An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 13116 Search : far
flash
  درخش   
deraxš (#)

Fr.: flash, éclair   

A Sudden, brief burst of light. In particular, → green flash.

From M.E. flasshen "to sprinkle, splash," from flasken, probably imitative.

Deraxš, present stem of deraxšidan "to shine, radiate," from raxš "lightening, reflection of light," raxšidan "to shine, flash," O.Pers. raucah-, Av. raocah- "light" (cf. Skt. roka- "brightness, light," Gk. leukos "white, clear," L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna), E. light, Ger. Licht, Fr. lumière; PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness"); cognate with Mod.Pers. words ruz "day," rowšan "bright, clear," foruq "light," and afruxtan "to light, kindle."

flash spectrum
  بیناب ِ درخشی   
binâb-e deraxši

Fr.: spectre-éclair   

The spectrum of the solar → chromosphere obtained during a → solar eclipse in the instant before or after → totality. In the flash spectrum the usual solar → absorption lines are replaced with bright → emission lines. This is because in that very short interval only the → photosphere is eclipsed by the Moon, and not the chromosphere. The American astronomer Charles A. Young was the first to observe it during the the solar eclipse of 1870 (December 22) in Spain.

The flash designation comes from the fact that the change from dark-line to bright-line spectrum is very rapid; → flash; → spectrum.

flat
  تخت   
taxt (#)

Fr.: plat   

Level and horizontal, without any slope; even and smooth, without any bumps or hollows.
See also:
flat manifold, → flat Universe, → flat-field, → flatness problem.

Flat, from O.N. flatr, from P.Gmc. *flataz (cf. O.H.G. flaz "flat, level," O.E. flet, O.H.G. flezzi "floor"), perhaps from PIE *pla- (cf. Gk. platys "broad, flat;" Av. pərətu- "broad, wide;" Skt. prthu- "broad, wide, large").

Taxt "flat;" Mid.Pers. taxtag "tablet, plank, (chess)board."

flat manifold
  بسلای ِ تخت   
baslâ-ye taxt

Fr.: variété plate   

A manifold with a → Riemannian metric that has → zero → curvature.

flat; → manifold.

flat rotation curve
  خم ِ چرخش ِ تخت   
xam-e carxeš-e taxt

Fr.: courbe de rotation plate   

A galactic → rotation curve in which the → rotation velocity is constant in the outer parts. The flat component is preceded by a rising curve that shows solid body rotation in the very center of the → galaxy. A flat rotation curve implies that the mass is still increasing linearly with radius. See also → dark matter.

flat; → rotation; → curve.

flat Universe
  گیتی ِ تخت   
giti-ye taxt

Fr.: univers plat   

A Universe where the → geometry is → Euclidean, i.e. parallel lines remain parallel when extended into the distance and the sum of the interior angles of a triangle is 180°. The → space-time in a flat Universe has a null → curvature constant, k = 0. See also → closed Universe, → open Universe.

flat; → universe.

flat-field
  میدان ِ تخت   

Fr.: champ plat   

Exposure of a diffuse and uniform source in order to calibrate the non-uniformity of an imaging detector such as a CCD.

flat; → field.

Meydân, → field; taxt, → flat.

flatness problem
  پراسه‌ی ِ تختی   
parâse-ye yaxti

Fr.: problème de la platitude   

The observed fact that the → geometry of the → Universe is very nearly flat, in other words its density is very close to the → critical density. This would be an extreme coincidence because a → flat Universe is a special case. Many attempts have been made to explain the flatness problem, and modern theories now include the idea of → inflation.

flat; → problem.

flavor
  چاشنی   
câšni (#)

Fr.: saveur   

11 Taste, especially the distinctive taste of something as it is experienced in the mouth. A particular quality noticeable in a thing (Dictionary.com).
2) Any of the six labels given to the distinct kinds of → quark: up, down, strange, charm, bottom, and top.
3) → neutrino flavor.

M.E., from O.Fr. flaor "smell, odor; action of smelling, sense of smell," probably from V.L. flator "odor," literally "that which blows," in L. "blower," from flareQ "to blow, puff," which is cognate with O.E. blawan, → blow.

Câšni "taste; taste by way of a sample; quality," related to cašidan, caš- "to taste," câšt "breakfast," cašté "bait;" Mid.Pers. câšt "meal," câšnig "taste;" cf. Skt. cas- "to eat;" Proto-Ir. caš- "to eat, to drink; to drip."

Fleming's rules
  رزن‌های ِ فلمینگ   
razanhâ-ye Fleming

Fr.: règles de Fleming   

Two rules used to assist in remembering the relative directions of the magnetic field, current, and motion in electrical machines, using one's fingers. The right hand refers to generators, the left hand to motors. The three directions are represented by the thumb (for force or motion), forefinger (for field), and second finger (for current), all held at right angles to each other.

Devised by the British physicist and electrical engineer John Ambrose Fleming (1849-1945).

flex
  چفتیدن، چفتن   
caftidan, caftan

Fr.:   

1) To bend or be bent.
2) Of a material, to be capable of warping or bending and then reverting to shape (OxfordDictionaries.com).

Probably a back-formation from → flexible, from L. flexus, p.p. of flectere "to bend, turn."

