An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

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Number of Results: 12955 Search : far
eclipse
  گرفت   
gereft (#)

Fr.: éclipse   

The passage of the shadow of a celestial body over the surface of another. The maximum number of solar and lunar visible eclipses occurring annually is seven; the minimum number is two, both being solar. → Solar eclipses take place when the new Moon is close to an → orbital node and on the same longitude with the Sun. At that moment either the → umbra, → antumbra, or the → penumbra touches the Earth's surface. For an observer located in the umbra the eclipse is total, while for one placed in the antumbra it is annular. → Annular eclipses occur around lunar → apogee. An observer situated in the penumbra sees only a → partial eclipse. A total or annular eclipse can be seen from a band with a width of 270 km at the most, around which, the much larger partiality zone extends. The Moon's shadow crosses the Earth from west to east at about 3,200 km/h. During → total eclipses the Sun's disk is entirely covered and the → solar corona can be seen. A solar eclipse can last up to 3 h (between the first and the → fourth contacts). Totality has a theoretical maximum duration of 7m 31s, but it is usually shorter. A → lunar eclipse can be seen from any place on Earth where the Moon is above the horizon; it occurs when the full Moon passes through the central dark shadow of the Earth. The Earth's shadow is much wider than the Moon and this is why the lunar eclipses can last up to four hours (between the first and the fourth contact) (M.S.: SDE).

From O.Fr. éclipse, from L. eclipsis, from Gk. ekleipsis "a leaving out, forsaking, an eclipse," from ekleipein "to forsake a usual place, fail to appear, be eclipsed," from ek "out," → ex-, + leipein "to leave."

Gereft, past stem of gereftan "to obscure, close up; to take, seize, catch; to undergo an eclipse," from Mid.Pers. griftan, Av./O.Pers. grab- "to take, seize," cf. Skt. grah-, grabh- "to seize, take," graha "seizing, holding, perceiving" (see also → concept); cf. M.L.G. grabben "to grab;" E. grab "to take or grasp suddenly;" PIE base *ghrebh- "to seize".

eclipse magnitude
  برز ِ خورگرفت   
borz-e xorgereft

Fr.: grandeur de l'éclipse, magnitude ~ ~   

The fraction of the Sun's diameter occulted by the Moon. It is strictly a ratio of diameters and should not be confused with → eclipse obscuration, which is a measure of the Sun's surface area occulted by the Moon. Eclipse magnitude may be expressed as either a percentage or a decimal fraction (e.g., 50% or 0.50). By convention, its value is given at the instant of → greatest eclipse (F. Espenak, NASA).

eclipse; → magnitude.

eclipse mapping
  نقشه‌برداری ِ گرفتی   
naqše bardâri-ye gerefti

Fr.: cartographie par éclipse   

A method for imaging the continuum light distributions of the → accretion disks of → cataclysmic variable stars. It relies on geometrical information contained in eclipse light curves. An alternative method is → Doppler tomography.

eclipse; → mapping.

eclipse obscuration
  تیره‌شد ِ خورگرفت   
tirešod-e xorgereft

Fr.: obscuration de l'éclipse   

The fraction of the Sun's area occulted by the Moon. It should not be confused with → eclipse magnitude, which is the fraction of the Sun's diameter occulted by the Moon. Eclipse obscuration may be expressed as either a percentage or a decimal fraction (e.g., 50% or 0.50) (F. Espenak, NASA).

eclipse; obscuration, verbal noun from → obscure.

eclipse season
  فصل ِ گرفت   
fasl-e gereft

Fr.: saison d'éclipse   

The period during which the Sun is close enough to one of the → lunar orbit nodes so that an eclipse can take place. This time window lasts for 37 days for → solar eclipses and almost 24 days for → lunar eclipses. These seasons occur every 173.31 days. Two eclipse seasons make up an → eclipse year.

eclipse; → season.

