# An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and AstrophysicsEnglish-French-Persian

## فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

### M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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 conservation of mass and energy   پتایش ِ جرم و کاروژ   patâyeš-e jerm o kâružFr.: conservation de masse et d'énergie   A principle, resulting from Einstein's theory of → special relativity whereby in any → closed system the sum of mass and energy remains → constant.→ conservation; → mass; → energy. conservation of matter   پتایش ِ ماده   patâyeš-e mâddéFr.: conservation de matière   Same as → conservation of mass.→ conservation; → matter. conservation of momentum   پتایش ِ جنباک   patâyeš-e jonbâkFr.: conservation de quantité de mouvement   A fundamental law of physics which states that the momentum of a → physical system does not change in the course of time if there are no external forces acting on the system. It is embodied in → Newton's first law. This principle shows that the interaction of bodies composing a → closed system leads only to an exchange in momentum between the bodies but does not affect the motion of the system as a whole. More specifically, interactions between the composing bodies do not change the velocity of the system's → center of mass.→ conservation; → momentum. conservation of probability   پتایش ِ شوانایی، پایندگی ِ ~   -patâyeše šavânâyi, pâyandegi-ye ~Fr.: conservation de probabilité   A principle according to which the sum of probabilities of all possible states that might come out of an initial state equals the probability of the initial state.→ conservation; → probability. conservatism   پتایشگرایی   patâyešgerâyiFr.: conservatisme   The disposition, or political philosophy, to preserve the existing or traditional order and oppose radical change.→ conservative; → -ism. conservative   پتایش‌مند   patâyešmandFr.: conservateur   1) Physics: Of or pertaining to a law of → conservation. 2) Opposed to change and innovation and disposed to keep existing values. 3) Of or relating to a philosophy of → conservatism. 4) An adherent or advocate of political conservatism.M.Fr. conservatif, from L.L. conservativus, from L. conservatus, p.p. of conservare, → conserve.Pâyešmand, from pâyeš, → conservation, + -mand possession suffix, → -ist. conservative field   میدان ِ پتایش‌مند   meydân-e patâyešmandFr.: champ conservatif   A → field of → force in which the → work done in taking a particle from one point to another is independent of the → path taken between them. Examples are → electrostatic field and → gravitational field.→ conservative; → field. conservative system   راژمان ِ پتایش‌مند   râžmân-e patâyešmandFr.: système conservatif   A system in which there is no dissipation of energy so that the total energy remains unchanged with time. conservativeness   پتایش‌مندی   patâyešmandiFr.: conservatisme   The condition or quality of being → conservative.→ conservative; → -ness. conserve   ۱) پتایاندن؛ ۲) پتایه   1) patâyândan; 2) patâyeFr.: conserver   1a) General: To keep or protect from harm, decay, or destruction. 1b) Physics, chemistry: To maintain a quantity constant during an interaction or process of evolutionary change. → conservation law. 1c) To preserve (fruit) by cooking with sugar. 2) Fruit preserved by cooking with sugar.M.E., from O.Fr. conserver, from L. conservare "to keep, preserve, guard," from → com- + servare "keep, watch, maintain," → observe.Patâyândan, transitive of Mid.Pers. patâyidan "to endure, remain, continue," ultimately from Proto-Ir *pati-tauH-, from base *tauH- "to be able, strong;" cf. Av. tauu- "to be able, strong," O.Pers. tav- "to be strong," Pers. tavân "power," tavânestan "to be able," Skt. tavi- "to be strong;" Gk. saos "healthy;" PIE *tuH- "to swell, be strong" (Cheung 2007). conserved quantity   چندای ِ پتاییده   candâ-ye patâyideFr.: quantité conservée   A → quantity that remains → constant when its corresponding → physical system undergoes a → transformation. consider   آگاریدن   âgâridanFr.: considérer   To think carefully about, especially in order to make a decision; contemplate; reflect on (dictionary.com).M.E. consideren, from O.Fr. considerer "reflect on, study," from L. considerare "to examine, look at closely," literally "to observe the stars," from → com- "with" + sider (stem of sidus) "star, group of stars," → sideral.