Caftidan, caftan "to bend, incline," cafté "curved, bent," of unknown origin.

flexibility
  چفتش‌پذیری   
caftešpaziri

Fr.: flexibilité   

1) The quality of bending easily without breaking.
2) The ability to be easily modified.

flexible; → -ity.

flexible
  چفتش‌پذیر   
caftešpazir

Fr.: flexible   

Capable of being bent easily without breaking.

flex + -ible, variant of → -able.

flexion
  چفتش   
cafteš

Fr.:   

1) The act of bending, the state of being bent.
2) The position that a limb assumes when it is bent.

flex; → -tion.

flexure
  چفتگی   
caftegi

Fr.: flexion   

The action of bending or curving, or the condition of being bent or curved.

flex + suffix -ure.

flight
  پرواز   
parvâz (#)

Fr.: vol   

The act, manner, or power of flying.

O.E. flyht "a flying, flight," from P.Gmc. *flukhtiz (cf. Ger. Flucht).

Parvâz, from Mid.Pers. parwâz; Av. pāirivāza- "overrunning," from pāiri- "over (of space), from" + vāza- from vaz- "to fly, float; to drive;" cf. Skt. vah-, vahati. Also Mid.Pers. vâz "jump, flight," Mod.Pers. Lori, Gilaki, Tabari vâz "jump, leap."

flint glass
  فلینت، شیشه‌ی ِ ~   
flint, šiše-ye ~ (#)

Fr.: flint, flint-glass   

A basic type of optical glass containing lead oxide and a smaller amount of potassium, characterized by its brilliance, clarity, and durability. It has a high → dispersion relative to its → refractive index, as compared to, e.g. → crown glass. Flint glass is sometimes used as the diverging lens component of an → achromatic lens. It is also used in the manufacture of table glassware.

Flint, because it was originally made of calcined flints, from M.E., O.E.; cf. M.Du. vlint, O.H.G. flins, Dan. flint; Gk. plinthos "brick, tile."

flocculent spiral galaxy
  کهکشان ِ مارپیچ ِ پشمین   
kahkešân-e mârpic-e pašmin

Fr.: galaxie spirale floculente   

A galaxy that has short segments of patchy spiral structure so that the disk appears like the fleece of a sheep. Examples: NGC 2841 and NGC 5055.

From L. floccus "flock of wool" + -ulent; → spiral galaxy.

Kahkešân, → galaxy; mârpic, → spiral; pašmin "woolly, woollen," from pašm "wool" (Mid.Pers. pašm "wool;" Av. pašna- "eyelash, eyelid;" cp. Skt. páksman- "eyelashes;" Gk. pekos "wool, fleece," pek(t)ein "to comb, pluck;" Lith. pešti "to pluck;" O.N. fax "mane").

flood
  لف، سیل   
laf, seyl (#)

Fr.: inondation   

The overflowing of the normal confines of a stream or other body of water, or the accumulation of water over areas that are not normally submerged.

O.E. flod "a flowing of water, river, sea," from P.Gmc. *flothuz (cf. M.Du. vloet, Ger. Flut), from PIE *plo-/*pleu- "flow, float" (cf. Gk. ploein "to float, swim").

Laf "flood," from Lori, Kordi, Malâyeri, in Tabari, variants lur, lây "flood" [Mo'in, Dehxodâ]; cf. Gk. louein "to wash;" L. luere "to wash;" Bret. laouer "trough;" PIE *lou- "to wash." Seyl from Ar.

floor
  کف   
kaf (#)

Fr.: sol   

1) That part of a room, hallway, or the like, that forms its lower enclosing surface and upon which one walks.
2) A level, supporting surface in any structure (Dictionary.com).

M.E. flor, from O.E. flor (cf. M.Du. vloer, M.H.G. vluor, Ger. Flur "field, meadow"), from PIE *plaros, from *pele- "flat; to spread."

Kaf "floor; plain ground."

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer aga air Alf Alg alk Alp alt alu amm ana And ang ani ano ant ant Ap apo app app Aqu Arc arg arr asc ass ast ast asy atm ato att aur aut axi B-m bad Bal bar bar Bay Bed ber Bet bif bim bin bio bis bla ble blu Bod Bol bor bou Bra Bre bro bul C-t Cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl Cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col Com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo Cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl Dan dat Dav de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den den der det deu dew dic dif dif dil Dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dod Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn DZ Ear ecc eco edi EHB Ein ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp end Eng ent epi equ equ era ESP eth Eur evi exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fec Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla Flo flu fog for for Fou fra fre fre Fro fun G s Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel Hen Her hex hig Hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyb hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp in- inc Ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jor jum K c Kep Ker kin kno lab Lam Lan Lap las lat Le lef len lev lig lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou LS lun lun Lym M s Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor nos nuc nuc num nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi P-w pal par par par par Pas pat pej per per per per per per pha Phe pho pho pho phy pin pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol Pol pol por pos pot Poy pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Psa pul pum Q i qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set Sha sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe Spe spe sph spi Spi spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto str str sub sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tac tas tel tem ter tes the the the the thi thr tid til tip ton tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ UHE ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec Vel ver Ver vie Vir vis vis vol W-R war wav wav wea Wei wha wid win WN3 Wol wri xen yok zen zij > >>