An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
retired galaxy
  کهکشان ِ بازنشسته   
kahkešân-e bâznešasté

Fr.: galaxie retraitée   

An old galaxy with faint emission lines whose ratios are similar to those of → LINERs, i.e. galaxies with low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions. All galaxies after consuming their → molecular clouds, where stars are formed, follow a "passive" evolution during which their → stellar populations simply get older and older. The old stellar populations contain hot post-→ AGB stars and → white dwarfs which are able to ionize the surrounding gas and produce spectra identical to those of LINERS.

Retired in the sense "withdrawn from or no longer occupied with one's business or profession," p.p. of retire, from M.Fr. retirer "to withdraw (something)," from → re- "back" + O.Fr. tirer "to draw;" → galaxy. The concept of retired galaxies was first proposed by G. Stasińska et al. (2008, MNRAS 391, L29) to name the final stages of galaxies that cease their star forming activity. The word "retired" is also to be taken by opposition to "active" in the sense of "containing an accreting black hole" (like Seyfert galaxies), since liners are often thought to be a scaled down version of Seyfert nuclei.

Bâznešasté "retired," literally "seated back, seated away," from bâz-re- + nešasté "seated," p.p. of nešastan "to sit;" Mid.Pers. nišastan "to sit;" O.Pers. nišādayam [1 sg.impf.caus.act.] "to sit down, to establish," hadiš- "abode;" Av. nišasiiā [1 sg.subj.acr.] "I shall sit down," from nihad- "to sit down," from ni- "down, in, into," → ni-, + had- "to sit;" PIE base *sed- "to sit;" cf. Skt. sad- "to sit," sidati "sits;" Gk. hezomai "to sit," hedra "seat, chair;" L. sedere "to sit;" O.Ir. suide "seat, sitting;" Welsh sedd "seat;" Lith. sedmi "to sit;" Rus. sad "garden;" Goth. sitan, Ger. sitzen; E. sit.

retreat
  ۱) پس‌کشید؛ ۲) پس‌کشیدن   
1) pas-kešid; 2) pas-kešidan

Fr.: 1) retrait; 2) battre en retraite   

1a) The forced or strategic withdrawal of an army or an armed force before an enemy, or the withdrawing of a naval force from action.
1b) The act of withdrawing, as into safety or privacy; retirement; seclusion.
2) To withdraw, retire, or draw back, especially for shelter or seclusion.

Mi.E. retret, from O.Fr., variant of retrait, noun use of p.p. of retraire "to draw back," from L. retrahere, from → re- + trahere "to draw."

Pas-kešidan "to retreat, pull back," from pas, → back, + kašidan "to pull, to draw, to drag," → galaxy.

retrograde
  پسرو، پسرفت   
pasrow (#), pasraft (#)

Fr.: rétrograde   

Moving backward; having a backward motion or direction. → retrograde motion.

M.E., from L. retrogradus "going backward," from retrogradi "move backward," from retro- "backward" + gradi "to go, step."

Pasrow, pasraft, from pas- "back, behind," → back, + row, raft present and past stems of raftan "to go, walk;" (Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack").

retrograde motion
  جنبش ِ پسرو   
jonbeš-e pasrow

Fr.: mouvement rétrograde   

The orbital motion or rotation of a solar system body in a clockwise direction (East to West) when viewed from the north pole of the ecliptic. It is a motion opposed to the → direct motion of the great majority of solar system bodies.

retrograde; → motion.

retrograde object
  بر‌آخت ِ پسرو   
barâxt-e pasrow

Fr.: objet rétrograde   

An object which has a retrograde orbit around its primary.

retrograde; → object.

retrograde orbit
  مدار ِ پسرفت   
madâr-e pasraft

Fr.: orbite rétrograde   

An orbit with an inclination between 90° and 270° such as those of some comets and small asteroids orbiting the Sun.

retrograde; → orbit.

Reuleaux triangle
  سه‌بر ِ رولو   
sebar-e Reuleaux

Fr.: triangle de Reuleaux   

A shape of constant width created using an equilateral triangle and three similar circles. The equilateral triangle lies in the first circle with a vertex coinciding with the center of the circle and the sides equal to the circle radius. The centers of the two other circles are located at the two other vertices. The Reuleaux triangle is the intersection of the three circles.

Named after Franz Reuleaux (1829-1905), a German engineer, specialist of analysis and design of mechines; → triangle.

reversal
  وارونش، واگردانی   
vâruneš, vâgardâni

Fr.: inversion, interversion   

An act or instance of reversing. The state of being reversed. → phase reversal.

