An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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contingency
  آمرسانی   
âmarsâni

Fr.: contingence   

In logic, a → proposition that may be either true or false, and is not necessarily one or the other.

Noun of → contingent.

contingent
  آمرسان   
âmarsân

Fr.: contigent   

1) Dependent for existence, occurrence, character, etc., on something not yet certain; conditional.
2) Liable to happen or not; uncertain; possible.
3) Logic: Describing a → proposition that is → true in some possible circumstances and → false in others. For example, "it snowed in Paris on 15 December 2000" is contingent: it is true, but it might have been false. On a → truth table a contingent proposition is one that is true for some possible → truth values of its constituent parts and false for others. See also → non-contingent.

M.E., from M.Fr. contingent and directly from L. contingentem (nominative contingens) "happening, touching," pr.p. of contingere "to touch," → contact.

Âmarsân, agent noun from *âmarsidan "to touch," related to parmâsidan "to touch, feel," → contact, Mid.Pers. marz "contact, touching," marzitan "to touch," Mod.Pers. mâlidan "to rub," Av. marəz- "to rub, wipe," marəza- "border, district," Mod.Pers. marz "border;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *Hmars- "to touch."

continuation
  پیداشت؛ پیداد   
peydâšt; peydâd

Fr.: continuation   

The act or state of continuing; the state of being continued.

Verbal noun of → continue + → -tion.

continue
  ۱) پیداشتن؛ ۲) پیدادن   
1) peydâštan; 2) peydâdan

Fr.: continuer   

1) (v.intr) To go on or keep on without interruption as in some course or action.
2) (v.trans) To cause to remain in a particular condition.

M.E. contynuen, from O.Fr. continuer, from L. continuare "to make all one, join together, make or be continuous," from continuus "uninterrupted," from continere "to be uninterrupted," literally "to hold together," from → con- + tenere "to hold," cognate with Pers. tanidan, → tension.

1) Peydâštan, from pey "after; pursuit; track; step," → tracking, + dâštan "to have, hold, maintain," → access.
2) Peydâdan, from pey, as above, + dâdan "to give, yield, grant, command," → yield.

continued
  پیداشته   
peydâšté

Fr.: continue   

Continuing to happen or exist for a long time. Occurring many times.

Past participle of → continue.

continued fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ پیداشته   
barxe-ye peydâšté

Fr.: fraction continue   

In mathematics, a fraction whose numerator is an integer and whose denominator is an integer plus a fraction whose numerator is an integer and whose denominator is an integer plus a fraction and so on.

continued; → fraction.

continuous
  پیوسته   
peyvasté (#)

Fr.: continu   

1) General: Uninterrupted in extent, sequence, or time.
2) Math.: A line or curve that extends without a break. → continuous function.

From L. continuus "uninterrupted," from contin(ere) "to hold together, retain," → continue, + -uus verbal adj. suffix.

Peyvasté "continous," peyvastan "to connect, join," Mid.Pers. paywastan, from *pati-basta-, from suffix pati- (Mid.Pers. pât-,from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of," Av. paiti, akin to Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite," Pali pati-, Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + basta- "tied, shut" (Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind), cf. Skt. prati-bandh- "to tie."

continuous data
  داده‌های ِ پیوسته   
dâdehâ-ye peyvasté

Fr.: données continues   

Data that can take any value along a continuum (e.g. air temperature between two upper and lower boundaries) as opposed to → discrete data, which can only take integer values.

continuous; → data.

continuous function
  کریای ِ پیوسته   
karyâ-ye peyvasté

Fr.: fonction continue   

The function y = f(x) is called continuous at the point x = x0 if it is defined in some neighborhood of the point x0 and if lim Δy = 0 when Δx → 0.

continuous; → function.

continuous spectrum
  بیناب ِ پیوسته   
binâb-e peyvasté

Fr.: spectre continu   

An electromagnetic spectrum in which emitted or absorbed radiation is present continuously over all wavelengths in a given range.

continuous; → spectrum.

