An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
microlensing
  ریز‌لنزش   
riz-lenzeš

Fr.: effet de microlentille   

A type of → gravitational lens, where the foreground → lensing object is of low mass, and the multiple images produced are too close together on the sky to be observed as separate images. Gravitational microlensing occurs when a foreground star happens to lie very close to our line of sight to a more distant background star. The foreground star acts as a lens, splitting the light from the background source star into two or more images, which are typically unresolved. However, these images of the source are magnified, by an amount that depends on the angular separation between the lens and source. If with the passage of time the lens moves across the Earth-source, the amount of brightening changes. Typically the source will appear to brighten, reach a maximum and then fade symmetrically back to normal over the course of a few weeks or months; this is called a → microlensing event. If the foreground star happens to host a planet with projected separation near the paths of these images, the planet will also act as a lens, further perturbing the images and resulting in a characteristic, short-lived signature of the planet. Microlensing is used in the search for → dark matter in the → Milky Way galaxy and its nearest neighbours, as well as for → extrasolar planets (e.g. B. S. Gaudi, 2010, arXiv:1002.0332).

micro-; → lensing.

microlensing degeneracy
  واگنی ِ ریز‌لنزش   
vâgeni-ye riz-lenzeš

Fr.: dégénérescence des paramètres de l'effet de microlentille   

Determining the three various parameters of a microlensing event (the lens-source relative parallax and proper motion, and the mass of the lens) from only one physical parameter (the event time scale). Currently the microlensing degeneracy affects the vast majority of events and makes any individual event impossible to interpret with certainty.

microlensing; → degeneracy.

microlensing event
  رویداد ِ ریزلنزش   
ruydâd-e rizlenzeš

Fr.: événement de microlentille   

The effect arising whenever a source star and lens star pass each other at an angular separation involving the → Einstein radius (RE) of the lens. The time-scale for such an event is defined as tE = RE/v, where v is the magnitude of the relative transverse velocity between source and lens projected onto the lens plane.

microlensing; → event.

micrometeorite
  ریز-شخانه   
riz-šaxâné

Fr.: micrométéorite   

A small grain sized meteorite which can only be positively identified under the microscope.

micro-; → meteorite.

micrometer
  ریز‌سنج   
riz-sanj

Fr.: micromètre   

1) A screw thread device used to make accurate physical linear measurements.
2) Same as → micron.

micro-; → -meter.

micron
  میکرون   
mikron (#)

Fr.: micron   

A unit of length in the → metric system equal to one millionth of a → meter (10-6 m); symbol μm. Also called → micrometer. The average thickness of a human hair is about 50 μm (30-100 μm). The human eye cannot see anything smaller than 40 μm in size. Other small sizes: white blood cells = 15 μm; red blood cells = 8 μm; bacteria 2 μm.

Coined 1880 in Fr. from Gk. mikron, neutral of mikros "small."

microorganism
  ریزسازواره   
riz-sâzvâré

Fr.: microorganisme   

Any organism too small to be seen by the naked eye, e.g. bacteria, viruses, and protozoa.

micro-; → organism.

microprocessor
  ریز‌آما   
riz-âmâ

Fr.: microprocesseur   

Controlling unit of a microcomputer; laid out on a tiny silicon chip and containing the logical elements for handling data, performing calculations, carrying out stored instructions, etc.

micro-; → processor.

microquasar
  ریز-کو‌آسار   
riz-kuâsâr

Fr.: micro-quasar   

A → binary system where an ordinary star orbits around a → neutron star or a → stellar-mass black hole that accretes the outer layers of the star's atmosphere. The accreted material falling on the → compact object warms up drastically and emits huge amounts of energy as → X-rays. The → accretion disk that emits this radiation also produces → relativistic jets of → plasma along the rotation axis of the compact object. The jets of material exhibit superluminal motion and resemble those emitted from → quasars, but on scales millions of times smaller. The first microquasar, 1E1740.7-2942, was discovered by F. Mirabel et al. 1992, Nature, 358, 215.

micro- + → quasar.

microscope
  ریزبین، میکروسکوپ   
rizbin (#), mikroskop (#)

Fr.: microscope   

A magnifying optical instrument for inspecting objects too small to be seen or too small to be seen distinctly and in detail by the unaided eye.

From Mod.L. microscopium "an instrument for viewing what is small," from Gk. → micro- + -skopion "means of viewing," from skopein "look at."

