An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
shift
  کیب   
kib

Fr.: décalage   

A change in place or position, in particular a change in wavelength, causing a movement of a spectral band or line. → redshift; → blueshift.

Shift, M.E., from O.E. sciftan "to divide, arrange"; akin to O.N. skipa "to arrange, assign."

Kib "shift" from kibidan "to shift, displace, turn on one side," kibidé "displaced, turned on one side."

shinbone
  درشت-نی   
dorošt-ney

Fr.: tibia   

tibia.

tibia

Doroštney, literally "big reed," from dorošt, → macro-, + ney "reed, cane."

shine
  ۱) تابیدن؛ ۲) تاب، فروغ   
1) tâbidan; 2) tâb, foruq

Fr.: 1) briller; 2) éclat   

1) To emit rays of light.
2) Brightness caused by the emission of light.

M.E. s(c)hinen (v.); O.E. scinan "shed light, be radiant;" cf. M.H.G. schinen, O.H.G. skinan; Du. schijnen; Ger. scheinen; Gothic skeinan "to shine, appear;" PIE base *skai- "bright;" cf. Mod.Pers. sâyé "shadow;" Mid.Pers. sâyak "shadow;" Av. a-saya- "throwing no shadow;" Skt. chāya- "shadow;" Gk. skia "shade;" Rus. sijat' "to shine."

Tâbidan, tâb, → radiate; foruq, → gegenschein.

shock
  تش، شوک   
toš, šok

Fr.: choc   

A sharp change in the properties of a gas (density, pressure, temperature).

Shock "sudden blow," from M.Fr. choc "violent attack," from O.Fr. choquer "to strike against, clash;" cf. Du. schokken "to shake, jolt, jerk."

Toš, from Tabari toš "violent blow," batoštən "to strike suddenly," Kurd. tuš "collision," maybe related to Pers. tuš "strength, vigor;" Av. təviši- "strength," tavah- "power;" O.Pers. tauman- "power, strength," tunuvant- "powerful," from tav- "to have power, to be strong, to be able" (related to tavân "power, strength," tavânestan "to be powerful, able;" variants tâv, tâb "power"); cf. Skt. tu- "to be strong, to have authority," tavas-, tavisa- "strong, energetic," tavisi- "power, strength."
Šok, loan from Fr., as above.

shock breakout
  برونزنی ِ شوک، ~ تش   
borunzani-ye šok, ~ toš

Fr.: émergence de l'onde de choc   

A burst of very bright → ultraviolet or → soft X-ray radiation expected to occur in → core-collapse supernovae at the instant when the → supernova shock breaks out of the stellar surface. During the collapse of the progenitor → massive star, the density in the iron core increases drastically. Once the core material reaches → nuclear density, the core rebounds generating a → shock wave that moves outward through the star. When the shock reaches the outermost layers, it ejects them out into space at → relativistic speeds.

shock; breakout "a forceful escape from being confined or restrained," from break, from M.E. breken, O.E. brecan (cf. Du. breken, O.H.G. brehhan, Ger. brechen), from PIE base *bhreg- "to break" (see also → fraction) + → out.

Borunzani "emergence, evasion," from borun, → out, + zani verbal noun of zadan "to strike, beat," from Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill."

shock diamond
  الماس ِتش   
almâs-e toš

Fr.: diamant de choc   

Any of a series of rings/disks that are formed in a jet flow exhausting a → nozzle when there is a huge difference between the exit pressure and the ambient pressure. At sea level, the exhaust pressure might be lower than the thick atmosphere. In contrast, at very high altitudes, the exhaust pressure might be higher than the thin atmosphere. Shock diamonds can appear just as a rocket is taking off, or at high altitudes when it shifts into → supersonic speed. Shock diamonds are also known as Mach diamonds, → Mach disks, Mach rings, doughnut tails, or thrust diamonds.

shock; → diamond.

shock front
  پیشان ِ تش، ~ شوک   
pišân-e toš, ~ šok

Fr.: front de choc   

The boundary over which the physical conditions undergo an abrupt change because of a → shock wave.

shock; → front.

shock wave
  موج ِ تش، ~ شوک   
mowj-e toš, ~ šok

Fr.: onde de choc   

A narrow region of abrupt, nearly discontinuous change in the physical characteristics of a medium in which the flow of a fluid changes from subsonic to supersonic. Across a shock wave there is always an extremely rapid rise in pressure, temperature, and density of the fluid.

shock; → wave.

shocked quartz
  کو‌آرتز ِ تشیده، ~ شوکیده   
kuârtz-e tošidé, ~ šokidé

Fr.: quartz choqué   

A form of quartz that has a deformed microscopic structure caused by intense pressure which alters the crystalline structure of quartz along planes inside the crystal. It was first discovered after underground nuclear bomb testing. It is found worldwide at the boundary between Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks. This is further evidence (in addition to iridium enrichment) that the transition between the two geological eras was caused by a large meteorite impact.

shock; → impact.

shooting star
  شهاب   
šahâb (#)

Fr.: étoile filante   

Colloquial name for → meteor.

