An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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sound
  ۱) صدا؛ ۲) دروا   
1) sedâ (#); 2) dorvâ

Fr.: 1) son; 2) sain   

1) A physiological sensation received by the ear. It is caused by a vibrating source and transmitted as a longitudinal pressure wave motion through a material medium such as air.
2a) Free from damage, injury, decay, etc.
2b) Describing an → argumentiff its → reasoning is → valid and all its → premises are → true.
2c) Logic: A formal system is sound if all the → inferences that are permitted by the rules of the system are valid inferences, that is, if no invalid arguments are provable within the system. → soundness.

1) M.E. soun; O.Fr. son, from L. sonus "sound," sonare "to sound;" PIE base *suen- "to sound;" cf. Av. xvan- "to sound;" Pers. xvân-, xvândan "to sing, read;" Skt. svana- "sound," svan- "to sound," svanati "it sounds;" O.E. swinn "music, song" (Cheung 2007).
2) M.E. sund, from O.E. gesund "sound, safe, having the organs and faculties complete and in perfect action," cf. O.S. gisund, O.Fris. sund, Du. gezond, O.H.G. gisunt, Ger. gesund "healthy," as in interjection gesundheit.

1) Sedâ "sound," most probably a Pers. term, since it exists also in Indo-Aryan languages: Skt. (late Vedic): sabda "articulate sound, noise," Pali and Prakriti: sadda "sound, noise," Sindhi: sadu, sado "shout, call," Gujrâti sad "call, voice, echo," Marathi: sad "shouting to," Konkani sad "sound," Sinhali: sada "sound." Therefore, sadâ in Ar. "reverberating noise, echo" maybe a loan from Pers., or a coincidence. Note that for the author of the classical Pers. dictionary Borhân-e Qâte' (India, 1652 A.D.), the Ar. term is a loanword from Pers.
2) Dorvâ (Dehxodâ) "whole, right, just;" Qâyeni, Gonâbâdi, Tabasi, Râvari dorvâx "healthy, whole," dorvâxi "health" (related to Pers. dorud "benediction, praise," dorost "whole, healthy, right"); cf. Sogd. žûk (from *druva-) "healthy;" O.Pers. duruwa- "healthy, firm, secure;" Av. druua- "healthy, firm, sound," druuatāt "health, soundness," drvô.cašman- "of sound eyes;" Skt. dhruvá- "fixed, firm;" → integral.

sound barrier
  دیوار ِ صدا، ورغه‌ی ِ ~   
divâr-e sedâ, varqe-ye ~

Fr.: mur du son   

A sharp increase in aerodynamic drag that occurs as the speed of an aircraft approaches the speed of sound. Also called sonic barrier.

sound; → barrier.

sound energy
  کاروژ ِ صدا   
kâruž-e sedâ

Fr.: énergie acoustique   

The energy which → sound waves impart to a medium. Same as acoustic energy.

sound; → energy.

sound field
  میدان ِ صدا   
meydân-e sedâ

Fr.: champ acoustique   

The distribution of → sound energy in a defined space.

sound; → field.

sound horizon
  افق ِ صدا   
ofoq-e sedâ

Fr.: horizon sonore   

The maximum distance a → sound wave could have traveled through the ionized plasma from the → Big Bang until the → recombination era. It is 150 → Mpc, or bout 500 million → light-years. Sound horizon is the equivalent of the concept of → cosmic horizon, where one replaces → electromagnetic wave by → sound wave. The sound horizon is a fixed physical scale at the → last scattering surface. Cosmological models relate the value of sound horizon to the angle it subtends on the sky today. Same as acoustic horizon and sonic horizon. See also → CMB angular power spectrum.

sound; → horizon.

sound intensity
  درتنویی ِ صدا   
dartanuyi-ye sedâ

Fr.: intensité de son   

The average → sound power passing through a unit area perpendicular to the direction that the sound is traveling. It is usually expressed in watts per square meter.

sound; → level.

sound intensity level
  تراز ِ درتنویی ِ صدا   
tarâz-e dartanuyi-ye sedâ

Fr.: niveau de l'intensité de son   

The expression of sound intensity in decibel units. The sound intensity level (LI), in decibels, is computed as: LI = 10 log (I/I0), where I is the measured sound intensity and I0 is the reference intensity (1 x 10 -12 watt per square meter).

sound; → intensity; → level.

