An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
meteoroid
  شخانه‌وار   
šaxânevâr (#)

Fr.: météoroïde   

A solid object in → interplanetary space before it reaches the Earth's atmosphere. Meteoroids are of → silicate and/or → metallic matter having a size from tiniest grains up to that of the smallest → asteroids.

meteor; → -oid.

meteoroid stream
  رابه‌ی ِ شخانه‌وار   
râbeh-ye šaxânevâr

Fr.: courants de météoroïdes   

The meteoroids distributed all along an → orbit and diffused somewhat around it.

meteoroid; → stream.

meteoroid swarm
  غنگ ِ شخانه‌وار   
qang-e šaxânevâr

Fr.: essaim de météoroïdes   

A relatively dense collection of meteoroids at certain spots along some → meteoroid streams.

meteoroid; → swarm.

meteorological observation
  نپاهش ِ هواشناختی   
napâheš-e havâšenâxti

Fr.: observation météorologique   

Evaluation or measurement of one or more meteorological elements.

Meteorological, of or pertaining to → meteorology; → observation.

meteorological observatory
  نپاهشگاه ِ هواشناختی   
nepâhešgâh-e havâšenâxti

Fr.: observatoire météorologique   

A scientific establishment dedicated to making precise and detailed meteorological observations and to studying and forecasting atmospheric phenomena by means of special equipments.

Meteorological, of or pertaining to → meteorology; → observatory.

meteorology
  هواشناسی   
havâšenâsi (#)

Fr.: météorologie   

The study of the physics, chemistry, and dynamics of the Earth's atmosphere, including the related effects at the air-earth boundary over both land and the oceans.

From Gk. meteorologia "discussion of celestial phenomena," from meteoronmeteor + -logia, &rarr-logy.

Havâšenâsi, from havâ "weather, air," → air.

meter
  متر   
metr (#)

Fr.: mètre   

The → SI unit of length; symbol m. It is defined by taking the fixed numerical value of the → speed of light in vacuum, c, to be 299 792 458 when expressed in the unit m/s, where the → second is defined in terms of ΔνCs.

From Fr. mètre, from Gk. metron "measure," from PIE base *me- "to measure" (cf. O.Pers., Av. mā- "to measure;" Skt. mati "measures;" L. metri "to measure").

Metr, loan from Fr.

methane
  متان   
metân (#)

Fr.: méthane   

A colorless, odorless, inflammable gas gas of formula CH4; the simplest hydrocarbon.

From meth- a combining form representing methyl + -ane a suffix used in names of hydrocarbons of the methane or paraffin series.

methanol
  متانول   
metânol (#)

Fr.: méthanol, alcool méthylique   

Alcohol, also known as methyl alcohol, formula CH3OH, formed in small quantities in the oxidation of methane. → methanol maser.

From → methane + -ol a suffix used in the names of chemical derivatives.

methanol maser
  میزر ِ متانول   
meyzer-e metânol

Fr.: maser méthanol   

A maser source in which excited methanol molecules (CH3OH) produce → maser emission. Methanol masers are signposts of the early stages of star formation, many being associated with sources that have not developed an → H II region. There are more than 20 different methanol transitions that have been observed. They are divided into two categories: Class I, excited by collisions, and class II, excited by infrared radiation. The most important class I masers are at a frequency of 44.1 GHz, while he most important class II masers are at a frequency of 6.7 GHz.

methanol; → maser.

method
  روش   
raveš (#)

Fr.: méthode   

A manner or mode of procedure, especially an orderly, logical, or systematic way of instruction, inquiry, investigation, experiment, and so on.

From M.Fr. méthode, from L. methodus "way of teaching or going," from Gk. methodus "scientific inquiry, method of inquiry," originally "following after," from → meta- "after" + hodos "way."

