An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Mei Mer Mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per pet pha Pho pho pho pho Pic Pis Pla pla pla pla Ple poa pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str Str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yea You zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 13009 Search : far
convex mirror
  آینه‌ی ِ کاو   
Âyene-ye kâv (#)

Fr.: miroir convexe   

A → spherical mirror with a reflecting surface curved outward, that is toward the object.

convex; → mirror.

convexo-concave lens
  عدسی ِ کوژ-کاو   
adasi-ye kuž-kâv

Fr.: lentille convexo-concave   

A diverging lens having one surface convex and the opposite surface concave.

convex; → concave; → lens.

convince
  پروخیدن   
paruxidan

Fr.: convaincre   

To move by argument or evidence to belief, agreement, consent, or a course of action (Dictionary.com).

From L. convincere "to overcome decisively," from the intensive prefix → com- + vincere "to conquer, overcome, defeat," from PIE root *weik- "to fight, conquer."

Paruxidan, from Parthian Mid.Pers. prywx- "to conquer, overcome," from prefix pari- + yux "yoke;" Av. yuj- "to harness, yoke," variants yuj, juh, jut, jot; Mid.Pers. jug, ayoxtan "to join, yoke;" Pers. (+*pari-) piruz, pêrôz "victorious," → yoke.

convincing
  پروخنده   
paruxandé

Fr.: convaincant   

Capable of causing someone to believe that something is true or real (OxfordDictionaries.com).

convince; → -ing.

convocation
  هم-وچ، هموچ   
hamvac

Fr.: convocation   

The act of convoking. The state of being convoked.

Verbal noun of → convoke.

convoke
  هم-وچیدن، هموچیدن   
hamvacidan

Fr.: convoquer   

To call together; summon to meet or assemble (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.Fr. convoquer, from L. convocare "to call together," from → con- "together," + vocare "to call," from vox, → voice.

Hamvacidan, from ham-, → com-, + vac "word," → voice, + -idan infinitive suffix.

convolution
  هماگیش   
hamâgiš

Fr.: convolution   

1) A mathematical combination of two functions which involves multiplying the value of one function at a given point with the value of another function, the weighting function, for a displacement from that point and then integrating over all such displacements. The process is repeated for every point of the function. Convolution expresses how the shape of a function is altered by the other. In mathematical terms, the convolution of two functions f(x) and g(x) is defined by: f*g = ∫f(u)g(x - u) du, integral from -∞ to +∞.
2) Astro.: Convolution describes how an instrument, through its transfer function, affects an input signal. → deconvolution.

Verbal noun of → convolve.

convolution theorem
  فربین ِ هماگیش   
farbin-e hamâgiš

Fr.: théorème de convolution   

A theorem stating that the → Fourier transform of the convolution of f(x) and g(x) is equal to the product of the Fourier transform of f(x) and g(x): F{f*g} = F{f}.F{g}.

convolution; → theorem.

convolve
  هماگیشیدن   
hamâgišidan

Fr.: convoluer   

1) To roll or wind together.
2) To bring about a → convolution.

From L. convolvere "to roll together," from → com- "together" + volvere "to roll, turn," PIE base *wel- "to turn, revolve;" cf. Skt. valati "he turns," ulba- "womb, vulva," Gk. eilyein "to roll, wrap, fold."

Hamâgiš, from ham- "together", → com-, + âgišidan "to entwine, to twist" (Dehxodâ), from Mid.Pers. gyš- "to bind, tie," hangyš- "to fasten to;" cf. Sogd. patigyš- "to imprison, confine;" Proto-Ir. *kaš- "to imprison" (Cheung 2007).

cookie
  کوکی   
cookie

Fr.: cookie   

An identifier file that a website automatically places in the user's computer hard drive. The cookie is used by the website to identify that a user has been on the website previously. Users concerned about privacy may disable cookies in their browser's setting.

From Du. koekje "little cake," diminutive of koek "cake," from M.Du. koke, akin to cake, M.E., from O.N. kaka (O.H.G. kuocho "cake"), any relation with Pers. kâk "biscuit; dry bread"? (loaned in Ar. ka'k).

cool
  سرد   
sard (#)

Fr.: froid   

Moderately cold.

M.E., from O.E. col, PIE base *gel- "cold, to freeze."

Sard "cold, cool," from Mid.Pers. sart, Av. sarəta- "cold," Skt. śiśira- "cold," Ossetian sald "cold," L. calidus "warm," Lith. šaltas "cold," Welsh clyd "warm," PIE *keltos- "cool".

cool hypergiant
  هیپرغول ِ سرد   
hiperqul-e sard

Fr.: hypergéante froide   

A highly unstable, → very massive star lying just below the empirical upper luminosity boundary in the → H-R diagram (→ Humphreys-Davidson limit) with spectral types ranging from late A to M. Cool hypergiants very likely represent a very short-lived evolutionary stage, and are distinguished by their high → mass loss rates. Many of them also show photometric and spectroscopic variability, and some have large → infrared excesses and extensive circumstellar ejecta. The evolutionary state of most of these stars is not known but they are all → post-main-sequence stars (Humphreys, 2008, IAUS 250).

cool; → hypergiant.

coolant
  سردگر   
sardgar

Fr.: refroidissant   

An agent of → cooling process.

cooling.