Âgâridan, from intensive prefix â- + gâr-, variants gar-, gâl- "to consider, observe," as in engâridan "to suppose," negaristan "to observe, look, notice," segâl "thought," segâlidan "to think, meditate," ultimately from Proto-Iranian *kar- "to observe, to consider;" cf. Av. kar- "to remember; to impress on memory;" Skt. kal- "to observe, consider," kalayati "considers, observes." considerable   آگاریدنی   âgâridaniFr.: considérable   1) Rather large or great in size, distance, extent, etc. 2) Worthy of respect, attention, etc.; important; distinguished (dictionary.com).→ consider; → -able. consideration   آگارش   âgârešFr.: considération   The act or an instance of considering.→ consider; → -tion. consist   ۱) هانسیده شدن؛ ۲) هانسیدن؛ ۳) هانسگار بودن   1) hânesidé šodan; 2) hânesidan; 3) hânesgâr budanFr.: consister   1) (followed by of) To be composed (of); be formed (of). 2) (followed by: in or of) To have its existence (in); lie (in); be expressed (by). 3) To be compatible or consistent; accord (TheFreeDictionary.com).M.E., from M.Fr. consister, from L. consistere "to stand firm, take a standing position, halt," from → com- "with, together" + sistere "to place," causative of stare "to stand, be standing," cognate with Pers. ist-/istâdan.Hânesidan, literally "to put together," from prefix hâ-, → com-, + nesidan "to put, place," variant of nehidan, nehâdan "to put, place," → position. consistency   هانسگاری   hânesgâriFr.: cohérence, consistance   1) Agreement or accordance with facts, form, or characteristics previously shown or stated. 2) Agreement or harmony between parts of something complex; compatibility. 3) Physics: Degree of → viscosity or firmness. 4) The state or quality of holding or sticking together and retaining shape. 5) Conformity with previous attitudes, behaviour, practice, etc. (TheFreeDictionary.com).→ consist; → -ency. consistent   هانسگار   hânesgârFr.: cohérent, consistant   1) Showing consistency; not self-contradictory. 2) In agreement or harmony (with); accordant. 3a) Maths.: The quality of an equation if it has a solution. 3b) Maths.: (of a set of equations) Satisfied by at least one solution. 4) Logic: (of a formal system) Not permitting the deduction of a contradiction from the axioms (TheFreeDictionary.com).→ consist; → -ent.Hânesgâr, from hânes- present stem of hânesidan, → consist, + -gâr agect noun suffix (on the model of sâzgâr), → -or. consonant   هم‌آوا   hamâvâ (#)Fr.: consonne   In general, a speech sound in whose production the flow of air is obstructed at some point in the mouth, throat, or larynx, at least sufficiently to cause audible friction. A speech sound other than a → vowel.M.E., from L. consonant-, consonans "sounding with," p.p. of consonare  "to sound together, agree," from → com- "together," +  sonare "to sound;" originally a sound that had to be accompanied by a vowel.Hamâvâ, literally "sounding with," from ham-, → com-, + âvâ, → phone. conspicuous   هویدا   hoveydâ (#)Fr.: remarquable, manifeste   Easily seen or noticed; readily → visible or → observable (Dictionary.com).From L. conspicuus "visible, open to view," from conspicere "to look at, observe, see, notice," from → com-, intensive prefix, + specere "to watch, look at," → spectrum.Hoveydâ "conspicuous, manifest, evident," variant vidâ, probably related to Av. hu-vaēiδiia- "good knowledge, well-known," from hu- "good, well," → eu-, + vaēiδiia- "knowlege, known." constant   پایا   pâyâ (#)Fr.: constante   A quantity that does not change during a particular process.L. constantem "standing firm, stable," pr.p. of constare, from → com- "together" + stare "to stand;" PIE base *sta- "to stand;" cf. O.Pers./Av. sta- "to stand, stand still; set," Pers. istâdan "to stand," Skt. sthâ- "to stand," Gk. histemi "put, place, weigh," stasis "a standing still,"pâyâ verbal adj./noun from pâyidan "to stand firm, to be constant, steady, fixed," Mid.Pers. pâyitan, pâtan, pây- "to protect; wait, stand," Sogdian p'y "to protect, watch over," O.Pers./Av. pâ(y)- "to protect, keep" pâtar- "protector, watcher," cf. Skt. pâ- "to protect, keep," pâti "protects," Gk. poimen "shepherd," poma "lid, cover," L. pastor "shepherd," panis "bread;" PIE base *pa- "to protect, guard, pasture, feed."