From → reverse + → -al.

reverse
  وارون، واگرد   
vârun, vâgard (#)

Fr.: contraire, opposé   

Opposite or contrary in position, direction, order, etc.
Acting in a manner opposite or contrary to that which is usual. → invert = vârun (وارون).

M.E. revers from O.Fr. revers "reverse, cross," from L. reversus, p.p. of revertere "to turn back," from → re- "back" + vertere "to turn," cognate with Pers. gard "to turn," as below.

Vârun "inverse, upside down," from vâ- "back, backward, again, re-," variant of bâz-, from Mid.Pers. abâz-, apâc-, O.Pers. apa- [pref.] "away, from;" Av. apa- [pref.] "away, from," apaš [adv.] "toward the back;" cf. Skt. ápāñc "situated behind."
Vâgard, from vâ-, → re-, + gard present stem of gardidan, gaštan "to turn, to change" (Mid.Pers. vartitan; Av. varət- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. vrt- "to turn, roll," vartate "it turns round, rolls;" L. vertere "to turn;" O.H.G. werden "to become;" PIE base *wer- "to turn, bend").

reverse shock
  تش ِ واگرد   
toš-e vâgard

Fr.: choc en retour   

A → shock front in a → supernova remnant (SNR) arising from the interaction of the → supersonic  → forward shock wave with the → interstellar medium (ISM) material. The reverse shock forms as the high pressure gas behind the forward shock wave expands and pushes back on the stellar ejecta. Reverse shock propagates into ejecta, starting from outside.

reverse; → shock.

reversible
  واگشت‌پذیر   
vâgaštpazir (#)

Fr.: réversible   

Capable of returning to an original condition. → reversible process.

reverse + → -able.

reversible process
  فراروند ِ واگشت‌پذیر   
farâravand-e vâgaštpazir (#)

Fr.: processus réversible   

Any physical process which can be performed in the reverse direction, the whole series of changes constituting the process being exactly reversed. → irreversible process.

reversible; → process.

reversing layer
  لایه‌ی ِ واگردان   
lâye-ye vâgardân (#)

Fr.: couche d'inversion   

A layer of relatively cool gas forming the lower part of the Sun's chromosphere, just above the photosphere, that gives rise to absorption lines in the Sun's spectrum.

Reversing verbal adj. of → reverse; → layer.

review
  ۱) بازدا؛ ۲) بازدا کردن   
1) bâzdâ; 2) bâzdâ kardan

Fr.: 1) revue; 2) faire une revue   

1a) A critical article or report.
1b) The process of going over a subject again in study in order to examine and summarize the facts.
2) To discuss a research subject in a critical review; write a critical report upon.

M.E., from O.Fr. reveue "a reviewing, review," from feminine p.p. of revoir "to see again, reexamine," from O.Fr. reveoir, from → re- + veoir, veeir "to see."

Bâzdâ, from bâz-, → re-, + root of didan "to see" (Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees;" cf. Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen") + kardan "to do," → -or.

review talk
  سخنرانی ِ بازدایی   
soxanrâni-ye bâzdâyi

Fr.: papier de revue   

A talk that deals with a subject by examining, criticizing, and summarizing the facts.

review; → talk.

revise
  بازنگریستن   
bâznegaristan (#)

Fr.: réviser   

To alter something already written or printed, in order to make corrections, improve, or update (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.Fr. reviser, from L. revisere "to look at again, look back on," frequentative of revidere, from → re- "again" + videre "to see," → vision.

Bâznegaristan, from bâz- "again," → re-, + negaristan "to look, observe," → theory.

revision
  بازنگری   
bâznegari (#)

Fr.: révision   

the act or work of revising. a process of revising. a revised form or version, as of a book.

Verbal noun of → revise.

revival
  باز-زیوش   
bâz-ziveš

Fr.: reprise, remise en vigueur, renouveau   

1) An improvement in the condition, strength, or fortunes of someone or something.
2) A restoration to life or consciousness.
3) An instance of something becoming popular, active, or important again (OxfordDictionaries.com).

revive; → -al.

revive
  ۱) باز-زیویدن؛ ۲) باز-زیواندن   
1) bâz-zividan; 2) bâz-zivândan

Fr.: ranimer, réanimer, faire renaître   

1a) Regain life, consciousness, or strength.
1b) Give new strength or energy to.
2a) Restore to life or consciousness (OxfordDictionaries.com).

Ultimately from L. revivere; → re-; → survive.

revocation
  واوچ   
vâvac

Fr.: révocation   

The act of revoking; annulment.

Verbal noun of → revoke.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>