An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

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cycle
  چرخ، چرخه   
carx (#), carxé (#)

Fr.: cycle   

1) A sequence of changes that are repeated regularly, such as revolution, rotation, vibration, oscillation, wave motion.
2) One complete set of changes in the value of a → periodic function during one period.
3) A period of time at the end of which an event or sequence of events are repeated.
carbon cycle, → Carnot cycle, → CNO cycle, → hydrologic cycle, → Metonic cycle, → Milankovich cycle, → solar activity cycle, → solar cycle, → solar magnetic cycle, → sunspot cycle, → epicycle, → recycle.
4) In → graph theory, a closed → path with at least one → edge.

From L.L. cyclus, from Gk. kyklos "circle, wheel," from PIE base *kw(e)-kwl-o- "wheel, circle," from *kwel- "to turn, move around, sojourn, dwell," (cf. Av. caxra- "wheel," caraiti "he moves, approaches;" Mod.Pers. carx "wheel;" Skt. cakra- "wheel, circle; cycle," carati "he moves, wanders;" Gk. polos "axis of a sphere," polein "move around;" L. colere "to dwell in, to cultivate, move around," colonus "farmer, settler;" O.E. hweol "wheel;" Rus. koleso "awheel").

Carx "every thing performing a circulatory motion; a wheel; a cart," Mid.Pers. chr "wheel," Parthian cxr "wheel," Ossetic, Khotanese calx "wheel," Av. caxra- "wheel," cognate with Gk. kyklos "circle, wheel," as above. Carxé from carx + nuance suffix .

cyclic
  چرخه‌ای   
carxe-yi (#)

Fr.: cyclique   

Of, pertaining to, or constituting a cycle or cycles.

cycle; → -ic.

cyclic coordinate
  همارای ِ نادیده‌انگاشته   
hamârâ-ye nâdidé engâshté

Fr.: coordonnée ignorée   

Same as → ignorable coordinate.

cyclic; → coordinate.

cyclic group
  گروه ِ چرخه‌ای   
goruh-e carxe-yi

Fr.: groupe cyclic   

A group in which each element can be expressed as a power of any other element.

cyclic; → group.

cyclic process
  فراروند ِ چرخه‌ای   
farâravand-e carxe-yi

Fr.: processus cyclique   

Any sequence of changes in a → thermodynamic system that returns the system into its → initial  → state.

cyclic; → process.

cyclic quadrilateral
  چهاربر ِ چرخه‌ای   
cahârbar-e carxe-yi

Fr.: quadrilatère cyclique   

A quadrilateral in which all four vertices lie on the circumference of a circle.

cyclic; → quadrilateral.

cycloid
  چرخزاد   
carxzâd (#)

Fr.: cycloïde   

The curve traced by a point on the circumference of a circle that rolls along a straight line. The cycloid has a → cusp at every point where it touches the straight line. The distance between cusps is 2πR, where R is the radius of the circle.

Cycloid, from Gk. kykloeides "circular," fr. kyklos "circle," → cycle + eides "form," → -oid.

Carxzâd, from carx "wheel, circle," → cycle + zâd "produced, created, born," from zâdan "give birth" (Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazâite, zâta- "born," cf. Skt. janati "begets, bears," Gk. gignesthai "to become, happen" L. gignere "to beget," gnasci "to be born," PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget").

cyclone
  چرخند   
carxand (#)

Fr.: cyclone   

Any circulatory wind system in the atmosphere in which the motion is anticlockwise in the northern hemisphere (that is in the same sense as that of Earth) and clockwise in the southern hemisphere, around a center of low pressure.

From Gk. kyklon "moving in a circle, whirling around," pr.p. of kykloun "move in a circle, whirl," from kyklos "circle," cognate with Pers. carxcycle.

Carxand "moving in a circle," from carxidanrotate, from carx, → cycle.

cyclonic
  چرخندی   
carxandi

Fr.: cyclonique   

Having a sense of rotation about the local vertical the same as that of the Earth's rotation. More specifically, as viewed from above, → counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, → clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere, and undefined at the equator. The opposite of → anticyclonic (Meteorology Glossary, American Meteorological Society).

cyclone; → -ic.

cyclotron
  سیکلوترون   
siklotron (#)

Fr.: cyclotron   

An → accelerator in which charged subatomic particles generated at a central source are accelerated to acquire energies up to several tens of millions of → electron-volts. The cyclotron consists of two flat, semicircular metal boxes or electrodes, called dees or D's because of their shape. An alternating electric field between the dees continuously accelerates the particles from one dee to the other, while the magnetic field bends their direction guiding them in a circular path. As the speed of the particles increases, so does the radius of their path, and the particles spiral outward. See also → cyclotron frequency, → synchrotron.

