An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>

Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
fog
  مه   
meh (#)

Fr.: brouillard   

A mass or layer of suspended water droplets or ice crystals near the surface of the earth, reducing visibility.

From Dan. fog "spray, shower, snowdrift," related to O.N. fok "snow flurry."

Meh "fog" (variants miq, mož, Tabari miyâ, Lori/Laki (kara) mozy, Ossetic mig/megæ), from Mid.Pers. mēq "cloud, mist," Av. mēγa- "cloud;" cf. Skt. meghá- "cloud, overcast weather;" Gk. omikhle "mist;" Lith. miglà "mist, haze;" PIE base *mighlā- "cloud."

fogbow
  مه‌کمان   
meh-kamân

Fr.: arc blanc   

A large, faintly colored, circular arc formed by light (usually sunlight) falling on cloud or fog. Also called → cloudbow.

fog; → bow.

Fokker-Planck equation
  هموگش ِ فوکر-پلانک   
hamugeš-e Fokker-Planck

Fr.: équation de Fokker-Planck   

A modified form of → Boltzmann's equation allowing for collision terms in an approximate way. It describes the rate of change of a particle's velocity as a result of small-angle collisional deflections.

After Dutch physicist Adriaan Fokker (1887-1972) and the German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947); → equation.

folk
  پلگ   
palg

Fr.: gens, les gens   

1) Usually, folks. (used with a plural verb) people in general.
2) (used with a plural verb) people as the carriers of culture, especially as representing the composite of social mores, customs, forms of behavior, etc., in a society (Dictionary.com).

M.E.; O.E. folc; cognate with O.Sax., O.Norse folk, O.H.G. folk (Ger. Volk).

Palg, from (Pashto) parrk "group of people," with variants: (Dehxodâ) parré "group of people; a circular disposition of troops for hunting or other purposes; a rank or file of soldiers;" (Lori, Torbart-Heydariye-yi, Qomi) borr "group of people, crowd;" (Qomi) borré; (Laki) berr "group of people;" (Qâyeni) bor "group, flock, herd;" (Kurd. Kurmanji) âpora "crowd;" transformation of -r- into -l- (as por = bol, → poly-) in Tabari bəlik, əllik "herd, flock;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *paraka-, from *par- "to fill;" cf. Av. pər- "to fill, stuff with," pouru- "full, much, many;" O.Pers. paru- "much, many;" Pers. anbâr "ricks, storehouse," por, bol "full, much, many;" PIE *pel- "to fill;" → population.

folklore
  پلگوار   
palgvâr

Fr.: folkolre   

The traditional beliefs, legends, customs, etc., of a people; lore of a people (Dictionary.com).

Coined by English scholar and antiquary William John Thoms (1803-1885), from → folk, + lore "traditional knowledge or belief," from M.E., O.E. lar cognate with Du. leer, Ger. Lehre "teaching," E. learn.

Palgvâr, literally "customs of people," from palg, → folk, + vâr "custom, rule, law" (Dehxodâ).

follow-up observation
  نپاهش ِ پیگیر   
nepâheš-e peygir

Fr.:   

An observation which expands previous observations and aims at obtaining complementary data in particular with other telescopes/instruments.

Follow-up, from follow, from O.E. folgian, fylgan "to follow, pursue," from W.Gmc. *fulg- (cf. O.Fris. folgia, M.Du. volghen, Ger. folgen "to follow") + up, O.E. up, uppe (cf. Du. op, Ger. auf "up, upward"), from PIE base *upo "up from below;" cf. O.Pers./Av. upā; Skt. úpa; Gk. hypo; L. sub, → hypo-; → observation.

Nepâheš, → observation; peygir, from pey "after; step," related to "foot, step, track," → foot, + gir present stem of gereftan "to take, seize" (Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving," M.L.G. grabben "to grab," from P.Gmc. *grab, E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize").

follower spot
  لکه‌ی ِ پیرو   
lake-ye peyrow

Fr.: tache de queue   

A → sunspot that follows the → leader spot. Sunspots tend to appear in groups consisting of one leader and several follower spots. The leader and the follower spots having opposite polarities.

