An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13048 Search : far
histogram
  نمودار ِ ستونی   
nemudâr-e sotuni (#)

Fr.: histogramme   

A type of graphical representation, used in statistics, in which frequency distributions are illustrated by rectangles.

Histogram, from Gk. histo-, a combining form meaning "tissue," from histos "mast, loom, beam, warp, web," literally "that which causes to stand," from histasthai "to stand," from PIE *sta- "to stand" (cf. Pers. ist-, istâdan "to stand;" O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set;" Skt. sthâ- "to stand;" L. stare "to stand;" Lith. statau "place;" Goth. standan); → -gram.

Nemudâr, → diagram + sotuni "column-like," from sotun "column," from Mid.Pers. stun, from O.Pers. stênâ "column," Av. stuna-, Skt. sthuna- "column."

historical
  تاریخی   
târixi (#)

Fr.: historique   

Of, pertaining to, treating, or characteristic of → history or past events (Dictionary.com). → historical supernova.

history; → -al.

historical supernova
  اَبَر-نو‌اَختر ِ تاریخی   
abar-now-axtar-e târixi (#)

Fr.: supernova historique   

A supernova event recorded in the course of history before the invention of the telescope. The well recorded supernovae of this small group are SN 185, SN 1006, SN 1054 (→ Crab Nebula), SN 1181, SN 1572 (→ Tycho's star), and SN 1604 (→ Kepler's star).

historical; → supernova.

history
  تاریخ   
târix (#)

Fr.: histoire   

1) The branch of knowledge dealing with past events.
2) The record and explanation of past events and times, especially in connection with a particular people, country, period, person, etc. See: → star formation history, → historical supernova.

History, from M.E. histoire, historie, from O.Fr. estoire, histoire, from L. historia "narrative, tale, story," from Gk. historia "a learning or knowing by inquiry, record, account," from historein "to inquire," from histor "one who knows or sees, wise man, " from PIE *wid-tor-, from base *weid- "to know; to see;" cf. Pers. bin- "to see" (present stem of didan); Mid.Pers. wyn-; O.Pers. vain- "to see;" Av. vaēn- "to see;" Skt. veda "I know." Related to Gk. idein "to see," and to eidenai "to know," → idea.

Târix, from Ar., itself, according to Abu Rayhân Biruni (973-1048, in Athar al-Baqqiya), loan from Mid.Pers. mâhrôz "date," first Arabicized as murux, from which the infinitive taurix, and then târix.

hoarfrost
  بشم   
bašm (#)

Fr.: givre, gelée   

Another name for → frost.

Hoba meteorite
  شهابسنگ ِ هوبا   
šahâbsang-e Hoba

Fr.: météorite d'Hoba   

The world's largest meteorite found in 1920, near Grootfontein, Namibia. It was discovered by Jacobus H. Brits while ploughing one of his fields with an ox. The meteorite is tabular in shape and measures 2.95 x 2.84 m; it has an average thickness of about 1 m (1.22 m maximum and 0.75 m minimum). The Hoba meteorite weighs about 65-70 tons. Its chemical composition is 82.4 % iron, 16.4 % nickel, 0.8 % Cobalt, and traces of other metals. No crater is present around the site of the meteorite, probably because it fell at a lower rate of speed than expected. The flat shape of the object may be responsible for its low velocity at impact.

Named after Hoba West, the farm it was discovered; → meteorite.

Hohmann transfer
  تراوژ ِ هوهمن   
tarâvaž-e Hohmann

Fr.: transfert de Hohmann   

An → orbital maneuver using two timed engine impulses to move a spacecraft between two coplanar circular orbits. It is performed through an elliptic orbit which is tangent to both circles at their periapses (→ periapsis).

Hohmann transfer orbit.

Hohmann transfer orbit
  مدار ِ تراوژ ِ هوهمن   
madâr-e tarâvaž-e Hohmann

Fr.: orbite de trandfer   

An elliptical orbit that is the most economical path for a spacecraft to take from one planet to another. In the case of Earth-Mars travel, the desired orbit's → perihelion will be at the distance of Earth's orbit, and the → aphelion will be at the distance of Mars' orbit. The portion of the solar orbit that takes the spacecraft from Earth to Mars is called its trajectory. Earth and Mars align properly for a Hohmann transfer once every 26 months. → Hohmann transfer.

Named after Walter Hohmann (1880-1945), German engineer, who developed basic principles and created advanced tools necessary for the conquest of space. In 1925 he published The Attainability of the Heavenly Bodies in which he described the mathematical principles that govern space vehicle motion, in particular spacecraft transfer between two orbits.

hole
  سوراخ، چاله، چال   
surâx (#), câlé (#), câl (#)

Fr.: trou   

1) General: An opening through something; an area where something is missing; a serious discrepancy.
2) Astro.: → black hole; → coronal hole.
3) Electronics: The absence of an electron in the valency structure of a crystalline semiconductor, behaving like a positive charge carrier.

O.E. hol "orifice, hollow place," from P.Gmc. *khulaz (cf. O.H.G. hol, M.Du. hool, Ger. hohl "hollow"), from PIE base *kel- "to cover, conceal." → cell.

