An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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devote
  آداختن، آدازیدن   
âdâxtan, âdâzidan

Fr.: consacrer   

To apply or dedicate (oneself, time, money, etc) to some pursuit, cause, etc. (Dictionary.com).

From L. devotus, p.p. of devovere "dedicate by a vow, sacrifice oneself, promise solemnly," from → de- "down, away" + vovere "to vow," from votum "a promise to a god, solemn pledge, dedication; that which is promised; a wish, desire, prayer," from PIE root *wegwh- "to speak solemnly, vow, preach;" cf. Skt. vaghat- "one who offers a sacrifice;" Gk. eukhe "vow, wish."

Âdaxtan, âdâzidan, on the model of pardâxtan, pardâzidan "to devote, consecrate, to be busily and attentively engaged; to attempt, care about; to employ" (Steingass), with change of prefix par- to â- (→ theoretician).

devotion
  آداخت، آدازش   
âdâxt, âdâzeš

Fr.: dévouement, attachement   

1) Profound dedication; consecration.
2) Earnest attachment to a cause, person, etc. (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → devote.

dew
  شبنم   
šabnam (#)

Fr.: rosée   

1) Water condensed onto grass and other objects near the ground, the temperatures of which have fallen below the dewpoint of the surface air due to radiational cooling during the night, but are still above freezing.
2) Moisture in small drops on a surface.

O.E. deaw, from P.Gmc. *dawwaz, O.H.G. tow, Gk. thein, "to run," thoos "quick," PIE base *dheu- "to run, flow" (cf. Pers. dav-, davidan "to run," Skt. dhav- "to run, flow," dhavati "flows, runs").

Šabnam, from šabnight + nam "moisture; dew; wet," Mid.Pers. namb, nam, Av. napta- "moist," nabas-câ "cloud," nabah- "sky," Skt. nábhas- "moisture, cloud, mist, sky," Gk. nephos "cloud," L. nebula "mist," PIE base *nebhos- "moisture, cloud, mist."

dew cap
  کلاهک ِ شبنم   
kolâhak-e šabnam

Fr.: pare-buée   

A hollow tube that extends out in front of the objective lens (refractors) or corrector lens (Schmidt-Cassegrains). It shields the exposed optics from wide exposure to the cool ambient air, slowing heat loss and preventing dew formation. Reflector telescopes do not need dew caps because the main mirror rests at the bottom of the tube, which acts as a dew shield.

dew + cap, from O.E. cæppe "hood, head-covering," from L.L. cappa "a cape, hooded cloak."

Kolâhak, from kolâh "cap," see below, + similarity suffix -ak. Kolâh "cap," cf. L. celare "to hide, conceal," occulere "to dissimulate," Gk. kalyptein "to cover," kalia "hut, nest," Skt. cala "hut, house," Goth. hilms "helmet," huljan "cover over," hulistr "covering," E. hull "seed covering," from O.E. hulu, from O.H.G. hulla, hulsa, O.E. hol "cave;" PIE base *kel- "conceal." Šabnamdew.

dew point
  نقطه‌ی ِ شبنم   
noqte-ye šabnam (#)

Fr.: point de rosée   

The temperature to which a given air parcel must be cooled at constant pressure and constant water vapor content in order for saturation to occur.

dew; → point.

dewar
  دو‌ءر   
dewar

Fr.: dewar, vase dewar   

Insulated bottle containing a cryogenic fluid. The electronic detectors operated at very low temperature are mounted inside a dewar.

Named after its inventor Sir James Dewar (1842-1923), Scottish chemist and physicist.

dewbow
  شبنم‌کمان   
šabnam kamân

Fr.:   

A rainbow formed in the small drops often found on grass in early morning. While the name implies that those drops are dew, that is probably rarely the case. Rather, the drops are usually the result of guttation (the water exuded from leaves as a result of root pressure) rather than dew.

dew; → bow.

dex
  دکس   
deks (#)

Fr.: dex   

A conventional notation for decimal exponent, which converts the number after it into its common antilogarithm; for example, dex (2.35) = 102.35.

From decimal + exponent.

dextro-, dextr-
  راست-   
râst- (#)

Fr.: dextro-, dextr-   

A combining form meaning "right" and "turning clockwise," used in the formation of compound words, e.g. → dextrorotatory, dextrocardia, dextrocular, etc. The variant dextr- occurs before vowels. Compare → levo-.

From L. dextr-, from dexter "right, right-hand;" cf. Gk. dexios "right," dexiteros "located on the right side;" Av. dašina- "right; south" ( Mid.Pers. dašn "right hand; " Ossetic dæsni "skillful, dexterous"); Skt. dáksina- "right; southern;" Goth. taihswo "right hand;" O.Ir. dess "on the right hand, southern;" PIE base *deks- "right;" + epenthetic vowel -o-; see also → south.

Râst- from râst, → right.

dextrorotation
  راست‌چرخش   
râstcarxeš

Fr.: dextrorotation   

The clockwise rotation of the → plane of polarization of light (as viewed by an observer looking straight in the incoming light) by certain substances. See also → levorotation.

dextro-; → rotation.

dextrorotatory
  راست‌چرخ   
râstcarx

Fr.: dextrogyre   

Relating to an → optically active substance that causes → dextrorotation.