Shooting, from shoot (v.); M.E. shoten; O.E. sceotan "to shoot" (cf. O.N. skjota, Du. schieten, Ger. schießen), from PIE base *skeud- "to shoot, to chase, to throw;" → star.

Šahâb, → meteor.

short
  کوتاه   
kutâh (#)

Fr.: court   

1) Having little length. Not tall or high.
2) Lasting for only a small amount of time.

M.E. schort; O.E. sceort; cf. O.N. skorta "to be short of," skort "shortness;" O.H.G. scurz "short."

Kutâh "short," related to kucak "small," kudak "child, infant;" Mid.Pers. kôtâh "low," kôtak "small, young; baby;" Av. kutaka- "little, small."

short circuit
  گردراه‌بند   
gardrâhband

Fr.: court-circuit   

A relatively low → resistance contact, usually accidental, between two points of an → electric circuit with initially different → potential. A short circuit brings about a flow of excess → electric current that can damage the circuit and present a danger for the user.

short; → circuit.

Gardrâhband, literally "link, bind, bond in circuit," from gardrâh, → circuit, + band, → band.

short-period comet
  دنباله‌دار ِ کوتاه-دوره   
dombâledâr-e kutâh-dowré

Fr.: comète à courte période   

A comet with a period less than 200 years. Same as → periodic comet.

short; → period; → comet.

short-period variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ کوتاه-دوره   
vartande-ye kutâh-dowré

Fr.: variable à courte période   

A variable star that has a relatively short period with respect to stars of similar types.

short; → period; → variable.

shortage
  کمبود   
kambud (#)

Fr.: pénurie   

1) A deficiency in quantity.
2) The amount of such → deficiency.

From → short + suffix -age.

Kambud, from kam "little, few, deficient, scarce" + bud, from budan, → exist.

shot effect
  نوفه‌ی ِ شاتکی   
nufe-ye Schottky

Fr.: effet Schottky   

Same as → Schottky noise; → shot noise.

Translation of Ger. Schroteffekt, from Schrot "small shot, buckshot" + Effekt; → effect.

shot noise
  نوفه‌ی ِ شاتکی   
nufe-ye Schottky

Fr.: bruit de grenaille   

Same as → Schottky noise and → shot effect.

shot effect.

Schottky noise.

shoulder
  دوش، سفت   
duš (#), soft (#)

Fr.: épaule   

The upper joint of each of a person's → arms and the part of the → body between this and the → neck.

M.E. schuldre, sholder, shulder, schulder, from O.E. sculdra, sculdor, akin to Du. schouder, Ger. Schulter.

Duš "shoulder;" Mid.Pers. dôš "shoulder;" Av. daoš- "shoulder;" cf. Skt. dós- "shoulder."
Soft "shoulder;" Mid.Pers. suft.

shoulder blade
  شانه، کتف   
šâné (#), ketf (#)

Fr.: omoplate   

scapula.

shoulder; blade, M.E.; O.E. blæd "blade of grass;" cognate with Du. blad, Ger. Blatt.

Šâné, ketf, → scapula.

shower
  رگبار، تندبار   
ragbâr, tondbâr (#)

Fr.: 1) averse; 2) gerbe   

1) A brief, abrupt precipitation from a cloud, characterized by the suddenness with which it begins and ends and by the rapid changes in intensity.
2) An abundant flow; an outpouring, such as → cosmic-ray shower; → air shower; → meteor shower.

M.E. shour; O.E. scur "short fall of rain, fall of missiles or blows;" cf. O.N. skur, O.S., O.H.G. scur, Ger. Schauer.

Ragbâr "cloudburst," from rag "cloudburst; thunder," → rain + bâr "raining, rain," from bâridan, → rain.
Tondbâr, with tond "fast," → velocity.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>