Agent noun of follow, from O.E. folgian, fylgan "to follow, pursue," from W.Gmc. *fulg- (cf. O.Fris. folgia, M.Du. volghen, Ger. folgen "to follow").

Laké, → spot; peyrow "follower," from pey "step; after," related to "foot, step, track," → foot, + row "going; which goes," present stem of raftan "to go, walk, proceed," Mid.Pers. raftan, raw-, Proto-Iranian *rab/f- "to go; to attack."

Fomalhaut (α PsA)
  فم‌الحوت، ماهی‌دهان   
famelhut (#), mâhidahân

Fr.: Fomalhaut   

The brightest star (V = 1.17) in the constellation → Piscis Austrinus. Fomalhaut is a white A3 main-sequence star about 25 light-years away. It is encircled by a dust belt (→ debris disk) of about 25 A.U. wide at a radial distance of about 140 A.U.

From Ar. Fam al-Hut (فم‌الحوت) "the fish's mouth," from fam "mouth" + hut "fish."

Famelhut, from Ar. as above; Mâhidahân, from mâhi "fish," from Mid.Pers. mâhik; Av. masya-; cf. Skt. matsya-, Pali maccha- + dahân "mouth;" Mid.Pers. dahân, from Av. zafan-, zafar- "mouth (of Ahrimanic beings)."

font
  ریختار، فونت   
rixtâr (#), font

Fr.: police, fonte   

An assortment or set of type or characters all of one style and sometimes one size (Merriam-Webster.com).

From M.Fr. fonte "act of founding, casting," from fondre "to melt," so called because all the letters in a given set were cast at the same time (etymonline.com).

Rixtâr, from rixtan "to cast, to pour," → morphology.

foot
  پا   
pâ (#)

Fr.: pied   

1) The terminal part of the vertebrate leg upon which an individual stands.
2) Something resembling a foot in position or use.

M.E., from O.E. fot; cf. O.S. fot, O.N. fotr, Du. voet, O.H.G. fuoz, Ger. Fuß, Goth. fotus "foot;" cognate with Pers. pâ, pây, as below.

"foot;" Mid.Pers. pâd, pây; Khotanese fad; Av. pad- "foot;" cf. Skt. pat; Gk. pos, genitive podos; L. pes, genitive pedis; E. foot, as above; PIE *pod-/*ped-.

for
  برای   
barâye (#)

Fr.: pour   

A preposition used to indicate the object or purpose of an action.

M.E., from O.E. for "before, in the sight of, in the presence of" (source also of Old Saxon furi "before," Old Frisian for, Middle Dutch vore, Dutch voor "for, before;" German für "for;" Danish for "for," før "before;" Gothic faur "for," faura "before"), from PIE root *per- "forward," hence "in front of, before," etc.

Barâye "because of," related to Pers. cerâ "for what reason, why?," irâ "for this reason, therefore," zirâ "because, on account of;" also rây "opinion, consult," Mid.Pers. râd, rây "because of, for the sake of, on behalf of;" O.Pers. "reason, cause," in rādiy "for this reason," → reason.

Forbes effect
  اسکر ِ فوربز   
oskar-e Forbes

Fr.: effet Forbes   

Increased reddening and monochromaticity of light as the path length in the air increases.

After the Scottish physicist James David Forbes (1809-1868); → effect.

forbidden
  بژکم   
bažkam (#)

Fr.: interdit   

1) General: Not allowed; prohibited.
2) Physics: Involving a change in → quantum numbers that is not permitted by the → selection rules, → forbidden transition.

Past participle of forbid, from O.E. forbeodan, from for- "against" + beodan "to command" (O.E. biddan"to beg, ask, demand;" cf. Ger. bitten "to ask"); cf. Du. verbieden, O.H.G. farbiotan, Ger. verbieten.