Adj. related to → dextrorotation.

di-
  دو-، دی-   
do-, di-

Fr.: di-   

A prefix meaning "two; twice; double." → dimer, → diode, → dipole, → diproton.

L. di, from Gk., → two.

diagnose
  پرناسیدن   
parnâsidan

Fr.: diagnostiquer   

To identify the nature of (an illness or other problem) by examination of the symptoms (OxfordDictionaries.com).

diagnosis.

diagnosis
  پرناس   
parnâs

Fr.: diagnostic   

1) The process of determining by examination the nature and circumstances of a diseased condition.
2) The decision reached from such an examination.
3) Scientific determination; a description that classifies a group or taxon precisely; a determining or analysis of the cause or nature of a problem or situation (Dictionary.com).

L., from Gk. diagnosis "a discerning, distinguishing," from stem of diagignoskein "discern, distinguish," literally "to know thoroughly," from dia- "through" + gignoskein "to learn," cognate with Pers. šenâs-, šenâxtan "to know, to be acquinted" and dânestan "to know," as below, ultimately from PIE root *gno- "to know."

Parnâs, from par- "through," + nâs "to know," as in Zazaki nâs- "to know," Kurd. nâs-, nâsîn "to know," related to Pers. šenâs- "to know," related to šenâxtan, → knowledge and dânestan, → science.

diagnostic
  ۱) پرناسی؛ ۲) پرناسه   
1) parnâsi; 2) parnâsé

Fr.: diagnostique   

1a) Of, relating to, or used in → diagnosis.
1b) Serving to identify or characterize; being a precise indication.
2a) Diagnosis.
2b) A symptom or characteristic of value in diagnosis.
2c) A message output by a computer diagnosing an error in a computer program, computer system, or component device; a program or subroutine that produces such messages (Dictionary.com).

From Gk. diagnostikos "able to distinguish," → diagnosis.

diagnosis.

diagonal
  تراکنج   
tarâkonj

Fr.: diagonale   

In a → polygon, a line segment joining any two non-adjacent vertices (→ vertex).

From M.Fr. diagonal, from L. diagonalis, from diagonus "slanting line," from Gk. diagonios "from angle to angle," from dia- "across, dividing two parts" + gonia "angle," related to gony "knee," L. genu "knee," Mod.Pers. zânu "knee," Av. žnav-, žnu- "knee," Skt. janu-; PIE base *g(e)neu-, see below.

Tarâkonj, from tarâ- "across, through," → trans-, + konj "angle, corner, confined place" (variants xong "corner, angle," Tabari kânj, Kurd. kunj, Hamadâni kom), maybe from the PIE base *g(e)neu-, as above, and related to Mod.Pers. zânu "knee" (Av. žnu-), Skt. kona- "angle, corner," Gk. gony, gonia, L. cuneus "a wedge," Albanian (Gheg dialect) kân "angle, corner," Albanian (Toks) kënd "angle, corner."

diagram
  نمودار   
nemudâr (#)

Fr.: diagramme   

A graphic representation of the behavior of one or several variables.

From Fr. diagramme, from L. diagramma, from Gk. diagramma "that which is marked out by lines," from diagraphein "to mark out by lines," from dia- "across, out" + graphein "to write, draw," → -graphy.

Nemudâr agent noun of nemudan "to show," → display, from the past stem nemud + -âr, such as xâstâr, foruxtâr, padidâr, parastâr (contraction of *parastidâr).

diamagnetic
  پادمغناتی   
pâdmeqnâti

Fr.: diamagnétique   

Relative to or characterized by → diamagnetism.

diamagnetism.

diamagnetism
  پادمغنات‌مندی   
pâdmeqnâtmandi

Fr.: diamagnétisme   

The property of a substance, like bismuth, that creates a weak magnetic field in opposition of an externally applied magnetic field, thus causing a repulsive effect. In diamagnetic materials the → magnetic moments of individual atoms are not permanent. Within each atom the electron spins and orbital motions all exactly balance out, so any particular atom has no net magnetic moment. The external magnetic field generates little currents by induction. According to → Lenz's law, the induced magnetic moments of the atoms are directed opposite to the magnetic field.

Diamagnetic, from Gk. dia- a prefix used with several meanings "passing through; thoroughly; completely; going apart," and in the present case "opposed;" → magnetic. magnetic.

Pâdmeqnât, from pâd- "against, contrary," → anti-, + megnâtmagnetism.

diameter
  ترامون   
tarâmun (#)

Fr.: diamètre   

Any chord passing through the center of a figure. The length of this chord.

O.Fr. diamètre, from L. diametrus, from Gk. diametros "diagonal of a circle," from dia- "across, through" + metron "a measure" → meter.

Tarâmun, from tarâ- "across, through," → trans- + mun/mân "measure," as in Pers. terms pirâmun "perimeter," âzmun "test, trial," peymân "measuring, agreement," peymâné "a measure; a cup, bowl," from O.Pers./Av. mā(y)- "to measure," cf. Skt. mati "measures," matra- "measure," Gk. metron "measure," L. metrum; PIE base *me- "to measure."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>