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teleslop-e xoršidi, durbin-e ~
Fr.: télescope solaire
A telescope designed so that heating effects produced by the Sun do not distort the images.
zamân-e xoršidi (#)
Fr.: temps solaire
The time based on the rotation of the Earth relative to the Sun. → mean solar time.
Fr.: tour solaire
A structure used in solar observations in order to raise the equipment above the atmospheric disturbances caused by solar heating of the ground and the radiation of the heat into the atmosphere.
Fr.: jumeau du soleil
An ideal star possessing fundamental physical parameters (mass, chemical composition, age, effective temperature, luminosity, gravity, magnetic fields, equatorial rotation, etc.) very similar, if not identical, to those of the Sun. See also → solar analog; → solar-like star.
tondâ-ye xoršid, ~ xoršidi
Fr.: vitesse solaire
The rate of change of the Sun's position with respect to the local standard of rest toward the → solar apex.
bâd-e xoršid, ~ xoršidi
Fr.: vent solaire
A mass outflow, consisting of protons, electrons, and other subatomic particles, expelled constantly from the solar corona at about 500 km per second. The solar mass-loss rate in this phenomenon amounts to about 2 x 10-14 solar masses per year, or about 106 tons per second. → stellar wind.
sâl-e xoršidi (#)
Fr.: année solaire
The period of time required for the Earth to make one complete revolution around the Sun. Solar year is a general term for: → tropical year, → vernal equinox year, and → autumnal equinox year, which have different lengths.
Fr.: étoile semblable au soleil
Fr.: phénomènes solaires-terrestres
Any of the various phenomena observable on the Earth that are caused by the influence of the Sun, such as aurora borealis.
Fr.: critère de Solberg-Høiland
A criterion for → convective stability in → massive stars. The Solberg-Høiland stability criterion corresponds to the inclusion of the effect of → rotation (variation of → centrifugal force) in the convective stability criterion. It is a combination of → Ledoux's criterion (or possibly → Schwarzschild's criterion) and → Rayleigh's criterion. Both the dynamical shear and Solberg-Høiland instabilities occur in the case of a very large → angular velocity decrease outwards. Therefore, in a → rotating star the Ledoux or Schwarzschild criteria for convective instability should be replaced by the Solberg-Høiland criterion. More specifically, this criterion accounts for the difference of the centrifugal force for an adiabatically displaced fluid element. It is also known as the axisymmetric baroclinic instability. It arises when the net force (gravity + buoyancy + centrifugal force) applied to a fluid parcel in an adiabatical displacement has components only in the direction of the displacement (A. Maeder, Physics, Formation and Evolution of Rotating Stars, 2009, Springer).
E. Høiland, 1939, On the Interpretation and Application of the
Circulation Theorems of V. Bjerknes. Archiv for mathematik og
naturvidenskab. B. XLII. Nr. 5. Oslo.
kaf-e pâ (#)
The bottom or under surface of the → foot.
M.E., from O.Fr., from L. solea "sandal, bottom of a shoe," from solum "base, bottom, ground," of unknown origin.
Fr.: compensateur de Soleil
An optical compensator which produces a constant phase change over the entire field, as opposed to the phase change produced by the → Babinet compensator, which occurs progressively across the field. The compensator consists of two wedges of the same wedge angle and a parallel plate. The optic axes of the two wedges has the same orientation. These form a variable thickness plate. One of the wedges is assembled to the fixed parallel plate. The optic axis of the parallel plate is at 90° to that of the wedges. The other wedge is attached to a micrometer and moves to produce a thickness difference between the fixed and variable thickness plates, thus producing a phase delay.
Jean-Baptiste Soleil (1798-1849); → compensateur.
A long coil of insulated copper wire containing a large number of close turns. The strength of magnetic field produced by a current carrying solenoid is directly proportional to the number of turns in the solenoid and to the strength of current in the solenoid. It also depends on the nature of "core material" used in making the solenoid. The use of → soft iron rod as core in a solenoid produces the strongest magnetism.
From Fr. solénoïde "pipe-shaped," from Gk. solen "pipe, channel" + combining form of eidos "form, shape," → -oid.
Sulvâr, from sul "pipe, gutter," Lori sil, Sangesari sula, Šahmirzâdi solla, Tabari seltek, may be cognate with Gk. solen, as above, + -vâr, → -oid.
1) A body or object having → three
→ dimensions (length, breadth, and thickness). Of or
pertaining to bodies or figures of three dimensions.
M.E., from O.Fr. solide "firm, dense, compact," from L. solidus "firm, whole, entire," from PIE base *sol- "whole;" cf. Mod.Pers. har "every, all, each, any;" O.Pers. haruva- "whole, all together;" Av. hauruua- "whole, at all, undamaged;" Skt. sárva- "whole, all, every, undivided;" Gk. holos "whole, complete;" L. salvus "whole, safe, healthy," sollus "whole, entire, unbroken."
Dafzé, from dafzak "big, gross, thick, hard" (Dehxodâ), variant dabz "thick, coarse," → concentrated; cf. Ossetic baezgin "thick, dense;" Shughni divask, Oroshori devaskak "calf of the leg;" Khotanese baysga- "thick, deep, many, large;" Sogd. δβânz "wide, coarse;" Av. bəzuuant- "thick, dense," bazah- "thickness;" Proto-Ir. *(d)banz- "to be(come) thick, dense;" cf. Gk. pakhos "thickness, coarseness;" Latvian biezs "thick" (Cheung 2007).
zâviye-ye fazâyi, ~ dafzé
Fr.: angle solide
The figure formed by three or more planes meeting at a common point or formed at the vertex of a cone. The solid angle completely surrounding a point is 4π steradian. → steradian.
estât-e dafzé, hâlat-e jâmed (#)
Fr.: état solide
In electronics, based on or consisting chiefly or exclusively of semiconducting materials, components, and related devices.
solid state physics
fizik-e estât-e dafzé, ~ hâlat-e jâmed
Fr.: physique de l'état solide
The branch of condensed matter physics concerned with the study of rigid matter or solids in terms of their constituent particles (electrons and nuclei). The bulk of solid-state physics theory and research is focused on the electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and structural properties of crystalline solids.
1) To become or make solid, hard, or firm.
Fr.: se solidifier; solidifier
1) To become or make solid, hard, or firm.
The state, property, or quality of being solid. Solidness.