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen") + suffix -ak.

mirror blank
  گرده‌ی ِ آینه   
gerde-ye âyené

Fr.: disque miroir   

The material on which the reflecting coating is applied. It may be glass, quartz, or metal.

mirror; blank "a piece of metal ready to be drawn, pressed, or machined into a finished object," from M.E., from O.Fr. blanc (adj.) from Gmc; cf. O.E. blanca "white horse," O.H.G. blanch "bright, white."

Gerdé, → disk; âyené, → mirror.

mirror disk
  گرده‌ی ِ آینه   
gerde-ye âyené

Fr.: ébauche de miroir   

Same as → mirror blank.

mirror; → disk.

mirror testing
  آزمون ِ آینه   
âzmun-e âyené (#)

Fr.: test d'un miroir   

The observation and measurement of the flatness of a mirror surface. The process generally is done before coating so as not to damage the delicate coated surface. For coated and curved surfaces, non-contact methods are often employed, generally using interference techniques.

mirror; → test.

Mirzam (β Canis Majoris)
  مرزم   
Merzam (#)

Fr.: Mirzam   

The fourth brightest star in the constellation → Canis Major. It is a B1 → giant of magnitude 2.0 lying about 500 → light-years away. Mirzam is one of the brightest of the → Beta Cephei variable stars.

From Ar. al-Mirzam (المرزم) "subordinate," which according to the Persian astronomer Biruni (A.D. 973-1048) was a general name for a relatively fainter star lying beside a much brighter one, in this case → Sirius. Some sources have related the name of this star to Ar. al-Murzim (المرزم) "the roarer." They claim that this name refers to the fact that the star is situated to the east of Sirius and thus "announces, heralds" imminent rising of Sirius. However, this interpretation does not seem tenable since the meaning "announcing" is far-fetched, and moreover the angular distance between Sirius and Mirzam being small, they actually rise together.

mis-
  دژ-   
dož- (#)

Fr.: més-   

A prefix meaning "ill, mistaken, wrong, wrongly"

M.E., from O.E. mis-, cognate with M.Du. misse-, O.H.G. missa-, Ger. miss-, perhaps literally "in a changed manner," and with a root sense of "difference, change" and thus possibly from PIE root *mei- "to change;" cf. Av. miθo- "perverted," Skt. methati "changes, alternates, joins;" L. mutare "to change."

Dož-, → dys-.

misalignment
  دژخطش   
dožxateš

Fr.: mésalignement   

Deviation of the chain of → optical components from the optimum → alignment in an instrument which leads to → loss of → light and poor → image.

mis-; → alignment.

miss
  نپیدن   
napidan

Fr.: manquer, rater, louper   

1) Fail to hit, reach, or come into contact with (something aimed at); to fail to do something.
2) Pass by without touching.
3) Feel or notice the loss or absence of.

M.E. missen, O.E. missan "fail to hit, miss (a mark); fail in what was aimed at," akin to Du. missen, Ger. missen "to miss, fail," from PIE *mei- "to change, go, move."

Napidan, literally "fail attain, reach, or find," from negation suffix na-, → not, + Av. ap- "to reach, attain;" cf. Mid./Mod.Pers. (+abi-) yâftan "to obtain, to find;" Proto-Ir. *Hap/f- "to reach, attain;" PIE *H1ep- "to take, seize, grab;" cf. L. apiscor "to reach, to get" (Cheung 2007).

missile
  موشک   
mušak (#)

Fr.: missile   

An object or weapon for throwing, hurling, or shooting. → ballistic missile.

From Fr. missile, from L. missile "weapon that can be thrown," from missus, p.p. of mittere "to send."

Mušak, literally "little mouse," or "mouse like," from a firework explosive that was likened to a mouse, from muš, → mouse, + -ak diminutive or similarity suffix.

missing mass
  جرم ِ گم‌شده، ~ نپیده   
jerm-e gomšodé, ~ napide (#)

Fr.: masse manquante   

The unseen mass whose gravitational influence is needed to account for the way galaxies rotate, and also to bind clusters of galaxies together. It is thought to consist, in part, of giant halos of dark matter that surround the visible portions of galaxies, and similar material that invisibly occupies the intergalactic voids. Same as → hidden mass; → dark matter.

Missing, from miss "to fail to be present," from M.E. missen, O.E. missan; cf. O.Fris. missa, M.Du. missen, Ger. missen "to miss, fail;" → mass.

