An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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contingency
  آمرسانی   
âmarsâni

Fr.: contingence   

In logic, a → proposition that may be either true or false, and is not necessarily one or the other.

Noun of → contingent.

contingent
  آمرسان   
âmarsân

Fr.: contigent   

1) Dependent for existence, occurrence, character, etc., on something not yet certain; conditional.
2) Liable to happen or not; uncertain; possible.
3) Logic: Describing a → proposition that is → true in some possible circumstances and → false in others. For example, "it snowed in Paris on 15 December 2000" is contingent: it is true, but it might have been false. On a → truth table a contingent proposition is one that is true for some possible → truth values of its constituent parts and false for others. See also → non-contingent.

M.E., from M.Fr. contingent and directly from L. contingentem (nominative contingens) "happening, touching," pr.p. of contingere "to touch," → contact.

Âmarsân, agent noun from *âmarsidan "to touch," related to parmâsidan "to touch, feel," → contact, Mid.Pers. marz "contact, touching," marzitan "to touch," Mod.Pers. mâlidan "to rub," Av. marəz- "to rub, wipe," marəza- "border, district," Mod.Pers. marz "border;" ultimately from Proto-Ir. *Hmars- "to touch."

continuation
  پیداشت؛ پیداد   
peydâšt; peydâd

Fr.: continuation   

The act or state of continuing; the state of being continued.

Verbal noun of → continue + → -tion.

continue
  ۱) پیداشتن؛ ۲) پیدادن   
1) peydâštan; 2) peydâdan

Fr.: continuer   

1) (v.intr) To go on or keep on without interruption as in some course or action.
2) (v.trans) To cause to remain in a particular condition.

M.E. contynuen, from O.Fr. continuer, from L. continuare "to make all one, join together, make or be continuous," from continuus "uninterrupted," from continere "to be uninterrupted," literally "to hold together," from → con- + tenere "to hold," cognate with Pers. tanidan, → tension.

1) Peydâštan, from pey "after; pursuit; track; step," → tracking, + dâštan "to have, hold, maintain," → access.
2) Peydâdan, from pey, as above, + dâdan "to give, yield, grant, command," → yield.

continued
  پیداشته   
peydâšté

Fr.: continue   

Continuing to happen or exist for a long time. Occurring many times.

Past participle of → continue.

continued fraction
  برخه‌ی ِ پیداشته   
barxe-ye peydâšté

Fr.: fraction continue   

In mathematics, a fraction whose numerator is an integer and whose denominator is an integer plus a fraction whose numerator is an integer and whose denominator is an integer plus a fraction and so on.

continued; → fraction.

continuous
  پیوسته   
peyvasté (#)

Fr.: continu   

1) General: Uninterrupted in extent, sequence, or time.
2) Math.: A line or curve that extends without a break. → continuous function.

From L. continuus "uninterrupted," from contin(ere) "to hold together, retain," → continue, + -uus verbal adj. suffix.

Peyvasté "continous," peyvastan "to connect, join," Mid.Pers. paywastan, from *pati-basta-, from suffix pati- (Mid.Pers. pât-,from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of," Av. paiti, akin to Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite," Pali pati-, Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + basta- "tied, shut" (Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind), cf. Skt. prati-bandh- "to tie."

continuous data
  داده‌های ِ پیوسته   
dâdehâ-ye peyvasté

Fr.: données continues   

Data that can take any value along a continuum (e.g. air temperature between two upper and lower boundaries) as opposed to → discrete data, which can only take integer values.

continuous; → data.

continuous function
  کریای ِ پیوسته   
karyâ-ye peyvasté

Fr.: fonction continue   

The function y = f(x) is called continuous at the point x = x0 if it is defined in some neighborhood of the point x0 and if lim Δy = 0 when Δx → 0.

continuous; → function.

continuous spectrum
  بیناب ِ پیوسته   
binâb-e peyvasté

Fr.: spectre continu   

An electromagnetic spectrum in which emitted or absorbed radiation is present continuously over all wavelengths in a given range.

continuous; → spectrum.

Binâb, → spectrum; peyvastécontinuous.

continuous variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ پیوسته   
vartande-ye peyvasté

Fr.: variable continu   

A variable which has changes continuously, in contrast to → discrete variables.

continuous; → variable.

continuous-time quantum walk
  پویش ِ کو‌آنتومی با زمان ِ پیوسته   
puyeš-e kuântomi bâ zamân-e peyvasté

Fr.: marche quantique à temps continu   

A → quantum walk taking place entirely in the position space. Continuous-time quantum walk was introduced by E. Farhi & S. Gutmann (1998, Phys. Rev. A 58, 915).

continuous; → time; → quantum; → walk.

continuum
  پیوستار   
peyvastâr (#)

Fr.: continuum   

A continuous extent or succession, which has no discrete parts, as the continuum of real numbers as opposed to the sequence of discrete integers. → continuum emission.

