An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

   Homepage   
   


A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
spectrum
  بیناب   
binâb (#)

Fr.: spectre   

The → electromagnetic radiation divided into its constituting wavelengths or frequencies.

From L. spectrum "appearance, image, apparition," from specere "to look at, view;" Gk. skopein "to behold, look, consider," skeptesthai "to look at;" PIE base *spek- "to see;" cf. Av. spas-, spaš- "to attend to; to serve; spy," spasiieiti "looks at, perceives" (Mod.Pers. sepâs "kindness, favor, thanksgiving," sepâsidan "to praise for benefits received);" Skt. paś- "to see, watch," spasati "sees;" L. specere "to look at;" O.H.G. spehônn "to spy," Ger. spähen "to spy."

Binâb "a vision;" Mid.Pers. wênâb "vision," from wên-, present stem of didan "to see;" O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" cf. Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see."

specular reflection
  بازتاب ِ آینه‌وار   
bâztâb-e âyenevâr (#)

Fr.: réflexion spéculaire   

The reflection of light waves in which the reflected waves travel in a definite direction, and the directions of the incident and reflected waves make equal angles with a line perpendicular to the reflecting surface. Same as → regular reflection; opposite of → diffuse reflection.

From L. specularis, from speculum "mirror;" → reflection.

Bâztâb, → reflection; âyenevâr "mirror-like," from âyené, → mirror + -vâr similarity suffix.

speculate
  گاسیدن   
gâsidan

Fr.: spéculer   

To guess possible answers to a question when there are not enough information to be certain.

Back formation from O.Fr. speculation, from L. speculatus, p.p. of speculari "to watch over, observe," from specula "watch tower," from specere "to look at, regard," cognate with Av. spas- "to attend; to serve," spasiieiti "looks at, perceives;" Pers. sepâs "kindness, thanksgiving;" Skt. spasati "sees;" Gk. skopein "to behold, look, consider," skeptesthai "to look at;" O.H.G. spehhon "to spy;" Ger. spähen "to spy;" PIE *spek- "to look around, observe."

Gâsidan infinitive from gâs, from Av. kas- "to look at, see," with extension of the vowel and change of the last phoneme from k to g, as in and cognate with negâh (Mid.Pers. nikâh), → look, âgâh (Mid.Pers. âkâh) "aware" (→ Space Situational Awareness), pargast "God forbid!," and maybe (Lori, Laki, Torbat-Heydarie-yi) gâs "perhaps," (Shirâzi, Fasâyi) gâsam "maybe;" cf. Skt. kāś- "to become visible, appear;" Gk. tekmor, tekmar "sign, mark;" PIE base *kwek- "to appear, show."

speculation
  گاسش   
gâseš

Fr.: spéculation   

The act or an instance of speculating.

Verbal noun of → speculate.

speech
  ۱) سخن؛ ۲) سخنرانی   
1) soxan (#); 2) soxanrâni (#)

Fr.: 1) parole; 2) discours, allocution   

1) The faculty or power of speaking; oral communication; ability to express one's thoughts and emotions by speech sounds and gesture (Dictionary.com).
2) A form of communication in spoken language, made by a speaker before an audience for a given purpose (Dictionary.com).

M.E. speche; O.E. spæc; cf. Dan. sprog, O.S. spraca, O.Fris. spreke, Du. spraak, O.H.G. sprahha, Ger. Sprache "speech."

Soxan "speech, utterance, word;" Mid.Pers. saxwan "word, speech;" O.Pers. θanh- "to declare, say," aθaham "I said;" Av. səngh- "to declare," sənghāmi "I say;" cf. Skt. śams- "to praise, declare;" L. censere "to estimate, think; decide."

speed
  تندی   
tondi (#)

Fr.: vitesse   

The ratio of the distance covered to the time taken by a moving body. Speed in a specified direction is → velocity.

M.E. spede "good luck, prosperity, rapidity;" O.E. sped "success, prosperity, advancement;" cf. O.S. spod "success," Du. spoed "haste, speed," O.H.G. spuot "success," O.H.G. spuoten "to haste;" from PIE base *spe- "to thrive, prosper" (cf. Skt. sphā- "to increase, become fat;" L. sperare "to hope;" O.C.S. spechu "endeavor;" Lith. speju "to have leisure").

Tondi "speed," from tond "swift, rapid, brisk; fierce, severe" (Mid.Pers. tund "sharp, violent;" Sogdian tund "violent;" cf. Skt. tod- "to thrust, give a push," tudáti "he thrusts;" L. tundere "to thrust, to hit" (Fr. percer, E. pierce, ultimately from L. pertusus, from p.p. of pertundere "to thrust or bore through;" PIE base *(s)teud- "to thrust, to beat") + noun suffix -i.

speed of light
  تندی ِ نور   
tondi-ye nur

Fr.: vitesse de la lumière   

Same as → velocity of light.

speed; → light.

spell
  وابیدن   
vâbidan

Fr.: orthographier, écrire, épeler   

To name or write in order the letters constituting a word

M.E. spellen, from O.Fr. espeller, from Proto-Germanic spellan "to tell," which also gave rise to the O.E. spellian; ultimately from PIE *spel- "to say aloud, recite."

