An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
gas mixture
  آمیزه‌ی ِ گاز   
âmize-ye gâz

Fr.: mélange de gaz   

An aggregate of several different kinds of gases which do not react chemically under the conditions being considered. A gas mixture constitutes a homogeneous thermodynamical system.

gas; → mixture.

gas tail
  دنباله‌ی ِ گازی   
donbâle-ye gâzi

Fr.: queue de gaz   

The → ionized component of a → comet's → tail, driven nearly straight away from the → Sun Sun by the → solar wind. solar wind. Also called → ion tail, → plasma tail, and → Type I tail.

gas; → tail.

gas-poor galaxy
  کهکشان ِ کم‌گاز   
kahkešân-e kamgâz

Fr.: galaxie pauvre en gaz   

A galaxy which has a relatively low gas content. More specifically, a galaxy whose → baryonic matter is chiefly in the form of stars and has very little → interstellar matter.

gas; → poor; → galaxy.

gas-rich galaxy
  کهکشان ِ پرگاز   
kahkešân-e porgâz

Fr.: galaxie riche en gaz   

A galaxy, usually young, which has a relatively important gas content.

gas; → rich; → galaxy.

gas-to-dust ratio
  وابر ِ گاز به غبار   
vâbar-e gâz bé qobâr

Fr.: rapport gaz/poussière   

The mass ratio of gas to dust. It amounts to approximately 100 in the → interstellar medium, but may vary in → molecular clouds and → circumstellar disks due to dust → grain evaporation, → dust settling, → condensation of gas, etc. The gas-to-dust ratio depends on the → metallicity. It is larger in galaxies with lower metallicity.

gas; → dust; → ratio.

gaseous
  گازی   
gâzi (#)

Fr.: gazeux   

1) Existing in the → state of a gas.
2) Pertaining to or having the characteristics of gas.

gas; → -eous.

gaseous diffusion
  پخش ِ گازی   
paxš-e gâzi

Fr.: diffusion gazeuse   

An → isotope separation process using the different diffusion speeds of → atoms or → molecules for separation. This process is used to divide → uranium hexafluoride (UF6) into two separate streams of U-235 and U-238. Before processing by gaseous diffusion, uranium is first converted from → uranium oxide (U3O8) to UF6. The UF6 is heated and converted from a solid to a gas. The gas is then forced through a series of compressors and converters that contain porous barriers. Because uranium-235 has a slightly lighter isotopic mass than uranium-238, UF6 molecules made with uranium-235 diffuse through the barriers at a slightly higher rate than the molecules containing uranium-238. At the end of the process, there are two UF6 streams, with one stream having a higher concentration of uranium-235 than the other (EVS, a Division of Argonne National Laboratory).

gaseous; → diffusion.

gaseous nebula
  میغ ِ گازی   
miq-e gâzi

Fr.: nébuleuse gazeuse   

An → H II region, a → planetary nebula, or a → supernova remnant.

gaseous; → nebula.

gauge
  گز؛ گز کردن   
(n.) gaz; (v.) gaz kardan

Fr.: jauge   

1) (n.) A standard of measure or measurement, size, or quantity.
2) Any of a wide variety of devices or instruments used for measuring a parameter or characteristic of an object, such as its dimension, quantity, or mechanical accuracy.
3) Physics: One of the family of choices for a constant in the expression of → potential energy in a central force field. Force is connected with potential energy by the relation F = - ∂U/∂r, U = ∫F.dr. The upper limit in the integral can be chosen arbitrarily. The potential energy is usually considered zero at infinity.
4) (v.) To determine the exact dimensions, capacity, quantity, or force of; measure.

From Fr. jauge "gauging rod," perhaps from Frankish galga "rod, pole for measuring;" cf. O.N. gelgja "pole, perch;" O.H.G. galgo; Lith. zalga "pole, perch;" Arm. dzalk "pole;" E. gallows; see below.

Gaz "a yard for measuring cloth; a length of 24 finger-breadths, or six hands; the tamarisk-tree," from Mid.Pers. gaz "tamarisk," may be of the same origin as gauge. In verbal form with kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").

gauge boson
  بوزون ِ گز   
bozon-e gaz

Fr.: boson de jauge   

A class of elementary particles that includes the gluon, photon, W+, W-, and Z0 particles, each having an integral spin.

gauge; → boson.

gauge group
  گروه ِ گز   
goruh-e gaz (#)

Fr.: groupe de jauge   

The mathematical group associated with a particular set of gauge transformations.

gauge; → group.

gauge invariance
  ناورتایی ِ گز   
nâvartâyi-ye gaz

Fr.: invariance de jauge   

The invariance of any field theory under gauge transformation.

gauge; → invariance.

gauge symmetry
  همامونی ِ گز   
hamâmuni-ye gaz

Fr.: symétrie de jauge   

A principle underlying the quantum-mechanical description of the three non-gravitational forces. It allows a system to behave in the same way even though it has undergone various transformations. The earliest physical theory which had a gauge symmetry was Maxwell's electrodynamics.

gauge; → symmetry.

gauge theory
  نگره‌ی ِ گز   
negare-ye gaz (#)

Fr.: théorie de jauge   

A field theory in which it is possible to perform a transformation without altering any measurable physical quantity.

gauge; → theory.

gauge transformation
  ترادیس ِ گز   
tarâdis-e gaz (#)

Fr.: transformation de jauge   

A change of the fields of a gauge theory that does not change the value of any measurable quantity.

gauge; → transformation.

gauging
  گزکرد   
gazkard

Fr.:   

A technique in which the thickness, density, or quantity of a material is determined by the amount of radiation it absorbs.

Gauging, from → gauge + → -ing, suffix of nouns formed from verbs, expressing the action of the verb or its result.

Gazkard, from gaz, → gauge, + kard past stem of kardan "to do, make," → gauge.

Gaunt factor
  کروند ِ گاؤنت   
karvand-e Gaunt

Fr.: facteur de Gaunt   

In the atomic theory of spectral line formation, a quantum mechanical correction factor applied to the absorption coefficient in the transition of an electron from a bound or free state to a free state.

Gaunt, after John Arthur Gaunt (1904-1944), English physicist born in China, who significantly contributed to the calculation of continuous absorption using quantum mechanics; → factor

gauss
  گاؤس   
gauss (#)

Fr.: gauss   

The c.s.g. unit of magnetic flux density (or magnetic induction), equal to 1 maxwell per square centimeter, or 10-4 tesla.

Named after the German mathematician and physicist Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777-1855).

Gauss's law for electricity
  قانون ِ گاؤس در برق   
qânun-e Gauss dar barq

Fr.: loi de Gauss en électricité   

The total electric flux ψ out of an arbitrary closed surface in free space is equal to the net charge within the surface divided by the → permittivity. In differential form: ∇ . E = ρ/ε0, where ρ is the → charge density and ε0 the permittivity. The integral form of the law: ∫E . dS = Q0 (closed surface integral). This is one of the four → Maxwell's equations.

gauss; → law; → electricity.

Gauss's law for magnetism
  قانون ِ گاؤس در مغنات‌مندی   
qânun-e Gauss dar meqnâtmandi

Fr.: loi de Gauss en magnétisme   

The → magnetic flux through an arbitrary closed surface equals zero. Mathematically, in differential form: ∇ . B = 0 and in integral form: ΦB = ∫B.dS = 0 (closed surface integral). This is one of the four → Maxwell's equations. This law expresses the fact that there are no free magnetic poles (→ monopoles) in nature and that all the lines of force of a magnetic field are closed curves.

gauss; → law; → magnetism.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>