An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
water ice
  یخ ِ آب   
yax-e âb

Fr.: glace d'eau   

Water in the → solid state, produced by freezing → liquid water; frozen water. Ice forms at or below a temperature of 0°C. Ice is less dense than liquid water because it expands during the process of freezing. This is because the molecular arrangement taken by ice leads to an increase in volume and a decrease in density. → maximum density of water

water; → ice.

water maser
  میزر ِ آب   
meyzer-e âb

Fr.: maser H2O   

An interstellar → maser phenomenon in which water (H2O) molecules undergo the processes of → population inversion and → stimulated emission. H2O masers are detected toward star formation regions and the envelopes of evolved stars. The maser emission comes from regions that are typically quite small, not larger than the solar system. The main emission frequency is 22 GHz, which shows up in strong lines. There are, however, other H2O maser transitions at 380 GHz and 183 GHz, which are much weaker than the 22 GHz line. The former transitions are sporadically detected since they are strongly absorbed in the Earth's atmosphere, because of its high water vapor content.

water; → maser

water molecule
  مولکول ِ آب   
molekul-e âb (#)

Fr.: molécule d'eau   

The chemical combination of one → oxygen (O) atom bonded to two → hydrogen (H) atoms. The bonding between the oxygen atom and each hydrogen atom is known as → covalent bonds. The two hydrogen atoms are bonded to the oxygen atom at a 105° angle. This geometry of the water molecule causes it to have positively and negatively changed ends, known as → polarity. Water is referred to a polar or dipolar molecule. The large nucleus of the oxygen atom attracts the shared electrons causing this side of the water molecule to be negatively charged while the hydrogen side is positively charged. This polarity allows water to bond easily with adjacent water molecules.

water; → molecule.

water planet
  سیاره‌ی ِ آبی   
sayyâre-ye âbi

Fr.: planète océan   

Same as → ocean planet.

water; → planet.

water vapor
  بخار ِ آب   
boxâr-e âb (#)

Fr.: vapeur d'eau   

1) Water (H2O) in the gaseous state.
2) Meteo.: Atmospheric water in vapor form; one of the most important components of the → atmosphere.

water; → vapor.

waterspout
  تنوره‌ی ِ دریایی   
tanure-ye daryâyi (#)

Fr.: trombe marine   

A spinning column of rising humid air that occurs over a body of warm water. Waterspouts fall within the class of atmospheric phenomena known as convective vortices that includes → tornadoes, → dust devils, and → hurricanes. They can feature wind speeds over 200 kilometers per hour.

water + spout, from M.E. spouten akin to M.Du. spiten "to spout;" O.E. spiwan "to spew."

Tanure-ye daryâyi, from tanuré (kešidan) "turning and raising in the air," probably from tanidan "to turn, spin," → tension; daryâyi, → marine.

watt
  وات   
watt (#)

Fr.: watt   

A unit of power in the SI or MKS system of units, symbol W, equivalent to one joule per second. 1 W = 1 J s-1 = 1 kg m2 s-3 = 1 N m s-1 = 107 erg s-1.
Electricity: The current in amperes multiplied by the electrical potential in volts.

In honor of James Watt (1736-1819) the eminent Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer.

watt-hour
  وات-ساعت   
vât-sâ'at (#)

Fr.: watt-heure   

Unit of work or energy, equal to one watt for one hour, or 3.6 x 1010 ergs., or 3600 joules. The kilowatt-hour (kWh), i.e. 1,000 watts over the period of one hour, is the usual unit or measure of electricity supply or consumption. 1 kWh = 3.6 x 106 J.

watt; → hour.

wattle
  جیل   
jil (#)

Fr.: barbillon   

A fleshy lobe or appendage hanging down from the throat or chin of certain birds, as the domestic chicken or turkey (Dictionary.com).

Of uncertain origin.

Jil (in Nâini and Baxtiyâri) "wattle."

wattmeter
  وات‌سنج   
vâtsanj (#)

Fr.: wattmètre   

An instrument used for measuring the magnitude of the power in an electric circuit.

watt; → -meter.

wave
  موج   
mowj (#)