From L. neut. of continuus, → continuous

Peyvastâr, from peyvast past tense stem of peyvastan "to connect, join," Mid.Pers. paywastan, from *pati-basta-, from suffix pati- (Mid.Pers. pât-, from O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of," Av. paiti, akin to Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite," Pali pati-, Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + basta- "tied, shut" (Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind), cf. Skt. prati-bandh- "to tie." + -âr suffix forming verbal noun.

continuum emission
  گسیل ِ پیوستار   
gosil-e peyvastâr

Fr.: émission continuum   

A continuous radiation produced by three processes: radiative recombination due to transition between electron free-free states, two-photon decays of metastable levels, and thermal bremsstrahlung.

continuum; → emission.

continuum-driven wind
  باد ِ پیوستار‌زاد   
bâd-e peyvastârzâd

Fr.: vent induit par continuum   

The transfer of photon momentum to free electrons. The acceleration by → continuum emission can be given by: ac = (σ/m)(L*/4πR2c), where σ is the → Thomson scattering  → cross section, m is the mass per free electron, L* is → stellar luminosity, R* is radius, and c the → speed of light. The ratio of ac to the → surface gravity is ≅ 2 × 10-5L*/M*, with M* and L* in solar units. The atmosphere is is stable if ac very smaller than ggrav. If L* is above the → Eddington limit, the radiation pressure in the continuum leads to very heavy → mass loss and thus to expanding envelopes (K.S. de Boer & W. Seggewiss, 2008, Stars and Stellar Evolution, EDP Sciences).

continuum; → drive; → wind.

contour
  پربند   
parband (#)

Fr.: contour   

The outline of a figure or body; the edge or line that defines or bounds a shape or object.

From Fr. contour "circumference, outline," from Italian contorno, from M.L. contornare "to go around," from L. → com- intens. prefix + tornare "to turn on a lathe," from tornus "lathe."

Parband, from par- "around" (Mid.Pers. pêrâ, O.Pers. pariy "around, about," Av. pairi "around, over," Skt. pari, cf. Gk. peri "around, about, beyond," L. per "through," PIE *per- "through, across, beyond") + band "belt, gridle, anything by which bodies are joined; tie, band," from bastan "to bind, shut," (Mid.Pers. bastan/vastan,Av./O.Pers. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie," Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten," PIE *bhendh- "to bind," cf. Ger. binden, E. bind).

contour line
  خط ِ پربند   
xatt-e parband

Fr.: contour   

A line joining points of equal elevation or on a surface or points of equal intensity in a map.

contour; → line.

contour map
  نقشه‌ی ِ پربندی   
naqše-ye parbandi

Fr.: carte de contours   

A map showing the flux intensity variations over an extended object made up of → contour lines.

contour; → map.

contra-
  پاد-   
pâd- (#)

Fr.: contre-   

A prefix meaning "against; contrary; opposing."

From L. contra "against," passed (via O.Fr.) into E. as → counter-.

contract
  ترنگیدن   
terengidan

Fr.: se contracter, contracter   

1) To become smaller, shorter, tighter, as a metal when cooled.
2) To reduce to smaller size by or as if by squeezing or forcing together, e.g. contract a muscle.
contraction, → gravitational contraction, → Kelvin-Helmholtz contraction, → length contraction, → Lorentz contraction, → vena contracta.

From M.E., from O.F., from L. contractus, p.p. of contrahere "to draw together," from → com- "together" + trahere "to draw."

Terengidan, variant taranjidan [Dehxodâ] "to contract, become rough and hard, to be squeezed, compressed," Borujerdi terengessa "cramped, tightly dressed," Malâyeri terengidan "to be tightly dressed, cramped in a garment," related to tarang "horse girth, a strap for fastening a load," Proto-Iranian *trng- "to pull tight, squeeze, compress;" PIE base *strenk- "to pull tight, twist; tight, narrow" (cf. L. stringere "to bind or draw tight;" Gk. strangein "to twist;" Lith. stregti "to congeal;" O.E. streccian "to stretch," streng "string;" Ger. stramm, Du. stram "stiff").

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>