Jerm, → mass; gomšodé "lost, missing," from gom "missing, lost" + šodé p.p. of šodan "to become" (from Mid.Pers. šudan, šaw- "to go;" Av. šiyav-, š(ii)auu- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro"); napide, p.p. of napidan, → miss.

missing satellites problem (MSP)
  پراسه‌ی ِ بنده‌وارهای ِ گم‌شده، ~ ~ نپیده   
parâse-ye bandevârhâ-ye gomšodé, ~ ~ napide

Fr.: problème des satellites manquants   

The observed underabundance, by one or two orders of magnitude, of → dwarf galaxies orbiting → spiral galaxies compared to their number predicted by the standard model. The → cold dark matter (CDM) model predicts that dwarf galaxies are the building blocks of large galaxies like the Milky Way and should largely outnumber them. Dwarf galaxies form first, they merge into bigger and bigger galaxies, and galaxies into groups of galaxies. The dark matter halos, however, are very dense, and dwarf halos are not destroyed in the merging, resulting in their large predicted number, in numerical simulations.

Probably first dealt with in an article entitled "Where Are the Missing Galactic Satellites?" (Lypin et al. 1999, ApJ 522, 82); → missing mass; → satellite; → problem.

mission
  گسیلان   
gosilân

Fr.: mission   

An operation designed to carry out the goals of a specific program, such as a a space flight or voyage.

Mission, from L. missionem (nominative missio) "act of sending," from mittere "to send," of unknown origin.

Gosilân, from gosil, variant gosi "sending away, dismission;" Mid.Pers. wisé "to despatch" (Parthian Mid.Pers. wsys- "to despatch;" Buddhist Mid.Pers. wsydy "to despatch;" Sogdian 'ns'yd- "to exhort"), from Proto-Iranian *vi-sid- "to despatch, send off," from prefix vi- "apart, away, out," + *sid- "to call" + -ân nuance suffix.

misspell
  دژوابیدن، بدوابیدن   
dožvâbidan, badvâbidan

Fr.: mal orthographier, mal épeler   

Spell a word wrongly.

mis-; → spell.

mist
  نزم   
nezm

Fr.: brume   

A very thin fog consisting of an aggregate of microscopic water droplets or wet hygroscopic particles (of diameter not less than 0.5 mm), in which the visibility at the earth's surface is greater than 1 km.

O.E. mist "dimness, mist," from P.Gmc. *mikhstaz (cf. M.L.G. mist, Icelandic mistur), from PIE *migh-/*meigh-; cf. Pers. miq "fog, mist;" Gk. omikhle, O.C.S. migla, Skt. megha- "cloud, mist." → nebula.

Nezm "mist, fog," variants nezu, nezvâ "mist," nam "moisture, humidity;" Av. napta- "moist," nabās-câ- "cloud," nabah- "sky;" cf. Skt. nábhas- "moisture, cloud, mist;" Gk. nephos "cloud, mass of clouds," nephele "cloud;" L. nebula "mist," nimbus "rainstorm, rain cloud;" O.H.G. nebul; Ger. Nebel "fog;" O.E. nifol "dark;" from PIE *nebh- "cloud, vapor, fog, moist, sky."

mitt
  دستپوش   
dastpuš

Fr.: mittaine   

A → glove that leaves the lower ends of the fingers bare, especially a long one made of lace or other fancy material and worn by women (Dictionary.com). → mitten.

mitten.

Dastpuš, from dast, → hand, + puš present stem of pušidan "to cover, to put on," → envelope.

mitten
  دستموژ   
dastmuž

Fr.: moufle   

A hand covering enclosing the four fingers together and the thumb separately (Dictionary.com). → glove, → mitt.

M.E. miteyn, from M.Fr., O.Fr. mitaine, from from O.Fr. mite "mitten," and from M.L. mitta.

Dasmtuž, literally "hand-shoe" (Ger. Handschuh, "glove," literally "hand-shoe"), from dast, → hand, + Muž, variant of Pers. muzé "shoe," Mid.Pers. môg "shoe, boot;" cf. Pers. paymôz- / paymôxtan "to dress;" Av. (+ pati-paitišmaoc- "to shoe;" Proto-Ir. *(h)mauc-? "to dress, clothe" (Cheung 2007).

mix
  آمیختن   
âmixtan (#)

Fr.: mélanger   

To combine (substances, elements, things) into one mass, collection, or assemblage, generally with a thorough blending of the constituents.

From M.E. myxte, from O.Fr. mixte, from L. mixtus, p.p. of miscere "to mix;" cognate with Pers. âmixtan, âmiz-, as below; from PIE *meik- "to mix."

Âmixtan, âmizidan "to mix," from Mid.Pers. âmêz-, âmêxtan (Proto-Iranian *āmis- ,*āmiz-; PIE *meik- "to mix"); cf. Av. mayas- "to mix;" Skt. miks- "to mix, mingle," miśr- "to mix, blend, combine;" Gk. misgein "to mix, mingle;" L. miscere (p.p. mixtus) "to mix;" O.C.S. meso, mesiti "to mix," Rus. meshat, Lith. maisau "to mix, mingle."

mixed merger
  تشک ِ آمیخته   
tašk-e âmixté

Fr.: fusion mixte   

A merger that takes place when a → gas-poor galaxy collides with a → gas-rich galaxy.

Past-participle of → mix; → merger.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>