Raveš "mthod," originally "going, walking," from row "going," present stem of raftan "to go, walk;" Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack" + -eš a suffix of verbal nouns.

method of least squares
  روش ِ کمترین چاروش‌ها   
raveš-e kamtarin cârušhâ

Fr.: méthode des moindres carrés   

A method of fitting a curve to data points so as to minimize the sum of the squares of the distances of the points from the curve.

method; → least squares.

method of small perturbations
  روش ِ پرتورش‌های ِ کوچک   
raveš-e parturešhâ-ye kucak

Fr.: méthode des petites perturbations   

The linearization of the appropriate equations governing a system by the assumption of a steady state, with departures from that steady state limited to small perturbations. Also called perturbation method.

method; → small; → perturbation.

method of successive approximations
  روش ِ نزدینش‌های ِ پیاپی   
raveš-e nazdinešhâ-ye payâpey

Fr.: méthode d'approximations successives   

The solution of an equation or by proceeding from an initial approximation to a series of repeated trial solutions, each depending upon the immediately preceding approximation, in such a manner that the discrepancy between the newest estimated solution and the true solution is systematically reduced.

method; → successive; → approximation.

Methuselah star
  ستاره‌ی ِ متوشالح   
setâre-ye Matušâleh

Fr.: étoile Mathusalem   

HD 140283.

Name given to → HD 140283 by the popular press due to its very old age. Methuselah is a biblical patriarch supposed to have lived 969 years (Genesis 5:21-27). The name Methuselah, or the phrase "old as Methuselah," is commonly used to refer to any living thing reaching great age.

methyl
  متیل   
metil

Fr.: méthyle   

A → methane molecule lacking one → hydrogen atom: CH3. → methyl chloride.

Back formation from Fr. méthylène, → methylene.

methyl chloride
  کلرور ِ متیل   
klorur-e metil

Fr.: chlorure de méthyle   

A → chemical compound (CH3Cl), which is the most abundant → organohalogen in the Earth's atmosphere. It has both natural and synthetic origins. Also called chloromethane. Low levels of methyl chloride occur naturally in the environment. Methyl chloride is formed in the oceans by natural processes (e.g., marine phytoplankton) and from biomass burning in grasslands and forested areas (e.g., forest fires); it has been detected at low levels in air all over the world. Other sources of exposure to methyl chloride include cigarette smoke, polystyrene insulation, and aerosol propellants; home burning of wood, coal, or certain plastics. High levels may occur at chemical plants where it is made or used. Acute (short-term) exposure to high concentrations of methyl chloride in humans has caused severe neurological effects. Methyl chloride has also caused effects on the heart rate, blood pressure, liver, and kidneys in humans (United States Environmental Agency, EPA).

methyl; → chloride.

Metis
  متیس   
Metis

Fr.: Métis   

The innermost moon of → Jupiter. Also known as Jupiter XVI. It was discovered in 1979 in images taken by Voyager 1. Its mass is about 3.6 × 1016 kg and its dimensions 60 × 40 × 34 km. Its mean distance from Jupiter is 128 000 km and its → orbital period is 0.29 Earth days, which is faster than Jupiter's rotation period. Metis is one of the → Shepherd moons of Jupiter.

Named in 1983 after the first wife of Zeus.

Metonic cycle
  چرخه‌ی ِ متون   
carxe-ye Meton

Fr.: cycle de Méton   

A time interval lasting 235 → lunations, or about 19 → tropical years (235 = 19 x 12 + 7), after which → lunar phases recur on the same days of the year.

Named after Meton of Athens, a Gk. mathematician, astronomer, geometer, and engineer who used it in 432 B.C., but it was known to the Babylonians by around 500 B.C. and to the Chinese around 600 B.C.; → cycle.

metric
  ۱، ۲) متریک؛ ۳) متری   
1), 2) metrik (#); 3) metri (#)

Fr.: métrique   

1) A mathematical → expression consisting of an → array of → components which are needed for calculating → infinitesimally small → distances between two → points in some geometrical → space. More simply put, the → function used to define a distance between two points in a → metric space. Also called → distance function.
2) In → general relativity the metric describes the → space-time geometry and gives the interval between two neighboring → events.
3) Pertaining to the meter or to the → metric system.

From → meter + → -ic.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>