sound power
  توان ِ صدا   
tavân-e sedâ

Fr.: puissance de son   

The → sound energy emitted by a source per unit time, usually expressed in → watts. Sound power causes → sound pressure.

sound; → power.

sound power level
  تراز ِ توان ِ صدا   
tarâz-e tavân-e sedâ

Fr.: niveau de la puissance de son   

The sound energy emitted by a sound source per unit time and expressed in → decibels. Sound power, in → watts, is converted to sound power level in decibels (L), by L = 10 log (W/W0), where W0 is the reference power (1 x 10 -12 watt).

sound; → power; → level.

sound pressure
  فشار ِ صدا   
fešâr-e sedâ

Fr.: pression de son   

The periodic fluctuation above and below atmospheric pressure created by an oscillating body which provides the → sound power. Instantaneous sound pressure is the peak value of air pressure.

sound; → pressure.

sound quality
  چونای ِ صدا   
cunâ-ye sedâ

Fr.: qualité de son   

The number of → overtones present in a sound and their respective intensity. Like → loudness, it is a subjective quantity and cannot be measured with instruments.

sound; → quality.

sound speed
  تندی ِ صدا   
tondi-ye sedâ

Fr.: vitesse du son   

The velocity of propagation of a → longitudinal wave in a medium under specified conditions. Also known as sonic speed, sonic velocity, acoustic velocity, sound velocity, velocity of sound, speed of sound. The speed of sound is a thermodynamic property that relates to the change in pressure and density of the medium and can be expressed as C = (dP/dρ)1/2, where C is the sound velocity, dP is the change in pressure, and dρ the change in density. It can also be expressed as C = (E/ρ)1/2, where E is the bulk modulus elasticity. This equation is valid for liquids, solids and gases. The sound travels faster through media with higher → elasticity and/or lower density. If a medium is → incompressible the speed of sound is infinite. For → ideal gases, a simple relationship exists between the sound speed and temperature: C = (γR T)1/2, where γ is the → specific heat ratio (CP/CV), and R is the → gas constant. We see that for ideal gases it the speed is independent of pressure. In air at 0°C it is 332 m/sec. The speed of sound in a gas of hydrogen is 1315 m/s. → Mach number.

sound; → speed.

sound wave
  موج ِ صدا   
mowj-e sedâ (#)

Fr.: onde sonore   

A → longitudinal wave which when striking the ear gives rise to the sensation of sound. Such waves can be propagated in solids, liquids, and gases. The material particles transmitting sound waves oscillate in the direction of propagation of the wave itself. There is a large range of frequencies within which longitudinal waves can stimulate the human ear and brain to the sensation of hearing. This range is from about 20 → Hz to about 20,000 Hz and is called the audible range. → ultrasound; → infrasound.

sound; → wave.

sounding
  گمانه‌زنی   
gomâné-zani

Fr.: sondage, radiosondage   

1) In geophysics, any penetration of the natural environment for scientific observation.
2) In meteorology, a free, unmanned balloon carrying instruments aloft to make atmospheric measurements, esp. a radiosonde balloon.
3) The measurement of the depth of water beneath a vessel.

From Fr. sonder, → sonde.

From gomâné, → sonde, + zani verbal noun of zadan "to do; to strike, beat; to play an instrument" (Mid.Pers. zatan, žatan; O.Pers./Av. jan-, gan- "to strike, hit, smite, kill" (jantar- "smiter"); cf. Skt. han- "to strike, beat" (hantar- "smiter, killer"); Gk. theinein "to strike;" L. fendere "to strike, push;" Gmc. *gundjo "war, battle;" PIE *gwhen- "to strike, kill").

sounding balloon
  بالون ِ گمانه‌زنی   
bâlon-e gamâne-zani

Fr.: ballon-sonde   

A small, free balloon sent into the upper atmosphere to measure, record, and transmit meteorological reports to a ground station.

sounding; → balloon.

soundness
  دروایی   
dorvâyi

Fr.: santé   

1) The quality of being → sound.
2) Logic: The quality or condition of a → deductive reasoning if it meets the two conditions of → valid arguments and → truepremises. These are the → necessary and sufficient conditions for soundness.

sound; → -ness.

source
  خن   
xan

Fr.: source   

General: Any thing or place from which something comes, arises, or is obtained.
Physics: A point, line, or area in space from which the lines of force in a vector field originate.
Electricity: Any active component, battery, or generator that supplies energy.
Thermodynamics: Any body, device, or system that provides energy.