Binâb, → spectrum; peyvastécontinuous.

continuous variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ پیوسته   
vartande-ye peyvasté

Fr.: variable continu   

A variable which has changes continuously, in contrast to → discrete variables.

continuous; → variable.

continuous-time quantum walk
  پویش ِ کو‌آنتومی با زمان ِ پیوسته   
puyeš-e kuântomi bâ zamân-e peyvasté

Fr.: marche quantique à temps continu   

A → quantum walk taking place entirely in the position space. Continuous-time quantum walk was introduced by E. Farhi & S. Gutmann (1998, Phys. Rev. A 58, 915).

continuous; → time; → quantum; → walk.

continuum
  پیوستار   
peyvastâr (#)

Fr.: continuum   

A continuous extent or succession, which has no discrete parts, as the continuum of real numbers as opposed to the sequence of discrete integers. → continuum emission.

From L. neut. of continuus, → continuous

Peyvastâr, from peyvast past tense stem of peyvastan "to connect, join," Mid.Pers. paywastan, from *pati-basta-, from suffix pati- (Mid.Pers. pât-, from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of," Av. paiti, akin to Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite," Pali pati-, Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + basta- "tied, shut" (Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind), cf. Skt. prati-bandh- "to tie." + -âr suffix forming verbal noun.

continuum emission
  گسیل ِ پیوستار   
gosil-e peyvastâr

Fr.: émission continuum   

A continuous radiation produced by three processes: radiative recombination due to transition between electron free-free states, two-photon decays of metastable levels, and thermal bremsstrahlung.

continuum; → emission.

continuum-driven wind
  باد ِ پیوستار‌زاد   
bâd-e peyvastârzâd

Fr.: vent induit par continuum   

The transfer of photon momentum to free electrons. The acceleration by → continuum emission can be given by: ac = (σ/m)(L*/4πR2c), where σ is the → Thomson scattering  → cross section, m is the mass per free electron, L* is → stellar luminosity, R* is radius, and c the → speed of light. The ratio of ac to the → surface gravity is ≅ 2 × 10-5L*/M*, with M* and L* in solar units. The atmosphere is is stable if ac very smaller than ggrav. If L* is above the → Eddington limit, the radiation pressure in the continuum leads to very heavy → mass loss and thus to expanding envelopes (K.S. de Boer & W. Seggewiss, 2008, Stars and Stellar Evolution, EDP Sciences).

continuum; → drive; → wind.

contour
  پربند   
parband (#)

Fr.: contour   

The outline of a figure or body; the edge or line that defines or bounds a shape or object.

From Fr. contour "circumference, outline," from Italian contorno, from M.L. contornare "to go around," from L. → com- intens. prefix + tornare "to turn on a lathe," from tornus "lathe."

Parband, from par- "around" (Mid.Pers. pêrâ, O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over," Skt. pari, cf. Gk. peri "around, about, beyond," L. per "through," PIE *per- "through, across, beyond") + band "belt, gridle, anything by which bodies are joined; tie, band," from bastan "to bind, shut," (Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan,Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind).

contour line
  خط ِ پربند   
xatt-e parband

Fr.: contour   

A line joining points of equal elevation or on a surface or points of equal intensity in a map.

contour; → line.

contour map
  نقشه‌ی ِ پربندی   
naqše-ye parbandi

Fr.: carte de contours   

A map showing the flux intensity variations over an extended object made up of → contour lines.

contour; → map.

contra-
  پاد-   
pâd- (#)

Fr.: contre-   

A prefix meaning "against; contrary; opposing."

From L. contra "against," passed (via O.Fr.) into E. as → counter-.

contract
  ترنگیدن   
terengidan

Fr.: se contracter, contracter   

1) To become smaller, shorter, tighter, as a metal when cooled.
2) To reduce to smaller size by or as if by squeezing or forcing together, e.g. contract a muscle.
contraction, → gravitational contraction, → Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction, → length contraction, → Lorentz contraction, → vena contracta.

From M.E., from O.F., from L. contractus, p.p. of contrahere "to draw together," from → com- "together" + trahere "to draw."

Terengidan, variant taranjidan [Dehxodâ] "to contract, become rough and hard, to be squeezed, compressed," Borujerdi terengessa "cramped, tightly dressed," Malâyeri terengidan "to be tightly dressed, cramped in a garment," related to tarang "horse girth, a strap for fastening a load," Proto-Iranian *trng- "to pull tight, squeeze, compress;" PIE base *strenk- "to pull tight, twist; tight, narrow" (cf. L. stringere "to bind or draw tight;" Gk. strangein "to twist;" Lith. stregti "to congeal;" O.E. streccian "to stretch," streng "string;" Ger. stramm, Du. stram "stiff").

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>