An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cow cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg dam dar dat de deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ Equ esc eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iro irr iso iso ite jel Jou Jup kao Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam lan lar las law lea leg Leo lex lig lim lin lin lin lit Loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met met mic mic Mik min min mis mob mod mol mon moo mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ odd OH Ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho pi pip Pla pla pla pla ple poa pol Pol pol pol pop pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sh2 sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unp upp urg V20 Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Vol Vul wan wat wav WC4 wea wel whi Wil wis WNL wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>

Number of Results: 12982 Search : far
-escent
   -است   
-est

Fr.: -escent   

A suffix of adjectives often corresponding to verbs in -esce and nouns in -escence. → luminescent.

From -escentia, from escens, from esse "to be," → existence, + -ia.

-escence.

-fy
   -ایدن، کردن، ساختن، آردن   
-idan, kardan, sâxtan, ârdan

Fr.: -fier, faire   

Suffix meaning "to make, cause to be."

From Fr. -fier, from L. -ficare, from facere "to make, do;" cognate with Pers. dâdan "to give;" → fact.

Suffix -idan forming infinitives; kardan "to do, to make," → -ize; sâxtan "to build, make, fashion," → perfect; ârdan contraction of âvardan "to bring; to cause, produce" (Mid.Pers. âwurtan, âvaritan; Av. ābar- "to bring; to possess," from prefix ā- + Av./O.Pers. bar- "to bear, carry," bareθre "to bear (infinitive)," bareθri "a female that bears (children), a mother;" Mod.Pers. bordan "to carry;" Skt. bharati "he carries;" Gk. pherein; L. fero "to carry").

-gen
   -ژن   
-žen (#)

Fr.: -gène   

A combining form (also -gene) used in the formation of compound words, meaning: 1) "one that generates:" → hydrogen, → halogen, andogen, and so on. 2) "one that is generated, produced:" exogen, cultigen, phosgene.

From Fr. -gène "producing," Gk. -genes "produced, born," → generate;

-genesis
   -زایی   
-zâyi (#)

Fr.: -génèse   

A combining form of genesis.

From L. genesis, from Gk. genesis "origin, generation," from gignesthai "to be born," related to genos "race, birth, descent," cognate with Pers. zâdan "to bring forth, give birth," → generate.

-gon
   -بر، -گوش   
-bar (#), -guš (#)

Fr.: -gone   

A combining form meaning "angled, angular," used in the formation of compound words. → heptagon, → hexagon, → polygon.

From Gk. gonia "angle," related to gony "knee;" L. genu "knee;" Mod.Pers. zânu "knee;" Av. žnav-, žnu- "knee;" Skt. janu-; PIE base *g(e)neu-.

From bar "side; breadth; breast," variant var (Mid.Pers. var "breast;" Av. vouru "wide, broad, extended" (vourucašāni- "looking far"), related to varah- "breast;" cf. Skt. urú- "wide, broad," úras- "breast;" Gk. eurus "wide, broad;" PIE base uer-, ueru-s"wide, broad"); -guš "corner, angle," Mid.Pers. gošak "corner."

-gram
   -نگاشت   
-negâšt (#)

Fr.: -gramme   

A combining form meaning "something drawn, written" (diagram, spectrogram, oscillogram).

From Gk. -gramma, combining form of gramma "something written or drawn," → graph.

-Negâšt, from negâšt "drawn, written;" p.p. of negâštan, negârdan "to paint, write," → graph.

-graph
   -نگار   
-negâr (#)

Fr.: -graphe   

A suffix meaning "drawn, written," specialized in meaning to indicate the instrument rather than the written product of the instrument.

A suffix, from Gk. -graphos "(something) drawn or written, one who draws or writes," from graphein "to draw, write."

A suffix from the stem of negârdan, negâštan "to paint, write," → graph.

-graphic
   -نگاریک   
-negârik

Fr.: -graphique   

An adjective relating to → -graph.

-graph + → -ic.

-graphy
   -نگاری   
-negâri (#)

Fr.: -graphie   

A combining form denoting a process or form of drawing, writing, representing, recording, describing, etc., or an art or science concerned with such a process. Examples: geography; orthography; → photography; → radiography; → selenography; → tomography.

graph.