Bažkam in classical Persian dictionaries "a keeping back, a preventing," from Av. paitigam- "to prevent," from paiti- "opposite, against, back, in return" (O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Mod.Pers. variants pâd- (→ anti-); cf. Skt. práti "opposite, against, again, back, in return, toward;" Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + gam- "to come; to go," jamaiti "goes;" O.Pers. gam- "to come; to go;" Mod./Mid.Pers. gâm "step, pace," âmadan "to come" (cf. Skt. gamati "goes;" Gk. bainein "to go, walk, step;" L. venire "to come;" Tocharian A käm- "to come;" O.H.G. queman "to come;" E. come; PIE root *gwem- "to go, come").

forbidden band
  باند ِ بژکم   
bând-e bažkam

Fr.: bande interdite   

In → solid state physics, a range of → energy levels which is not attained by any electrons in a → crystal. In the energy level diagram forbidden bands appear as gaps between → allowed bands.

forbidden; → band .

forbidden emission line
  خط ِ گسیلی ِ بژکم   
xat-e gosili-ye bažkam

Fr.: raie d'émission interdite   

A → forbidden line in → emission.

forbidden; → emission; → line.

forbidden line
  خط ِ بژکم   
xatt-e bažkam

Fr.: raie interdite   

A spectral line emitted by atoms undergoing energy transitions not normally allowed by the → selection rules of → quantum mechanics. Forbidden emission lines form in low-density interstellar gas and are collisionally excited. They are designated by enclosing in brackets, e.g. [O III] and [N II], O and N representing oxygen and nitrogen atoms respectively.

forbidden; → line.

forbidden transition
  گذرش ِ بژکم   
gozareš-e bažkam

Fr.: transition interdite   

A transition between two quantum mechanical → states that → violates the quantum mechanical → selection rules.

forbidden; → transition.

Forbush decrease
  کاهش ِ فورباش   
kâheš-e Forbush

Fr.: effet Forbush   

A decrease in the Galactic cosmic flux around sunspot maximum as a consequence of Solar flare activity. When sunspots explode, they often hurl massive clouds of hot gas away from the Sun, a phenomenon called → coronal mass ejections (CME). The CMEs contain not only gas but also magnetic fields. So when a CME sweeps past Earth, it also sweeps away many of the electrically-charged cosmic rays.

After Scott E. Forbush, American physicist who studied cosmic rays in the 1930s and 40s; → effect; decrease, from O.Fr. stem of descreistre, from L. decrescere, from → de- "away from" + crescere "to grow."

Kâheš, verbal noun of kâstan, kâhidan "to decrease," from Mid.Pers. kâhitan, kâstan, kâhênitan "to decrease, diminish, lessen;" Av. kasu- "small, little" (Mod.Pers. keh), Proto-Iranian *kas- "to be small, diminish, lessen."

force
  نیرو   
niru (#)

Fr.: force   

1) The cause of a change in motion or shape of a body.
2) A → vector quantity defined by → Newton's second law as the rate of change of → momentum or, equivalently, as the product of → mass and → acceleration. A force is completely specified by giving its magnitude, direction, and point of application. In mechanics, force represents the quantitative measure of the mechanical interaction of material bodies.

From O.Fr. force, from L.L. fortia, from neut. pl. of L. fortis "strong," from forctus, from PIE base *bhergh- "high" (cf. Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Mod.Pers. borz in (the mountain chain) Alborz, and borz "height, magnitude," bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," Lori dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Skt. bhrant- "high;" O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg).

Niru, from Mid.Pers. nêrok, Av. nairya- "manly, male" (cf. Skt. nárya-), from nar- "man, male" (Mid./Mod.Pers. nar- "male," Skt. nár- "male").

force field
  میدان ِ نیرو   
meydân-e niru (#)

Fr.: champ de force   

Same as → field of force.

force; → field.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>