cooling
  ۱) سردش؛ ۲) سردکننده، سردگر   
1) sardeš; 2) sardkonandé, sardgar

Fr.: 1) refroidissement; 2) refroidissant   

1) The process of losing heat; a falling temperature.
2) The participial adjective of to cool.

cool; → -ing.

cooling flow
  تچان ِ سردش   
tacân-e sardeš

Fr.: flot de refroidissement   

A phenomenon observed in a → cluster of galaxies, whereby the cluster core loses energy via X-ray radiation because of the collisions between the gas particles. The radiation rate is proportional to the square of the density, and the → cooling time, which remains in the outer parts too large, becomes smaller than the → Hubble time in the core. As a result, the central regions of clusters of galaxies cool down; and since in the center of a cluster gas pressure and gravitational attraction are in equilibrium, the gas density has to rise to maintain the pressure necessary for supporting the outer layers of gas. To cause its density to rise, the cooled gas has to flow inward. As the densest gas, which cools quickest, is already concentrated in the center of the cluster, the inward flow will start at the center, soon followed by the outer layers. This flow of gas is called the cooling flow. Cooling flows are moderated through feedback due to the → supermassive black hole in the nucleus of the central galaxy. The gas inflow to the center fuels the → active galactic nucleus (AGN). The latter then heats again the gas through its → radio jets.

cooling; → flow.

cooling line
  خط ِ سردکننده، ~ سردگر   
xatt-e sardkonandé, ~ sardgar

Fr.: raie de refroidissement   

The spectral → emission line through which the → colling process takes place.

cooling; → line.

cooling process
  فراروند ِ سردش   
farâravand-e sardeš

Fr.: processus de refroidissement   

The process of → radiative cooling in which the → temperature of an astrophysical system decreases due to the radiation of a major → emission line. For example, → molecular → emission at → millimeter wavelengths and → submillimeter wavelengths results in decreasing the temperature in molecular clouds. At temperatures less than 300 K, the main → coolant is the → carbon monoxide (CO) molecule which contains most of the carbon. Similarly, the → [C II] line is a major coolant in → photodissociation regions. See also → line cooling, → cooling time.

cooling; → process.

cooling time
  زمان ِ سردش   
zamân-e sardeš

Fr.: temps de refroidissement   

1) The time in which a → white dwarf cools to half its temperature. It depends on the composition, the mass, and the actual luminosity at some point in time. Cooling time is given by the relation: t = 8.8 × 106 (12/A) (M)5/7 (μ/2)-2/7 (L)-5/7 in years, where M and L are mass and luminosity in solar units, A the mean → atomic mass, and μ the → mean molecular weight (Iben & Tutukov, 1984, ApJ 282, 615). See also → Mestel theory; → white dwarf crystallization.
2) The time needed by a → plasma to radiate its thermal energy. The cooling time is directly proportional to the square root of the temperature and inversely proportional to the density. It turns out that for the → intercluster medium in a → cluster of galaxies this time is longer than the → age of the Universe. At the centers of some clusters, however, the cooling time is smaller than the age of the Universe due to the presence of a → cooling flow.

cooling; → time.

coordinate
  ۱) همارا؛ ۲) هم‌آراستن   
1) hamârâ (#); 2) hamârâstan

Fr.: 1) coordonnée; 2) coordonner   

1) Any of a series of numbers which, in relation to a given → frame of reference, locate a point in space. See also: → astronomical coordinatescanonical coordinatesCartesian coordinatescelestial coordinatescylindrical coordinatesequatorial coordinatesGalactic coordinatesgeneralized coordinatespolar coordinatesspherical coordinatesprecessed coordinatestopocentric coordinates.
2) To place in the same order or rank; to organize in a concordant operation.

From L. co- "together," → com- + orinatus, p.p. of ordinare "to put in order, arrange," from ordo "order."

Hamârâ, from ham- "together," → com- + ârâ stem of ârâstan "to arrange, to set in order, adorn," Mid.Pers. ârây-, ârâstan "to arrange, adorn," O.Pers. râs- "to be right, straight, true," râsta- "straight, true" (Mod.Pers. râst "straight, true"), râd- "to prepare," Av. râz- "to direct, put in line, set," Av. razan- "order," Gk. oregein "to stretch out," L. regere "to lead straight, guide, rule," p.p. rectus "right, straight," Skt. rji- "to make straight or right, arrange, decorate," PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line."

coordinate system
  راژمان ِ همارا   
râžmân-e hamârâ

Fr.: système de coordonnées   

Math: A system for locating each point in space by a set of numbers.
Astro: Values in a reference system used to relate the position of a body on the celestial sphere. Four main coordinate systems are utilized in astronomy: the equatorial, horizontal, ecliptic, and galactic coordinates systems.

coordinate; → system.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv inv ion iro Isl iso iso Jac jet jud jur kel Kep kil Kle Kui Lag lam Lap Lar lat law lea len lep Lib lig lim lin lin Lio lit loc LOF lon Lor low lum lun Lup Lyo mac mag mag mag mag mag mai man Mar mas mas mat Max mea mec Mei Mer Mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxi pai pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per pet pha Pho pho pho pho Pic Pis Pla pla pla pla Ple poa pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sgr sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spl spu sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str Str sub sub sub sul sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn sys Tam Tay tel ten Ter Tha the the the thi thr tib tid tim tok Tor tot tra tra tra tra Tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ ufo ult unc uni uni uni upl ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vil vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yea You zer zod > >>