-hedron
  دیمه   
-dimé

Fr.: -èdre   

A combining form meaning "face" used in the names of geometrical solid figures having the form or number of faces specified by the initial element.

N.L., from Gk -edron, from hedra "seat, base, chair, face of a geometric solid," from PIE root *sed- "to → sit."

Dimé, from dim, → face.

-ic
   -ایک، -ای   
-ik (#), -i (#)

Fr.: -ique   

A suffix forming adjectives from nouns and bearing several senses; adjective suffix of nouns ending in → -ics.

-ics.

-ics
   -ایک   
-ik (#)

Fr.: -ique   

A suffix of nouns that denotes science, knowledge, principles, characteristic actions or activities, such as → physics, → statistics, → ballistics, politics, ethics. See also → -logy.

Suffix -ics, from -ic + plural suffix -s, from O.Fr. -ique, from L. -icus, Gk. -ikos; cf. O.E. -ig, from P.Gmc. *-iga, Ger. -ig.

Mod.Pers. -ik, from Mid.Pers. -ik or -ig, possibly from the Av. noun and adjective forming suffix -ika, -ka, -aka (as in ainika- "face," maršdika- "mercy," pairikā- "fairy," kasvika- "trifling," kutaka- "small," ahmāka- "ours"). In Mid.Pers. it had an extensive use for creating adjectives of relation. Some examples:
cihrik, cihrig "natural," from cihr (Mod.Pers. cehr);
gohrik, gohrig "natural, essential," from gohr (Mod.Pers. gowhar);
gumânik, gumânig "doubtful," from gumân (Mod.Pers. gomân);
kunišnik "doable, related to action," from konišn (Mod.Pers. koneš);
mânik, mânig "household belonging, household member," from mân (Mod.Pers. mân);
manik "mine, related to me," from man (Mod.Pers. man);
narik "related to male," from nar (Mod.Pers. nar);
xvartik, xwarišnig "edible," from xvart, xwarišn (Mod.Pers. xord, xoreš);
gâsânik, gâhânig "related to the Gathas (the oldest songs of the Avesta, which are attributed to Zarathushtra himself)," from gâsân (Mod.Pers. gâhân);
dâtik, dâdig "legal, concerned with the law," from dât (Mod.Pers. dâd).

Although it has changed into -i in Mod.Pers. (like O.E. -ig into E. -y, as in juicy, dreamy), it is extant in a number of adjectives: târik "dark;" nazdik "near;" bârik "narrow;" zandik (Arabicized zandiq) "heretic;" Monjik (Termezi), pen name of an 11th century Persian poet, from monj "honeybee," referring to his poems being as sweet as honey. The suffix is active in the Tabari dialect, as in larzenik "subject to fear, full of fear, timorous, fearful," ramendik "timid, fugitive," xordinik "very small," bermendik, bərmənik "person who cries easily, highly sensitive person," from bərmən "cry," and also appears as -ij in yušij "related to, belong to Yuš (a famous village in Mâzandarân)," and in the dialect of Boyin-Zahra dehij "villager, peasant, rustic" from deh "village." In recent years -ik has been reactivated in technical terminology to render E. -ics (Fr. -ique, Ger. -ik), as in the following examples: âvâyik "phonetics;" farmânik "cybernetics;" ma'nâyik "semantics;" nurik "optics;" partâbik "ballistics;" tavânik, niruyik "dynamics;" zabânik "linguistics."