Rizbin, from rizmicro- + bin "to see; seer" (present stem of didan; Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know;" Gk. oida "I know," idein "to see;" L. videre "to see;" PIE base *weid- "to know, to see").

microscopic
  ریزبینیک   
rizbinik

Fr.: microscopique   

Being or characterized as exceedingly small; not large enough to be seen with the naked eye. Compare → macroscopic. → macroscopic state.

microscope; → -ic.

microscopic state
  ریز-استات، ریز-حالت   
riz-estât, riz-hâlat

Fr.: état microscopique   

Same as → microstate.

microscopic; → state.

Microscopium
  میکروسکوپ   
mikroskop (#)

Fr.: Microscope   

The Microscope. A minor constellation in autumn southern sky lying just south of → Capricornus at 21h right ascension, 37° south declination. The constellation contains only 4th magnitude or fainter stars. Abbreviation: Mic; genitive: Microscopii.

Microscopium was named by Abbé Nicolas Louis de Lacaille (1713-1762); → microscope.

microstate
  ریز-استات، ریز-حالت   
riz-estât, riz-hâlat

Fr.: micro-état   

Statistical physics: For a system made up of a large number of components, a state of the system which is specified by describing the current dynamical variables of each constituting component. For example, for a gas system composed of a large number of molecules, the microstate is defined by the set of quantities which defines the state of each molecule in the system (position, velocity, vibration, etc.). In practice, it is impossible to know perfectly the microstate of a system. The aim of → statistical physics is to relate the macroscopic (average ) observables (→ pressure, → temperature, → internal energy) to the microstate of the system. Also called → microscopic state. See also → macrostate and → multiplicity.

micro-; → state.

microturbulence
  ریز‌آشوبناکی   
riz-âšubnâki

Fr.: microturbulence   

The → turbulence phenomenon involving relatively smaller physical volumes compared to → macroturbulence. In stellar atmospheres, it is a bulk gas motion with a characteristic size less than the local photon → mean free path. Microturbulence is one of the most significant mechanisms that can cause → line broadening in the stellar spectrum. The presence of microturbulence de-saturates strong lines and increases their → equivalent widths. Microturbulence in → hot stars brings about gas motions with velocities 0-20 km s-1. A physical connection may exist between microturbulence in hot star atmospheres and a subsurface → iron convection zone. Microturbulence may also be at the origin of → wind clumping in hot stars.

micro-; → turbulence.

microwave
  ریزموج   
rizmowj (#)

Fr.: micro-onde   

Electromagnetic radiation having wavelengths in the 1 to 300 mm range.

micro-; → wave.

microwave background radiation
  تابش ِ پس‌زمینه‌ی ِ ریزموج   
tâbeš-e paszamine-ye rizmowj

Fr.: rayonnement micro-onde du fond cosmique   

Thermal radiation with a temperature of 2.73 K that is apparently uniformly distributed in the Universe. It is believed to be a redshifted remnant of the hot radiation that was in thermal equilibrium with matter during the first hundred thousand years after the Big Bang. Same as → cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation.

microwave; → background; → radiation.

microwave oven
  ریز‌موج‌پز   
rizmowjpaz

Fr.: four micro-onde   

A type of electrically operated oven that cooks food very quickly using microwaves instead of heat.

microwave; → oven.

microwave radiation
  تابش ِ ریزموج   
tâbeš-e rizmowj (#)

Fr.: rayonnement micro-onde   

Electromagnetic radiation carried by → microwaves.

microwave; → radiation.

mid-
     
miyâni-; nim-, nimé (#)

Fr.: mi-; moyen   

A prefix which means being at or near the middle point of; being or occupying a middle place or position.

M.E., from O.E. midd-, cognate with O.H.G. mitti, O.N. mithr, Gothic midjis, O.Ir. mide, L. medius, Gk. mesos, Skt. mádhya-, Av. maidiia- "middle, the middle," Pers. miyân, as below.

Miyâni, from miyân "within, between, center," from Mid.Pers. mayân "middle; among, between," Av. maidiia- "middle, the middle," maiδiiāna- "middle, center," maδəma- [adj.] "middle, being in the middle; middling, of a middling size or quality," maiδim "in the midst of," cf. Skt. mádhya- "middle, located in the middle;" O.H.G. mitti "located in the middle."
nim-, nimé, → half.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>