An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
electrostatic induction
  درهازش ِ برق‌ایستا   
darhâzeš-e barqistâ

Fr.: induction électrostatique   

The production of stationary electric charges on an uncharged object as a result of a charged body being brought near it without touching it. A positive charge will induce a negative charge, and vice versa.

electrostatic; → induction.

electrostatic unit (esu)
  یکای ِ برق‌ایستای ِ بار   
yekâ-ye barqistâ-ye bâr

Fr.: unité électrostatique de charge   

The unit of electric charge in the → cgs system of units. Also called the → statcoulomb. The esu is defined such that if two objects, each carrying a charge of +1 esu, are 1 cm aparat, then they repel each other with a force of 1 → dyne. 1 esu = 3.3356 × 10-10 → coulombs.

electrostatic; → unit; → charge.

electrostatic wave
  موج ِ برق‌ایستا   
mowj-e barqistâ

Fr.: onde électrostatique   

In a → plasma, a disturbance that is devoid of magnetic field, and hence can be expressed by an electrostatic potential. The electric field is always parallel to the propagation vector, so that the electrostatic wave is → longitudinal.

electrostatic; → wave.

electrostatics
  برق‌ایستاییک   
barqistâyik

Fr.: électrostatique   

The branch of → electricity dealing with the phenomena and properties of stationary → electric charges, as opposed to → electrodynamics. It involves the build-up of charge on the → surface of → objects due to → contact with other surfaces.

electro- + → statics.

electroweak
  برقانزار   
barqânezâr

Fr.: électrofaible   

Of, relating to, or being the → unification of → electromagnetism and the → weak interaction.

electro-; → weak.

electroweak epoch
  زیمه‌ی ِ برقانزار   
zime-ye barqânezâr

Fr.: époque électrofaible   

A period in the early history of the Universe lasting from 10-36 to 10-12 seconds after the → Big Bang. The electroweak epoch begins at the same time as cosmic → inflation is triggered. This is also the time when the → strong force breaks from the → grand unified force and ends with another → phase transition will occur in which the → weak interaction breaks from the → electroweak force.

electroweak; → epoch.

electroweak force
  نیروی ِ برقا نزار، ~ برقا کمزور   
niru-ye barqânezâr, ~ barqâkamzur

Fr.: force électrofaible   

The force that takes part in an → electroweak interaction.

electroweak; → force.

electroweak interaction
  اندرژیرش ِ برقانزار   
andaržireš-e barqânezâr

Fr.: interaction électrofaible   

The unified description of two of the four fundamental interactions of nature, → electromagnetism and the → weak interaction which would merge into a single force under conditions of extreme temperature (above 1016 degrees, 102 GeV) prevalent in the early history of the → Universe.

electroweak; → interaction.

electroweak star
  ستاره‌ی ِ برقانزار   
setâre-ye barqânezâr

Fr.: étoile électrofaible   

A postulated type of star that could form toward the end of a → massive star's life, after → nuclear fusion has stopped in its → core, and before the star → collapses into a → black hole. In those → extreme conditions, when → temperature and → density inside the star are very high, → quarks could convert into → leptons. Hence huge amounts of energy can be released, much of which would be in the form of → neutrinos.

electroweak; → star.

elegance
  قشنگی   
qašangi (#)

Fr.: élégance   

Elegance quality; something elegant.

Noun from → elegant.

elegant
  قشنگ   
qašang (#)

Fr.: élégant   

Gracefully refined and dignified, as in tastes, habits, or literary style; graceful in form or movement; excellent; fine; superior (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.Fr., from L. elegantem (nominative elegans) "choice, fine, tasteful," from eligere "to select, choose."

Qašang "elegant, nicely fitted up" (Steingass), variant šang; cf. Sogd. xšang "beautiful, magnificient, excellent," maybe related to Av. xšnu- "to entertain, welcome, take care of (a guest)," O.Pers. xšnu- "to be satisfied, glad," Pers. xošnud "satisfied, content."

elegant equation
  هموگش ِ قشنگ   
hamugeš-e qašang

Fr.: équation élégante   

An equation with surprising simplicity that expresses a fundamental result relating several apparently unassociable elements. For example, → Euler's formula for the particular case of θ = π, and the → mass-energy relation.

elegant; → equation.

element
  بن‌پار، عنصر   
bonpâr (#), onsor (#)

Fr.: élément   

1) General: A component or constituent of a whole or one of the parts into which a whole may be resolved by analysis.
2) Astro.: Any of the data required to define the precise nature of an orbit and to determine the position of a planet in the orbit at any given time. → orbital element.
3) Chemistry:: One of the 117 presently known substances that cannot be decomposed by chemical reaction into a simpler substance.
4) Math.:a) Of a cylinder or cone, the generating line of the surface, taken in any position. b) Of a set, any member of the set.

From O.Fr. élément, from L. elementum "rudiment, one of the four elements, first principle," origin unknown.