The revival of -ik is interesting for several reasons, mainly:
a) In the European scientific terminology, branches of science are denoted by two suffixes:
1) -logy, as in biology, geology, mineralogy, etc. The Pers. counterpart of this suffix is the widely used -šenâsi, → -logy;
2) -ics, as in biotics, dynamics, kinematics, mathematics, etc. Lacking a Pers. equivalent until recently, -ics was equated with -logy. However, the Pers. suffix -ik produces helpful semantic nuances and allows us new constructions from the same base, for example:
biology "zistšenâsi;"
biotics "zistik."
b) Moreover, in some cases -ik is more efficient than -šenâsi. For example, if we translate ballistics by partâbšenâsi, how should we render ballistic missile? Mušak-e partâbšenâsi, mušak-e partâbšenâxti, or mušak-e partâbšenâsâné? All these possibilities seem unfitting, and no matter which adjective we choose among them the problem remains. The reason is that here ballistic does not really refer to the science (-šenâsi) but points to the action of throwing, → ballistic missile. This problem can be turned around using -ik: mušak-e partâbik.
c) It is not phonetically straightforward in Pers. to make adjectives with the -i suffix from words which end in -i, in particular with -šenâsi. The use of -ik solves this problem and produces adjectives which themselves do not end in -i, for example → astronomical unit "yekâ-ye axtaršnâsik" instead of "~ axtaršnâxti".

-ide
   -اید   
-id (#)

Fr.: -ide   

A suffix used to form names of chemical compounds.

From -ide, extracted from Fr. → oxide.

-ids
   -اییان   
-iyân

Fr.: -ides   

Suffix denoting "family of," as in Andromedids, Aquarids, Bielids, Draconids, Geminids, Perseids, and so on.

Plural form of L. -id-, from -is, Gk. fem. patronymic suffix; or from L. -ides, from Gk. masc. patronymic suffix.

-iyân plural form of -i, suffix of relation, adjective + -y- euphonic infix (epenthesis) + -ân plural suffix, as in Haxâmanešiyân "Achaemenids," Sâsâniyân "Sasanides," and so on.

-ing
     

Fr.:   

1a) A suffix forming the present participle of verbs, e.g. going, observing, writing.
1b) A suffix forming adjectives from participles, e.g. a moving object, a flying bird, a crying baby.
1c) A suffix forming an adjective not derived from a verb, e.g. swashbuckling.
2) A suffix that forms nouns denoting the action of, process of, result of, or something connected with the verb preceding it, e.g. becoming, sleeping, working.

1) M.E. -ing, -inde, from O.E. -ende; cf. Ger. -end, Goth. -and, Gk. -on, L. -ans, Skt. -ant, Av. -ant, Pers. -ân.
2) O.E. -ing, -ung; cf. O.N. -ing, Du. -ing, Ger. -ung.

-ism
   -باوری، -گرایی، -گروی، -گری، -مندی و دیگرها   
-bâvari, -gerâyi, -geravi, -gari, -mandi, etc.

Fr.: -isme   

A suffix denoting several senses, including state or condition, devotion or adherence, principle, doctrine, act, process.

From Gk. -ismos, -isma noun suffixes, often directly, often through L. -ismus, -isma, sometimes through Fr. -isme, Ger. -ismus (all ultimately from Gk.); → -ist.

-ist
   -باور، -گرا، -گرو، -گر، -مند و دیگرها   
-bâvar, -gerâ, -gerow, -gar, -mand, etc.

Fr.: -iste   

A suffix of nouns, often corresponding to verbs ending in -ize or nouns ending in → -ism, that is used to form an agent noun indicating adherence to a certain doctrine or custom, practicing a particular skill or profession, and so on.

From Fr. -iste, from L. -ista, from Gk. -istes.

-bâvar, from bâvar "belief;" Mid.Pers. wâbar "belief;" Proto-Iranian *uar- "to choose; to convince; to believe;" cf. Av. var- "to choose; to convince" varəna-, varana- "conviction, faith;" O.Pers. v(a)r- "to choose; to convince;" Skt. vr- "to choose," vara- "choosing."
-gerâ, from gerâyidan "to incline toward; to intend; to make for," infinitive of gerâ, the etymology of which is not clear. Gerâ may be a variant of Mod.Pers. kil "bent, inclined" (k/g and l/r interchanges), from PIE base *klei- "to lean, incline," cognate with L. clinare "to bend" (E. declination, inclination, etc.), Gk. klinein "to cause to slope, slant, incline," Skt. sri- "to lean," O.Pers. θray-, Av. sray- "to lean," (cf. Ger. lehnen, E. lean).
-gerow, -gerav present stem of geravidan "to believe, confide in; to obey;" Mid.Pers. virrôy(i)stan , related to bâvar, as above, ultimately from Proto-Iranian *uar- (Cheung 2007).
-gar from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make;" krnoti "makes," karma "act, deed;" PIE base kwer- "to do, to make").
-mand possession suffix, from Mid.Pers. -omand; O.Pers./Av. -mant; cf. Skt. -mant.