eclipse year
  سال ِ گرفتی   
sâl-e gerefti

Fr.: année des éclipses   

The interval of time (346.620 03 days) between two successive passages of the Sun through the same node of the Moon's orbit. It takes less than a solar year to complete an eclipse year because the Moon's orbit and the lunar nodes are slowly regressing.

eclipse; → year.

eclipsing binary
  دورین ِ گرفتی   
dorin-e gerefti

Fr.: binaire à éclipses   

A binary star in which one of the two stars passes in front of the other so that the system's total light periodically fades. The most famous eclipsing binary is → Algol.

eclipse; → binary.

eclipsing variable
  ورتنده‌ی ِ گرفتی   
vartande-ye gerefti

Fr.: variable à éclipses   

Same as → eclipsing binary.

eclipse; → variable.

ecliptic
  هورپه   
hurpeh

Fr.: écliptique   

The Sun's apparent path in the sky relative to the stars in the course of a year. It is also the projection of the Earth's orbital plane onto the → celestial sphere. Because of the inclination of the → Earth's rotation axis, the ecliptic is tilted by about 23.4° with respect to the → celestial equator, an angle known as the → obliquity of the ecliptic. The ecliptic crosses the celestial equator at the → equinoxes.

From L. ecliptica linea "path of eclipses," so called because eclipses happen only when the Moon is near this path, from eclipsis, → eclipse.

Hurpeh "sun path," from hur "sun," variant xor, cognate with Gk. helios, → Sun, + peh "path, way," from O.Pers. paθi- "path, way;" Av. paθ-, variants paθi-, paθā-, pantay-; Mid/Mod.Pers. pand "path, advice, councel;" Khotanese pande "road, path;" Ossetic fœndœg "path, road;" cf. Skt. pánthā- "road, path, course;" Gk. patos "path, way;" L. pons "bridge, path;" E. find; PIE base *pent- "to go, to tread."

ecliptic latitude
  ورونای ِ هورپهی   
varunâ-ye hurpehi

Fr.: latitude écliptique   

One of the two coordinates in the → ecliptic system; the angle measured from the ecliptic, positive toward the north.

ecliptic; → latitude.

ecliptic longitude
  درژنای ِ هورپهی   
derežnâ-ye hurpehi

Fr.: longitude écliptique   

One of the two coordinates in the → ecliptic system; the angle measured eastwards along the ecliptic from 0° to 360°, with the origin at the → vernal equinox.

ecliptic; → longitude.

ecliptic plane
  هامن هورپهی   
hâmon-e hurpehi

Fr.: plan de l'écliptique   

The plane of Earth's orbit around the Sun.

ecliptic, → plane.

Ecliptic Plane Input Catalogue (EPIC)
  کاتالوگ ِ درونداد ِ هامن ِ هورپهی   
kâtâlog-e darundâd-e hâmon-e hurpehi

Fr.: catalogue d'entrée du plan de l'écliptique   

A catalog of fields along the → ecliptic observed by the → K2 mission. The catalog is hosted at the → Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).

ecliptic; → plane; → input; → catalogue.

ecliptic pole
  قطب ِ هورپهی   
qotb-e hurpehi

Fr.: pole de l'écliptique   

Either of the two points on the celestial sphere that are 90° above and below the plane of ecliptic. The north ecliptic pole lies in → Draco, and the south ecliptic pole in → Dorado. Due to → precession, the → celestial pole moves in a circle around the ecliptic poles once every 25,800 years.

ecliptic, → pole.

ecliptic system
  راژمان ِ هورپهی   
râžmân-e hurpehi

Fr.: système écliptique   

Coordinate system with the ecliptic as the fundamental plane.

ecliptic; → system.

eco-
  بوم-   
bum- (#)

Fr.: éco-   

A combining form meaning "house, household, environment, nature, natural habitat."

