An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
false color
  رنگ ِ زیف   
rang-e zif

Fr.: fausse couleur   

In imaging technique, assigning color to black and white images to differentiate features or convey information. → true color.

false; → color.

false dawn
  بامداد ِ زیف، ~ دروغین   
bâmdâd-e zif, ~ doruqin

Fr.: aube trompeuse   

An unusually early glow of the horizon near the rising sun during certain times of the year. This early glow does not originate directly from the Sun, but is rather caused by → zodiacal light. It may be mistaken for a sunrise.

false; → dawn.

false nucleus
  هسته‌ی ِ زیف   
haste-ye zif

Fr.: faux noyau   

An especially concentrated region in the → coma of some → comets, representing the dense cloud of inner coma rather than the much smaller true nucleus. Also called apparent nucleus and → pseudo-nucleus.

false; → nucleus.

false vacuum
  خلاء ِ زیف   
xala'-e zif

Fr.: faux vide   

A peculiar, hypothetical state of matter which is predicted to exist by current theories of → elementary particles, including the → grand unified theories. Unlike the ordinary vacuum, a false vacuum has a large → energy density and a large → negative pressure. A false vacuum is the driving force behind the rapid expansion in the → inflationary model of the → Universe.

false; → vacuum.

falsifiability
  زیفیدنیگی، زیفش‌پذیری   
zifidanigi, zifešpaziri

Fr.: falsifiabilité   

Philosophy of science: The concept according to which a proposition or theory cannot be scientific if it does not admit consideration of the possibility of its being false. According to Karl Popper (1902-1994), falsifiability is the crucial feature of scientific hypotheses. Any theory not falsifiable is said to be unscientific.

falsifiable; → -ity.

falsifiable
  زیفیدنی، زیفش‌پذیر   
zifidani, zifešpazir

Fr.: falsifiable   

The quality of something that can be falsified. → falsifiability.

falsify; → -able.

falsify
  زیفیدن   
zifidan

Fr.: falsifier   

1) To show or prove that a theory is incorrect or false.
2) To alter something in order to deceive.

Verb from → false.

falsity
  زیفی   
zifi

Fr.:   

The quality or condition of being → false. Opposite of → truth.

false; → -ity.

family
  خانواده   
xânevâdé (#)

Fr.: famille   

A group of entities with similar properties and common origin. → family of curves, → family of distributions, → family of sets, → comet family.

From L. familia "household, the slaves of a household," from famulus "servant," of unknown origin.

Xânevâdé "family," from xâné "house, home, houshold" + vâdé "root, foundation, origin." Xâné, from Mid.Pers. xânak, xân, xôn; cf. L. cunae "cradle;" Gk. kome "village;" Pers. Aftari dialect kiye "house, home;" PIE base *kei- "bed; to lie, to settle; beloved" (other cognates: P.Gmc. *khaim-; O.E. ham "dwelling, house, village;" E. home; Ger. Heim; L. civis "townsman;" Fr. cité; E. city; Skt. śiva- "auspicious, dear").

family of curves
  خانواده‌ی ِ خمها   
xânevâde-ye xamhâ

Fr.: famille de courbes   

A set of similar curves which are distinguished by the values taken by one or more parameters in their general equation. For example, the general solution of a differential equation is represented by a family of curves.

family; → curve.

family of distributions
  خانواده‌ی ِ واباژش‌ها   
xânevâde-ye vâbâžešhâ

Fr.: famille de distributions   

A set of distributions which have the same general mathematical → formula.

family; → distribution.

family of sets
  خانواده‌ی ِ هنگردها   
xânevâde-ye hangardhâ

Fr.: famille de comètes   

A → collection of → subsets of a set.

family; → set.

fan
  بادزن   
bâdzan (#)

Fr.: évantail   

In 3D → magnetic reconnection models of solar plasma, a plane or curve surface composed of magnetic field lines emanating from the → magnetic null point (almost radially in the absence of electric currents and spirally if electric currents are present). See also → spine (Lau & Finn. 1990, ApJ 350, 672; Parnell et al. 1996, Physics of Plasmas 3, 759).

M.E., from O.E. fann, from L. vannus "a basket or shovel for winnowing grain," related to ventus, → wind.