Vâbidan, from vâb, from vab- ultimately from Proto-Ir. *uab/f- "to call," which has given rise to several words in Iranian languages, mainly Pers. gap "word, talk," gapidan "to talk," buf "owl," zand-vâf "nightingale," literally "song teller, ode singer;" Baluchi gwâp-/gwâpt "to summon, call together;" Sogd. waβ-/wab- "to speak, to talk;" Pash. wây-/wayəl "to speak;" Yaghnobi wov-/wovta "to speak, call."

speller
  وابنده   
vâbande

Fr.: correcteur orthographique   

A person who spells words.

spell; → -er.

spelling
  ۱) وابه؛ ۲) وابش   
1) vâbe; 2) vâbeš

Fr.: orthographe   

1) The manner in which words are spelled; orthography; a group of letters representing a word.
2) The act of a speller.

spell; → -ing.

spend
  زیامیدن   
ziyâmidan

Fr.: dépenser   

1) To pay out, disburse, or expend; dispose of (money, wealth, resources, etc.).
2) To employ (labor, thought, words, time, etc.), as on some object or in some proceeding (Dictionary.com).

M.E. spenden, from O.En. -spendan (in forspendan "use up"), from M.L. spendere, from expendere "to pay out, weigh out money," from → ex- "out" + pendere "to pay, weigh."

Ziyâmidan, from Sogd. zyâm "to consume, spend," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *uz-iam-, from *uz- "out, away," → ex-, + *iam- "to hold, take; stretch, reach out;" cf. Av. yam- "to hold, keep," (+ *apa-) "to take away;" Skt. yam- "to hold, restrain."

sphere
  کُره، سپهر   
koré (#), sepehr (#)

Fr.: sphère   

A solid geometric figure generated by the revolution of a semicircle about its diameter; equation: x2 + y2 + z2 = r2.

M.E. spere, from O.Fr. espere, from L. sphæra "globe, ball, celestial sphere," from Gk. sphaira "globe, ball," of unknown origin.

Koré, loan from Ar. kurat.
Sepehr "sphere, celestial globe, heavens, sky;" Mid.Pers. spihr "sphere, sky, firmament, fate;" Av. spiti- in compounds: spiti-dôiθra- "with clear eyes;" Proto-Iranian *spiθra- (in proper name); cf. Skt. śvitrá- "white, whitish."

sphere of influence
  سپهر ِ هنایش   
sepehr-e hanâyeš

Fr.: sphère d'influence   

The region of space around one of the bodies in a system of two celestial bodies where a third body of much smaller mass is influenced by the gravitational field of that body. The sphere of influence of a planet with respect to the Sun has a radius given by: R = RP(MP/MS)2/3, where RP is the radius of the planet's orbit around the Sun, MP is the mass of the planet, and MS is the solar mass. The sphere of influence of the Earth has a radius of about 927,000 km or slightly under 150 Earth radii. Beyond this limit, a space probe will come under the influence of the Sun.

sphere; → influence.

spheres of Eudoxus
  سپهرهای ِ اءودوکسوس   
sepehrhâ-ye Eudoxus

Fr.: sphères d'Eudoxe   

A series of spheres with varying radii centred on the Earth, each rotating uniformly about an axis fixed with respect to the surface of the next larger sphere, all comprising a model in Greek astronomy to describe the motions of the heavenly bodies. The spheres turned with different speeds about axes with different orientations. The fixed stars revolved around the Earth by the motion of the most distant sphere to which the stars were thought to be attached. Each of the five planets' (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn) motion could be described using four spheres. The Sun and the Moon required three spheres each to explain their motions. Therefore, a total of 27 spheres described the behavior of the heavenly bodies in terms of circular motion. Eudoxus was the first person to devise a model that could explain the → retrograde motion of the planets in the sky along a looped curve known as the → hippopede.

sphere; Eudoxus (Ευδοξοσ) of Cnidus (c 408 BC - c 355 BC), Greek astronomer and mathematician.

spherical
  کُره‌ای   
kore-yi

Fr.: sphérique   

Having the form of a sphere; of or pertaining to a sphere or spheres.

From → sphere + → -ic + → -al.

spherical aberration
  بیراهش ِ کُره‌ای   
birâheš-e koreyi

Fr.: aberration sphérique, ~ de sphéricité   

An aberration of a spherical lens or spherical mirror in which light rays converge not to a single point but to a series of points with different distances from the lens or mirror. Spherical aberration is corrected by using parabolic reflecting and refracting surface.

spherical; → aberration.

spherical angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ کُره‌ای   
zâviye-ye koreyi

Fr.: angle sphérique   

An angle formed on the surface of a sphere by the intersection of two great circles of the sphere.

spherical; → angle.

spherical astrolabe
  اسطرلاب ِ سپهری، ~ کره‌ای   
ostorlâb-e sepehri, ~ kore-yi

Fr.: astrolabe sphérique   

A type of → astrolabe in which the observer's horizon is drawn on the surface of a globe, mounted with a freely rotating spherical lattice work or 'spider' representing the celestial sphere. The earliest description of the spherical astrolabe dates back to  the Iranian astronomer Nayrizi (865-922).

spherical; → astrolabe.

spherical astronomy
  اخترشناسی ِ کُره‌ای   
axtaršenâsi-ye kore-yi

Fr.: astronomie sphérique   

The branch of astronomy that is concerned with determining the apparent positions and motions of celestial bodies on the celestial sphere. Same as → positional astronomy.

spherical; → astronomy.

spherical coordinates
  هماراها‌ی ِ کره‌ای   
hamârâhâ-ye kore-yi

Fr.: coordonnées sphériques   

A coordinate system using an origin (O) and three perpendicular axes (Ox, Oy, Oz), in which the position of a point (P) is given by three numbers (r, θ, φ). The coordinate r is the distance from the origin, θ the angle between the z-axis and the r direction, and φ the angle between the projection of r on the xy-plane and the Ox-axis. The coordinate φ is also called the → azimuthal angle.

spherical; → coordinate.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>