Ultimately from Gk. oikos "house," cognate with L. villa "country house, farm," related to vicus "village, group of houses; " cf. Av. vis- "homestead, community;" O.Pers. viθ- "house, royal house, farm;" Mid.Pers. wis "village;" dialectal Pers. wiš-, vīš- "to set (of Sun)," wīs- "to enter" (Cheung 2007); Skt. viś- "settlement, house, tribe, people;" Goth. weihs "village;" Lith. viešpats "master of the house;" PIE *ueik'- "to settle (down)."

Bum-, from bum "region, land, a mansion or place where one dwells in saftey; nature, disposition;" Mid.Pers. bûm "land, earth, country;" O.Pers. būmi- "place of being/living, land, region;" Av. būmī- "earth," from bav- "to be, become, take place;" cf. Skt. bhūmi- "land, region;" PIE *bheu- "to be, come into being, become" (cf. Gk. phu- "become," phuein "to bring forth, make grow;" L. fui "I was" (perf. tense of esse), futurus "that is to be, future;" Ger. present first and second person sing. bin, bist; E. to be; O.Ir. bi'u "I am;" Lith. bu'ti "to be;" Rus. byt' "to be").

ecology
  بوم‌شناسی   
bumšenâsi (#)

Fr.: écologie   

1) The scientific discipline that is concerned with the relationships between living organisms and their past, present, and future environments.
2) The study of the damaging effects of modern civilisation on the environment, with the aim of prevention or reversal through conservation.

eco- + → -logy.

economic
  بومداتی   
bumdâti

Fr.: économique   

1) Pertaining to the production, distribution, and use of income, wealth, and commodities.
2) Of or relating to the science of economics.
3) Pertaining to an economy, or system of organization or operation, especially of the process of production (Dictionary.com).

Adjective, from → economics.

economic growth
  رست ِ بومداتی   
rost-e bumdâti

Fr.: croissance économique   

An increase in the output that an economy produces over a period of time.

economic; → growth.

economical
  بومداتی   
bumdâti

Fr.: économique   

1) Avoiding waste or extravagance; thrifty.
2) → economic.

economic; → -al.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis diu dog Dop dou Dra dua dus dwa dyn e-f Ear ecl eco edu eig Ein ela ele ele ele Ele elo emi emp ene Enl env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh Exo exp exp ext ext f(R fac fam fat fee Fer Fib fig fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre Fre fri fun fuz Gal gal gal Gam gau Gay gen Geo geo geo geo gim glo gov gra gra gra gra gre gro Gun hab hal han Har haz hea hel hel Hen Her het Hig hil hol Hoo hor hou Hub hum hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind Ind inf inf inf inf inn ins ins int int int int int int int int inv ion ion Irr iso iso iso jan jit Jul jus Kel ker kin kni La lam lan Lap las lat Lay Led Len let lif lig lin lin lin liq Lit loc log lon lou low lum lun Lym M d Mag mag mag mag mag mag maj man mar mas mas mat mea mea mec mem mer Mes met met mho mic Mie Mil min mis MKS MOd mol Mon moo mot mul mul myo nak Nas nat neb neg neu neu New New nit noi non non nor nor nuc nuc nul nut obj obl obs occ oct off oli oni ope opp opt opt orb ord org orp osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par Par par pas Pav Pel per per per per Per per pha phi pho pho pho phy Pip Pla pla PLA pla ple plu pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pot Pra pre pre pre Pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul pur qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret RHB rid rig ris roc Ros rot rub Rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci Sea sec sec see sel sem sen set Sha sha shi shu sid sil sim sin SIS ski Slo smo Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spi Spo squ sta sta sta sta Ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub suc sun sup sup sup sup sur Swa syn syn tab tar tel tem ter tes the the the the Tho thr tid tim Tit top tot tra tra TRA tra tre tri tri tru Tun Tus tym Typ ult unb und uni uni uns upp Urs vac van var Vei Ven ver vic Vir vir vis vol W 4 war wat wav wea wed wet wid win WN2 Wol wri xen yok zen zin > >>