-istic
     

Fr.: -istique   

A suffix of adjectives denoting "relating to, characteristic of;" often in adjectives corresponding to nouns in → -ism or nouns in → -ist.

L. -isticus, from Gk. -istikos, → -ist + → -ic.

-ity
   -ای، -ایگی   
-i (#), -igi (#)

Fr.: -ité   

A suffix used to form abstract nouns expressing state, degree, or condition: metallicity, luminosity, periodicity, Gaussianity.

From M.E. -ite, from O.Fr. -ité, from L. -itas (-itat-), from -i- (thematic or, rarely, connective vowel) + -tas (-tat-), may be cognate with Av./Skt. -tāt (as in Av. uparatāt, Skt. uparátāt "supremacy," Av. haurvatāt, Skt. sarvátāt "completeness").

The suffix -igi, from -ig adj. suffix, variant of -ik, → -ic, + -i noun suffix.

Note: The Pers. suffix -i forms state/condition nouns from adjectives, as in: xubi, zešti, râsti, âzâdi, tanhâyi. There is though a phonetic problem when the adj. ends in -i, since two successive i's are not easily articulable, e.g.: felez "metal," felezi "metallic," *felezii "metallicity." Mid.Pers. did not have this problem, since the adj. suffix was -îg or -îk (instead of -i) and the noun suffix -îh (instead of -i). Some examples in Mid.Pers.: tuhîg "empty," tuhîgîh "emptiness," tuwânîg "able," tuwânîgîh "ability," spurrîg "complete," spurrîgîh "completeness, perfection," nazdîk "near," nazdîkîh "proximity." A way out of this phonetic problem is to use the Mid.Pers. -igi. This solution, first introduced in the case of tohi, tohigi (→ void), was generalized by M. Sch. Adib-Soltâni (Irânigi, Âlmânigi, darunâxtigi, borunâxtigi, etc.). This seems a natural solution since the adj. suffix -i is the evolution of the Mid.Pers. -ig, and moreover Pers. currently revives the g phoneme in comparable phonetic situations, as in the ending phoneme (-eh), which derives from Mid.Pers. -ag. A number of examples: adj. âzâdé, n. âzâdegi; adj. tâbandé, n. tâbandegi; adj. mardâné, n. mardânegi; likewise xâné, xânegi, setâré, setâregân; âzâdé, âzâdegân. Interestingly, the -igi suffix has this specified function in some dialects, for example (Tajik, Šahrezâ-yi) xâligi "emptiness," from xâli.
Some examples for the use of -igi in this work: felezigi, → metallicity; mâddigi, → materiality; beyzigi, → ellipcity, tâštigi, → certainty, etc.

-ium
   -یوم   
-iom (#)

Fr.: -ium   

1) A suffix occurring in names of → chemical elements, such as → barium, → sodium, → titanium, → uranium. Variant -um, as in → lanthanum.
2) It also occurs in names of chemical radicals (ammonium, carbonium) and ions of complex cations (imidazolium, nitrosylium, pyridinium).

From L. suffix forming certain neuter nouns (odium, tedium, colloquium; equilibrium, millennium; collegium, consortium), from Gk. -ion.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cow cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg dam dar dat de deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ Equ esc eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iro irr iso iso ite jel Jou Jup kao Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam lan lar las law lea leg Leo lex lig lim lin lin lin lit Loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met met mic mic Mik min min mis mob mod mol mon moo mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ odd OH Ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho pi pip Pla pla pla pla ple poa pol Pol pol pol pop pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sh2 sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unp upp urg V20 Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Vol Vul wan wat wav WC4 wea wel whi Wil wis WNL wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>