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1) To put down by authority or force.
farâz, bâlâ, abar-
A prefix denoting "over, above, beyond, greater than."
From L. supra "above, over, before, beyond," → super-.
Fr.: couche super-eddingtonienne
In some stellar models, particularly for evolved → massive stars, such as → red supergiants, → Luminous Blue Variables, and → Wolf-Rayet stars, an outermost layer of the stellar envelope where the luminosity might exceed the → Eddington limit. This is due to the → opacity peak produced by the variation in the ionization level of hydrogen in the outer → convective envelope, beneath the surface, of very luminous stars. The opacity peak generates supra-Eddington layers and density inversion. The high opacity decreases the Eddington luminosity in these layers, possibly to fainter levels than the actual stellar luminosity. As a result, the → radiative acceleration exceeds the → gravitational acceleration leading to → mass loss enhancement (see, e.g., A. Maeder, Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars, Springer, 2009).
supra-horizontal branch star
setâre-ye farâz-e šâxe-ye ofoqi
Fr.: étoile au-dessus de la branche horizontale
A member of a rare class of objects found in → globular clusters to lie about one magnitude above and to the blue part of the → horizontal branch. These stars are identified as post → EHB stars on their way from to the → asymptotic giant branch.
1) Highest in rank or authority.
M.E., from M.Fr. suprême, and directly from L. supremus "highest," superlative of superus "situated above," from super "above," → super-.
bar-, abar-, ru-
A prefix meaning "over, above, beyond, in addition," occurring mainly in loanwords from Fr.
From O.Fr. sour-, sor-, sur-, from L. → super-.
Bar-, abar-, → super-; ru-, ruy- "face, surface; aspect; appearance," variant rox (Mid.Pers. rôy, rôdh "face;" Av. raoδa- "growth," in plural form "appearance," from raod- "to grow, sprout, shoot;" cf. Skt. róha- "rising, height").
Free from doubt as to the reliability, character, action, etc., of something (Dictionary.com).
M.E. sur(e), from M.Fr. sur, O.Fr. seur "safe, secure; trustworthy," from L. securus "free from care, untroubled, safe," from *se cura, from se "free from" + cura "care."
Tenz, from (Fine-e Bandar Abbâs) tenz "firm, fixed, solid," variant tereng; (Tabari) tereng, təreq "firm, fixed;" (Baxtiyâri) teng "firm;" cf. Baluci tranj-, dranjit, tranjit/drannj-, draht, dratk "to hang up;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *dra(n)j- "to fix, fasten, hold;" Av. drənj- (draž-) "to fix, fasten, hold;" Parthian (*abi-) 'bdrynj- "to be sure, secure; make certain;" Khotanese drys- "to hold;" cognate with Gk. drassomai "I hold (with the hand), take;" O.Irish dringid "he climbs;" M.Welsh dringo "to climb;" PIE *dregh- "to hold, fasten."
Without doub; certainly; to be sure; for sure.
Fr.: caution, garantie, sureté
1) Security against loss or damage or for the fulfillment of an obligation, the payment of a debt, etc.;
a pledge, guaranty, or bond.
M.E. surte, from M.Fr., from O.Fr. seurte "a promise, pledge, guarantee; assurance, confidence;" from L. securitas "freedom from care or danger, safety," from securus, → secure.
1) The outer face, outside, or exterior boundary of a thing; outermost or
uppermost layer or area.
deraxandegi-ye ruyé, ~ ruye-yi
Fr.: brillance de surface
The brightness of an extended object, such as a planet, nebula, galaxy, or the sky background, expressed as magnitudes per unit area (usually square arc second). Surface brightness is calculated by dividing the object's magnitude by its size (→ isophotal radius).
Fr.: courant de surface
A current whose core of maximum velocity is near the surface.
Fr.: densité de surface
The amount of a quantity distributed over a surface area divided by the area, such as a surface-charge density.
gerâni-ye ruyé, ~ ruye-yi
Fr.: gravité de surface
1) The rate at which a small object in free fall near the surface of a body is
accelerated by the gravitational force of the body: g = GM / R2,
where G is the gravitational constant, and M and R
are the mass and radius of the object. The
surface gravity of Earth is equal to 980 cm s-2.
surface of last scattering
ruye-ye vâpasin parâkaneš
Fr.: surface de dernière diffusion
Same as → last scattering surface.
damâ-ye ruyé, ~ ruye-yi
Fr.: température de surface
1) For a star, same as → effective temperature.
Fr.: tension superficielle
The inward → attraction of the → molecules at the → surface of a → liquid. The reason is that the molecules at the surface do not have other like molecules on all sides of them and consequently they cohere more strongly to those directly associated with them on the surface. Also called surface energy and capillary forces.
Electricity: A sudden rush or burst of current or voltage.
Boruntâz, from borun "out, the outside," → out, + tâz present stem of tâxtan, tâzidan "to run; to hasten; to assault" (Mid.Pers. tak "assault, attack;" Av. taka- "leap, run," from tak- "to run, flow;" cf. Skt. tak- "to rush, to hurry," takti "runs;" O.Ir. tech- "to flow;" Lith. teketi "to walk, to flow;" O.C.S. tešti "to walk, to hurry;" Tokharian B cake "river;" PIE base *tekw- "to run; to flow").
A mapping f of a set A onto a set B in such a way that every b element of B is the image of at least one element a of A. In other words, for any element b of B, the equation f(a) = b yields at least one solution. Allso called → surjective mapping.