Bâdzan "fan, ventilator," from bâd, → wind + zan from zadan "to strike, beat; to play an instrument; to do" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FR-I)
  رده‌ی ِ فاناروف-رایلی I   
rade-ye Fanarof-Riley I

Fr.: Fanaroff-Riley de type I   

In the → Fanaroff-Riley classification, sources with RFR < 0.5. Fanaroff and Riley (1974) found that nearly all sources with luminosity L(178MHz) ≤ 2 × 1025h100-2 W Hz-1 sr-1 were of class I. FR-I → radio jets are thought to be → subsonic, possibly due to mass entrainment, which makes them amenable to distortions in the interaction with the ambient medium.

Fanaroff-Riley classification; → class.

Fanaroff-Riley Class II (FR-II)
  رده‌ی ِ فاناروف-رایلی II   
radeh-ye Fanarof-Riley II

Fr.: Fanaroff-Riley de type II   

In the → Fanaroff-Riley classification, → radio sources with hotspots in their lobes at distances from the center which are such that RFR > 0.5. The → radio jets in FR-II sources are expected to be highly → supersonic, allowing them to travel large distances.

Fanaroff-Riley classification; → class.

Fanaroff-Riley classification
  رده‌بندی ِ فاناروف-رایلی   
radebandi-ye Fanaroff-Riley

Fr.: classification Fanaroff-Riley   

A classification scheme for distinguishing a → radio galaxy from an → active galaxy based on their → radio frequency  and → luminosity and their kpc-scale appearance. Analyzing a sample of 57 radio galaxies from the → 3CR catalogue, which were clearly resolved at 1.4 GHz or 5 GHz, Fanaroff & Riley (1974) discovered that the relative positions of regions of high and low → surface brightness in the → lobes of extragalactic → radio sources are correlated with their radio luminosity. They divided the sample into two classes using the ratio RFR of the distance between the regions of highest surface brightness on opposite sides of the central galaxy or quasar, to the total extent of the source up to the lowest brightness contour in the map. → Fanaroff-Riley Class I (FR-I) , → Fanaroff-Riley Class II (FR-II). The boundary between the two classes is not very sharp, and there is some overlap in the luminosities of sources classified as FR-I or FR-II on the basis of their structures. The physical cause of the FR-I/II dichotomy probably lies in the type of flow in the → radio jets.

Bernard L. Fanaroff and Julia M. Riley, 1974, MNRAS 167, 31P; → classification.

far
  دور   
dur (#)

Fr.: loin, lointain   

Being at a great distance; remote in time or place.

O.E. feorr "to a great distance, long ago," from P.Gmc. *ferro (cf. Du. ver, Ger. fern), from PIE *per- "through, across, beyond" (cf. O.Pers. para "on the other side (of);" Av. parə "beyond, more than, superior," parô "except," pərətu- "crossing, bridge;" Mod.Pers. pol "bridge;" Skt. parás "far, further, beyond," Gk. pera "across, beyond," L. per "through").

Dur, from Mid.Pers. dūr "far, distant, remote;" O.Pers. dūra- "far (in time or space)," dūraiy "afar, far away, far and wide;" Av. dūra-, dūirē "far," from dav- "to move away;" cf. Skt. dūrá- "far; distance (in space and time);" PIE base *deu- "to move forward, pass;" cf. Gk. den "for a long time," deros "lasting long."

far infrared
  فروسرخ ِ دور   
forusorx-e dur (#)

Fr.: infrarouge lointain   

Infrared radiation in the wavelength range (25-40) to (200-350) microns emitted by cold molecular/dust clouds.

far; → infrared.

far ultraviolet (FUV)
  فرابنفش ِ دور   
farâbanafš-e dur (#)

Fr.: ultraviolet lointain   

Ultraviolet radiation in the wavelength range 912-2000 Å. See also → extreme ultraviolet.

far; → ultraviolet.

far-infrared
  فروسرخ ِ دور   
forusorx-e dur (#)

Fr.: infrarouge lointain   

The portion of the → electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range between about 30 and 300 → microns. See also: → infrared radiation, → near-infrared, → mid-infrared, → submillimeter radiation.

far; → infrared.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>