Fr.: onde   

1) General: A raised ridge-shaped formation moving across the surface of a liquid (as of the sea).
2) Physics: A disturbance advancing from point to point in a → medium or → space as in the → propagation of → sound or → light.
See also:
acoustic wave, → acoustic wave equation, → advanced wave, → Alfven wave, → ballistic wave, → blaze wavelength, → bow wave, → collapse of the wave function, → complex wave, → compressional wave, → cosmic microwave background anisotropy, → cosmic microwave background radiation, → decimetric wave, → density wave, → density-wave theory, → elastic wave, → electromagnetic wave, → electrostatic wave, → gravitational wave, → gravity wave, → half-wave plate, → heat wave, → incoherent wave, → Langmuir wave, → longitudinal wave, → Mach wave, → microwave, → microwave background radiation, → microwave radiation, → millimeter wave, → millimeter-wave astronomy, → modulated wave, → Moreton wave, → neutral wave, → P-wave, → periodic wave, → plane wave, → quarter-wave plate, → radio wave, → rarefaction wave, → retarded wave, → Rossby wave, → S-wave, → scalar wave, → seismic wave, → Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, → shear wave, → shock wave, → sine wave, → sound wave, → square wave, → standing wave, → stationary wave, → submillimeter wave, → transverse wave, → wave equation, → wave function, → wave mechanics, → wave nature, → wave numbe, → wave optics, → wave packet, → wave plate, → wave theory of light, → wave vector, → wave-particle duality, → waveband, → waveform , → waveform analysis, → wavefront, → wavefront correction, → wavefront distortion, → wavefront sensor, → wavefront tilt, → waveguide, → wavelength, → wavelet, → wavelet theory, → wave train.

M.E. waw; O.E. wagian "to move to and fro," wafian "to wave with the hands" (cf. O.N. vafra "to hover about," M.H.G. waben "to wave, undulate").

Mowj, loan from Ar. mauj.

wave collapse
  رمبش ِ موج   
rombeš-e mowj

Fr.: effondremenr d'onde   

In the → Copenhagen Interpretation of → quantum mechanics, the change undergone by the → wave function of a particle when a measurement is performed on the particle. The wave function collapses to one that has a definite value for the quantity measured. If the → position of the matter wave is measured, it collapses to a localized → pulse. If → momentum is measured, it collapses to a wave with a definite momentum. Same as → collapse of the wave function.

wave; → collapse.

wave equation
  هموگش ِ موج   
hamugeš-e mowj

Fr.: équation d'onde   

The partial differential equation 2U / ∂2x + ∂2U / ∂2y + ∂2U / ∂2z = (1/c2) ∂2U / ∂2t or its counterparts in one or two dimensions or in other coordinates, the solution of which represents the propagation of displacementU as waves with velocity c.

wave; → equation.

wave function
  کریای ِ موج   
karyâ-ye mowj

Fr.: fonction d'onde   

In → quantum mechanics, the function of space and time that satisfies → Schrodinger equation. The square of the modulus of its amplitude at any point represents the probability of finding a particle there.

wave; → function.

wave mechanics
  مکانیک ِ موجی   
mekânik-e mowji (#)

Fr.: mécanique ondulatoire   

One of the forms of quantum mechanics, due to Louis de Broglie and extended by E. Schrödinger. It originated in the suggestion that light consists of corpuscles as well as of waves and the consequent suggestion that all elementary particles are associated with waves.

wave; → mechanics

wave nature
  زاستار ِ موجی   
zâstâr-e mowji

Fr.: nature ondulatoire   

A general term to describe → light involving the following phenomena: → reflection, → refraction, → interference, → diffraction, and → polarization. Compare → particle nature.

wave; → nature.

wave number
  عدد ِ موج   
adad-e mowj (#)

Fr.: nombre d'onde   

The reciprocal of → wavelength, which represents the number of waves per unit length. Wave number is often defined as k = 2π/λ. Same as → propagation number.

wave; → number

wave optics
  نوریک ِ موجی   
nurik-e mowji

Fr.: optique ondulatoire   

The branch of optics that analyzes the electromagnetic radiation in terms of its wave characteristics. Also called → physical optics.

wave; → optics.

wave packet
  بسته‌ی ِ موج   
baste-ye mowj (#)

Fr.: paquet d'onde   

A traveling → waveform consisting of the → superposition of several → waves of different → wavelengths and → phases.

wave; packet from M.E. pak "bundle" + diminutive suffix -et; maybe from M.Fr. pacquet.

Basté "packet," literally "bound, tied; set," p.p. of bastan "to form, bind, tie" (Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan "to bind, shut;" Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie;" cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" Ger. binden; E. bind; PIE base *bhendh- "to bind").

wave plate
  تیغه‌ی ِ موج   
tiqe-ye mowj (#)

Fr.: lame à retard   

An optical element that retards the phase of one plane of vibration of light relative to the plane at right angles. The two beams then recombine to form a single beam with new polarization characteristics. A typical wave plate is a birefringent crystal with a carefully chosen orientation and thickness. Also known as → retardation plate. A → half-wave plate creates a half-wave retardation. See also → quarter-wave plate.

wave; → plate.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>