Surâx "hole," from Mid.Pers. sûlâk "whole, aperture," Av. sūra- "hole;" cf. Gk. koilos "hollow," L. cava "cave," cavus "hollow;" PIE base keuə- "to swell; vault, hole."
Câlé, câl "hole," from câh "a well, pit," from Mid.Pers. câh "a well;" Av. cāt- "a well," from kan- "to dig," uskən- "to dig out" (O.Pers. kan- "to dig," akaniya- "it was dug;" Mod.Pers. kandan "to dig"); cf. Skt. khan- "to dig," khanati "he digs," kha- "cavity, hollow, cave, aperture."

hole injection
  درشانش ِ سوراخ، ~ چاله   
daršâneš-e surâx, ~ câlé

Fr.: injection de trou   

The injection of holes in a semiconductor which can be produced by application of a sharp conducting point in contact with an n-type semiconductor.

hole; → injection.

holiday
  ۱) سپنت‌روز؛ ۲) آسودروز؛ ۳) آسودگان   
1) sepantruz; 2) âsudruz; 3) âsudgân

Fr.: 1); 2) férié; 3) vacances   

1) A day fixed by law or custom on which ordinary business is suspended in commemoration of some event or in honor of some person.
2) Any day of exemption from work.
3) (in plural form) A period of cessation from work or one of recreation; vacation.

O.E. haligdæg, from halig "holy," → heiligenschein, + dæg, → day.

1) Sepantruz, from sepant "holy," → heiligenschein, + ruz, → day.
2) Âsudruz, from âsud, âsudan "to rest, repose," from Mid.Pers. âsutan, Av. ā- + saē- (saii-) "to lie down, go to sleep;" + ruz, → day.
3) Âsudgân, from âsud, as before, + -gân suffix forming plurals.

holo-
  هرو-   
haru- (#)

Fr.: holo-   

A combining form meaning "complete, entire, total, whole," used in the formation of compound words: → holonomic, → holography, holomorphic.

From M.E. holo-, from O.fr., from L. hol-, holo-, from Gk. holos "whole," akin to Pers. har- "every, all, each, any," as below.

Haru, from Mid.Pers. har(v) "all, each, every" (Mod.Pers. har "every, all, each, any"); O.Pers. haruva- "whole, all together;" Av. hauruua- "whole, at all, undamaged;" cf. Skt. sárva- "whole, all, every, undivided;" Gk. holos "whole, complete;" L. salvus "whole, safe, healthy," sollus "whole, entire, unbroken;" PIE base *sol- "whole."

holocaust
  هروسوچ   
harusuc

Fr.: holocauste, shoa   

1) A great or complete devastation or destruction, especially by fire.
2) (usually initial capital letter, preceded by the) The systematic mass slaughter of European Jews in Nazi concentration camps during World War II (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from L.L. holocaustum, from Gk. holokaustos "burnt whole;" see → holo- "complete, entire, total," → caustic "burning; burnt."

Harusuc "entirely burnt;" → holo-, → caustic "burning; burnt."

hologram
  هرونگاشت   
harunegâšt (#)

Fr.: hologramme   

A three-dimensional image produced with the technique of → holography.

holo-; → -gram.

holographic
  هرونگاریک   
harunegârik

Fr.: holographique   

Of, relating to, or produced using → holography; three-dimensional.

holo- + → -graphic.

holographic grating
  توری ِ هرونگاریک   
turi-ye harunegârik

Fr.: réseau holographique   

A → diffraction grating produced from a series of constructive → interference fringes. The fringes, whose intensities vary in a sinusoidal pattern, correspond to the grooves of the grating. They are recorded on a photosensitive substrate and subsequently treated using a chemical procedure. Since the grooves are created by the interference of light, such a grating is free from the random and periodic errors present in → ruled gratings.

holographic; → grating.

holography
  هرونگاری   
harunegâri (#)

Fr.: holographie   

A technique for making three-dimensional images by recording → interference patterns from a split → laser beam on a medium such as photographic film. One of the → coherent beams irradiates the object, the second beam illuminates a recording medium. The two beams produce an interference pattern, called → hologram, on the film. The hologram contains information on both → phase and → amplitude of the object. However, this information is in a coded form, and the image must be reconstructed. When the object is removed and the hologram is illuminated by the laser from the original direction, a 3-dimensional image of the object appears where the object was originally, as if it were not removed. The visible object seems so real that the observer can detect → parallax by changing the position of one's head.

From → holo- "whole" + → -graphy. By using the term holography, Dennis Gabor (1900-1979), the Hungarian-British electrical engineer and inventor, wanted to stress that the technique records complete information about a wave, both about its amplitude and its phase, in contrast to the usual photography in which only the distribution of the amplitude is recorded.

holonomic system
  راژمان ِ هروداتیک   
râžmân-e harudâtik

Fr.: système holonomique   

A material system in which the → constraints can be expressed in the form of an equation relating the coordinates.

From Gk. → holo- "whole" + -nomic, related to nomos "law, managing, governing, custom," → -nomy; → system.

homage
  بزرگداشت   
bozorgdâšt (#)

Fr.: hommage   

1) Respect or reverence paid or rendered.
2) Something done or given in acknowledgment or consideration of the worth of another (Dictionary.com).

M.E. (h)omage, from O.Fr. homage "allegiance or respect for one's feudal lord," from homme "man," → human, + -age.

Bozordgâšt, literally "considered to be great," from bozorg "large, magnificent, great," → magnify, + dâšt, dâštan "to maintain, consider, possess, keep in mind, hold, have," → property.

homo-
  هم-   
ham- (#)

Fr.: homo-   

A combining form meaning "same" used in the formation of compound words. Also, especially before a vowel, hom-.

Homo-, from Gk. homos "one and the same," also "belonging to two or more jointly," from PIE *somos; cf. Pers. ham-, as below; Lith. similis "like," Goth. sama "the same," samana "together."

Ham- "together, with; same, equally, even," Mid.Pers. ham-, like L. com- and Gk. syn- with neither of which it is cognate. O.Pers./Av. ham-, Skt. sam-; also O.Pers./Av. hama- "one and the same," Skt. sama-, Gk. homos-; originally identical with PIE numeral *sam- "one," from *som-. The Av. ham- appears in various forms: han- (before gutturals, palatals, dentals) and also hem-, hen-.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>