Bonpâr, from bon "basis; root; foundation; bottom;" Mid.Pers. bun "root; foundation; beginning," Av. būna- "base, depth," cf. Skt. bundha-, budhná- "base, bottom," Pali bunda- "root of tree" + pâr contraction of pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment;" Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assign;" cf. L. pars "part, piece, side, share," portio "share, portion;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble." Onsor from Ar.

element diffusion
  پخش ِ بن‌پار   
paxš-e bonpâr

Fr.: diffusion des éléments   

An important physical process occurring in stars, which is the relative separation of the various → chemical elements. It is caused by → gravitational settling and → thermal diffusion, on the one hand, and → radiative levitation on the other. This process, which was described by Michaud (1970) to account for the abundance anomalies observed in → chemically peculiar  → A star, is now recognized as occuring in all types of stars. Its influence on the observed → chemical abundances is extremely variable, however, due to competing macroscopic motions like → convective  → mixing or rotation-induced → turbulence. In the Sun, no observable abundance anomalies are expected from element diffusion, as the time scale of the process is longer than the solar lifetime. However the small induced → depletion of → helium and → heavy elements by about 20% is detectable through → helioseismology. Such detections are more difficult in stars, as only global → oscillation modes can be detected, in contrast to the Sun, where local oscillations of the surface can be analyzed (Théado et al., 2005, A&A 437, 553).

element; → diffusion.

elemental abundance
  فراوانی ِ بن‌پار، ~ عنصر   
farâvâni-ye bonpâr, ~ onsor

Fr.: abondance élémentaire, ~ d'un élément   

Emission nebulae: The relative amount of a given → chemical element in an ionized nebula with respect to another element, usually → hydrogen. Elemental abundance ratios of → emission nebulae are obtained either by adding the observed → ionic abundances of the element or by using → ionization correction factors. Same as → total abundance.

Elemental, from M.L. elementalis, → element + -al; abundance, from O.Fr. abundance, from L. abundantia "fullness," from abundare "to overflow," from L. ab- "away" + undare "to surge," from unda "water, wave;" → abundance.

elementary particle
  ذره‌ی ِ بنیادین   
zarre-ye bonyâdin (#)

Fr.: particule élémentaire   

A particle which cannot be divided into other constituents. More specifically, a particle whose field appears in the fundamental field equations of the unified field theory of elementary particles, in particular in the Lagrangian. For example, the → electron, the → photon, and the → quark are elementary particles, whereas the proton and neutron are not. The elementary nature of a particle can be revised depending on new observations or theories. Also called → fundamental particle.

Elementary, M.E. elementare, from M.F. élémentaire, from L. elementarius, from → element + adj. suffix -arius; → particle.

Bonyâdin, from bonyâd "basis, foundation," variant of bonlâd, from bon "basis; root; foundation; bottom" → element + lâd "root; foundation; reason, cause; wall" + adj. suffix -in.

elementary time
  زمان ِ بنیادین   
zamân-e bonyâdin

Fr.: temps élémentaire   

The time required for → light to cross the classical radius of the electron (→ electron radius): te = re/c ≅ 10-23 s.

elementary particle; → time.

elements of the orbit
  بن‌پارهای ِ مدار، عنصرهای ~   
bonpârhâ-ye madâr, onsorhâ-ye ~ (#)

Fr.: éléments orbitaux   

orbital element.

element; → orbit.

elephant trunk
  خرطوم ِ فیل   
xortum-e fil

Fr.: trompe d'éléphant   

An elongated structure of → interstellar dust and gas which absorbs the radiation from background stars in an → H II region. These structures are the denser remnants of → molecular clouds from which → massive stars are formed. Elephant trunks are eventually dissipated by the action of the → ionizing radiation and → stellar wind of the associated massive stars. A remarkable example of these structures is displayed by the → HST image of the → Eagle Nebula as → pillars of obscuring matter protruding from the interior wall of a dark molecular cloud. Some → Bok globules may represent the remaining densest fragments of elephant trunks.

M.E. elephant, from O.Fr. olifant, from L. elephantus, from Gk. elephas "elephant, ivory," probably from a non-I.E. language, likely via Phoenician; trunk, from M.E. trunke, O.Fr. tronc, from L. truncus "stem, trunk, stump."

Xortum "the proboscis of an elephant," loanword from Ar. xartum; fil, pil "elephant," from Mid.Pers. pil "elephant;" O.Pers. piru- "ivory."

Elephant's Trunk Nebula
  میغ ِ خرطوم ِ فیل   
miq-e xortum-e fil

Fr.: Nébuleuse de la trompe d'éléphant   

An elongated dark structure of gas and dust in the → H II region IC 1396. It spans about 5 degrees on the sky in the constellation → Cepheus, about 2400 → light-years from the Earth. The Elephant Trunk Nebula is believed to be site of star formation, containing several very young stars. It is an example of → elephant trunks associated with star forming regions.

elephant trunk; → nebula.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>