M.E., from O.Fr. sourse "a rising, beginning, fountainhead of a river or stream," from p.p. of sourdre "to rise, spring up," from L. surgere "to rise," → surge.

Xan "source," variant xân (Gilaki xoni, Tabari xoni,Laki kyani, Tâleši xâni, xoni,); Mid.Pers. xân, xânig "source, spring," Av. xâ-, xan- "source, fountain, spring," xayana- "belonging to a spring;" cf. Khotanese khâhâ- "spring, fountain;" Skt. khâ'- "spring, source."

source function
  کریای ِ خن   
karyâ-ye xan

Fr.: fonction source   

For a radiating material, the ratio of emissivity to opacity.

source; → function.

south
  دشتر   
daštar

Fr.: Sud   

The cardinal point which is opposite to north. It is also the direction of the Sun at local noon (in the northern hemisphere).

M.E. suth(e), south(e), from O.E. suth "southward, in the south;" cf. O.S., O.Fris. suth "southward, in the south," M.Du. suut), O.H.G. sund, perhaps related to base of *sunnon "sun," with sense of "the region of the sun."

Note: South is related to right since it is to the right when one faces the rising Sun. This occurs in, for example, in Av., Skt., and O.Ir., as below.

Daštar, from Mid.Pers. dašn "right hand;" Av. dašina- "right;" Ossetic dæsni "skillful, dexterous;" cf. Skt. dáksina- "right; southern;" Gk. dexios (<*deks-i-uo-) "right," dexiteros "located on the right side;" L. dexter "right;" Goth. taihswo "right hand;" O.Ir. dess "on the right hand, southern;" PIE base *deks- "right." The second element -tar direction suffix, as in Mid.Pers. ošastar "east" (Av. ušastara- "eastern"), dôšastar "west" (Av. daôšatara-, daôšastara- "western"), abâxtar "north" (Av. apāxtara- "northern"), Mod.Pers. bâxtar, → west.

South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA)
  ناسانی ِ اتلسی ِ دشتر   
nâsâni-ye Atlas-e daštar

Fr.: Anomalie Atlantique Sud   

A region of the Earth where the inner → Van Allen belt comes closest to the Earth's surface. It is due to the fact that the → geomagnetic field is offset from the center of the Earth. The region is centered near 25 degrees South 50 degrees West, close to the Atlantic coast of Brazil. The excess of trapped energetic particles in that region presents a problem for satellites in orbit around the Earth.

south; → Atlantic; → anomaly.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21 a p abe abs abs aca acc acc acr act ada adh Adr aer AGB air Alf Alg all alp alt AM amo ana And ang ani ano Ant Ant apa apo app app Ara Arc ari Arr ash ass ast ast asy atm ato att aut ave axi Bab bal Bal bar bar bea Bek Bes bia Big bin bin bip biv bla bli blu Boh Bol Bos bou bra bri bro buo cal cal can cap car Car cat cat CCD Cen cen CH cha cha che Che chr cir cir cit cla clo clo clu Coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos cou cou Cow cre cri cro cry cur cya Cyg dan dar dat de- deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dih dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis DO don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ equ esc eth Eur Eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext ext fac fal far fed Fer fer fie fin fir fis fla flo flu fol for for fou fra fre Fre fro fut G-t gal gal gam gas Gau Gem gen geo geo geo gia Gli Gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I Hag hal har hat He- hea hel Hel her Hes hie hig his hom hor hot Hub Hug hur hyd hyd hyg hyp ice ide ima Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ing inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur Kel Kep kil Klo Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Meg Mer Mer met met Met mic Mid Mil min Mir mit mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ ocu oft ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy pio Pla pla pla pla Pla plu Poi pol pol pol poo pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pre pri pri pro pro pro pro pro Pro pro pse pul pur qua qua qua qua que rac rad rad rad rad rad rad ran rar ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel ren res res res res ret rev Ric rig rin roc roo rot rot Rus Sac sal sat sca sca Sch sci Scu sec sec Sed sel Sel sen ser Sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi spr squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste Sto Str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur swa syn syn tab tar tek tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tis Too Tor tra tra Tra tra tra tri tri tru Tul tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unk upp Urc utt val var vec vel ver vib vio vir vis voi vor wan wat wav wax wea Wei whi Wil win WN9 wor X-r yel you zer zod > >>