From cyclo- a combining form meaning → cycle + → -tron.

cyclotron frequency
  بسامد ِ سیکلوترون   
basâmad-e siklotron

Fr.: fréquence cyclotron   

The frequency with which a → non-relativistic particle of charge q and mass m turns in a cyclotron with → uniform magnetic field B. The equality of the → centripetal force to the → Lorentz force leads to the expression: by: fcycl = qB/2πm. For → relativistic case, the frequency is smaller and is called → synchrotron frequency.

cyclotron; → frequency.

cyclotron radius
  شعاع ِ سیکلوترون   
šo'â'-e siklotron

Fr.: rayon de cyclotron   

Same as → Larmor radius.

cyclotron; → radius.

Cygnus
  ماکیان   
Mâkiyân (#)

Fr.: Cygne   

The Swan. A prominent northern → constellation that lies in the glowing band of the Milky way, east of Lyra and north of Vulpecula, and represents a swan. The brightest stars of Cygnus form a cross, so it is also known as the Northern Cross. Abbreviation: Cyg, genitive: Cygni.

From L. cygnus "swan," from Gk. kuknos.

Mâkiyân "a hen, fowl."

Cygnus A
  ماکیان A   
Mâkiyân A

Fr.: Cygnus A   

The strongest extragalactic radio source in the sky approximately 109 light-years away in the → constellation  → Cygnus. Also called 3C 405.

Cygnus.

Cygnus loop
  گردال ِ ماکیان   
gerdâl-e mâkiyân

Fr.: boucle du Cygne   

A large supernova remnant in the → constellation  → Cygnus, some 80 light-years across, lying about 2,500 light-years away. The loop is expanding at over 100 km/s and is thought to be about 30 000 years old.

Cygnus, → loop.

Cygnus OB association
  آهزش ِ OB ماکیان   
âhazeš-e OB Mâkiyân

Fr.: association OB Cygne   

One of nine → OB associations located in the Cygnus → constellation. The central association, → Cygnus OB2, is the most famous and the youngest of the Cygnus region. (L. Mahy et al. 2013, astro-ph/1301.0500 and references therein).

Cygnus; → OB star; → association.

Cygnus OB2 (Cyg OB2)
   OB2 ماکیان   
OB2 Mâkiyân

Fr.: Cygnus OB2   

The nearest example of a → massive star region of → star formation, containing 65 known → O-type stars and hundreds of → B-type stars. Cygnus OB2 lies at a distance of 1.45 → kpc. It is the central association, the most famous, and one of the youngest of the Cygnus region. Cyg OB2 possibly has two → populations with ages of 3.5-5 Myr, while the → O stars seem to belong to a younger population, aged about 2 Myr.

Cygnus; → OB association; 2 because there are several OB associations in Cygnus; → Cygnus OB association.

Cygnus X-1
  ماکیان X-۱   
Mâkiyân X-1

Fr.: Cygnus X-1   

A → binary system containing one of the best candidates for a → black hole. Cygnus X-1 was discovered as an → X-ray source in 1965. It is one of the brightest X-ray sources on the sky, so that it was detected by the earliest → X-ray observation attempts. This binary system, distant of 2.5 kpc, consists of the O9.7 Iab type → supergiant HDE 226868 and a → compact object orbiting around with a period of 5.6 days. The mass of the unseen companion, significantly larger than 5 → solar masses, suggests that it is a black hole. Focused → wind accretion from a → primary star being extremely close to filling the → Roche lobe drives the powerful source of the X-ray radiation.

Cygnus.

cylinder
  استوانه   
ostovâné (#)

Fr.: cylindre   

The surface traced by one side of a rectangle rotating about its parallel side, the latter serving as axis.

From Fr. cylindre, from L. cylindrus "roller, cylinder," from Gk. kylindros "a cylinder, roller, roll," from kylindein "to roll."

Osotvâné, from sotun "column," Mid.Pers. stun, from O.Pers. stênâ "column," Av. stuna-, Skt. sthuna- "column."

cylindrical
  استوانه‌ای   
ostovâne-yi (#)

Fr.: cylindrique   

Of, pertaining to, or having the form of a cylinder.

From L. cylindricus, from Gk. kylindrikos, see → cylinder; → -ic; → -al.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>