An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mom moo mor mov mul mur Na nar nat nea neg Nes neu New New Nic nod non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort OSI out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rak ran rat Ray rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sid sil sim sin sit sky slo Sne Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel Z C zer ZZ > >>

Number of Results: 13003 Search : far
electroweak epoch
  زیمه‌ی ِ برقانزار   
zime-ye barqânezâr

Fr.: époque électrofaible   

A period in the early history of the Universe lasting from 10-36 to 10-12 seconds after the → Big Bang. The electroweak epoch begins at the same time as cosmic → inflation is triggered. This is also the time when the → strong force breaks from the → grand unified force and ends with another → phase transition will occur in which the → weak interaction breaks from the → electroweak force.

electroweak; → epoch.

electroweak force
  نیروی ِ برقا نزار، ~ برقا کمزور   
niru-ye barqânezâr, ~ barqâkamzur

Fr.: force électrofaible   

The force that takes part in an → electroweak interaction.

electroweak; → force.

electroweak interaction
  اندرژیرش ِ برقانزار   
andaržireš-e barqânezâr

Fr.: interaction électrofaible   

The unified description of two of the four fundamental interactions of nature, → electromagnetism and the → weak interaction which would merge into a single force under conditions of extreme temperature (above 1016 degrees, 102 GeV) prevalent in the early history of the → Universe.

electroweak; → interaction.

electroweak star
  ستاره‌ی ِ برقانزار   
setâre-ye barqânezâr

Fr.: étoile électrofaible   

A postulated type of star that could form toward the end of a → massive star's life, after → nuclear fusion has stopped in its → core, and before the star → collapses into a → black hole. In those → extreme conditions, when → temperature and → density inside the star are very high, → quarks could convert into → leptons. Hence huge amounts of energy can be released, much of which would be in the form of → neutrinos.

electroweak; → star.

elegance
  قشنگی   
qašangi (#)

Fr.: élégance   

Elegance quality; something elegant.

Noun from → elegant.

elegant
  قشنگ   
qašang (#)

Fr.: élégant   

Gracefully refined and dignified, as in tastes, habits, or literary style; graceful in form or movement; excellent; fine; superior (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.Fr., from L. elegantem (nominative elegans) "choice, fine, tasteful," from eligere "to select, choose."

Qašang "elegant, nicely fitted up" (Steingass), variant šang; cf. Sogd. xšang "beautiful, magnificient, excellent," maybe related to Av. xšnu- "to entertain, welcome, take care of (a guest)," O.Pers. xšnu- "to be satisfied, glad," Pers. xošnud "satisfied, content."

elegant equation
  هموگش ِ قشنگ   
hamugeš-e qašang

Fr.: équation élégante   

An equation with surprising simplicity that expresses a fundamental result relating several apparently unassociable elements. For example, → Euler's formula for the particular case of θ = π, and the → mass-energy relation.

elegant; → equation.

element
  بن‌پار، عنصر   
bonpâr (#), onsor (#)

Fr.: élément   

1) General: A component or constituent of a whole or one of the parts into which a whole may be resolved by analysis.
2) Astro.: Any of the data required to define the precise nature of an orbit and to determine the position of a planet in the orbit at any given time. → orbital element.
3) Chemistry:: One of the 117 presently known substances that cannot be decomposed by chemical reaction into a simpler substance.
4) Math.:a) Of a cylinder or cone, the generating line of the surface, taken in any position. b) Of a set, any member of the set.

From O.Fr. élément, from L. elementum "rudiment, one of the four elements, first principle," origin unknown.

Bonpâr, from bon "basis; root; foundation; bottom;" Mid.Pers. bun "root; foundation; beginning," Av. būna- "base, depth," cf. Skt. bundha-, budhná- "base, bottom," Pali bunda- "root of tree" + pâr contraction of pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment;" Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assign;" cf. L. pars "part, piece, side, share," portio "share, portion;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble." Onsor from Ar.

element diffusion
  پخش ِ بن‌پار   
paxš-e bonpâr

Fr.: diffusion des éléments   

An important physical process occurring in stars, which is the relative separation of the various → chemical elements. It is caused by → gravitational settling and → thermal diffusion, on the one hand, and → radiative levitation on the other. This process, which was described by Michaud (1970) to account for the abundance anomalies observed in → chemically peculiar  → A star, is now recognized as occuring in all types of stars. Its influence on the observed → chemical abundances is extremely variable, however, due to competing macroscopic motions like → convective  → mixing or rotation-induced → turbulence. In the Sun, no observable abundance anomalies are expected from element diffusion, as the time scale of the process is longer than the solar lifetime. However the small induced → depletion of → helium and → heavy elements by about 20% is detectable through → helioseismology. Such detections are more difficult in stars, as only global → oscillation modes can be detected, in contrast to the Sun, where local oscillations of the surface can be analyzed (Théado et al., 2005, A&A 437, 553).

element; → diffusion.

elemental abundance
  فراوانی ِ بن‌پار، ~ عنصر   
farâvâni-ye bonpâr, ~ onsor

Fr.: abondance élémentaire, ~ d'un élément   

Emission nebulae: The relative amount of a given → chemical element in an ionized nebula with respect to another element, usually → hydrogen. Elemental abundance ratios of → emission nebulae are obtained either by adding the observed → ionic abundances of the element or by using → ionization correction factors. Same as → total abundance.

Elemental, from M.L. elementalis, → element + -al; abundance, from O.Fr. abundance, from L. abundantia "fullness," from abundare "to overflow," from L. ab- "away" + undare "to surge," from unda "water, wave;" → abundance.

elementary particle
  ذره‌ی ِ بنیادین   
zarre-ye bonyâdin (#)

Fr.: particule élémentaire   

A particle which cannot be divided into other constituents. More specifically, a particle whose field appears in the fundamental field equations of the unified field theory of elementary particles, in particular in the Lagrangian. For example, the → electron, the → photon, and the → quark are elementary particles, whereas the proton and neutron are not. The elementary nature of a particle can be revised depending on new observations or theories. Also called → fundamental particle.

Elementary, M.E. elementare, from M.F. élémentaire, from L. elementarius, from → element + adj. suffix -arius; → particle.

Bonyâdin, from bonyâd "basis, foundation," variant of bonlâd, from bon "basis; root; foundation; bottom" → element + lâd "root; foundation; reason, cause; wall" + adj. suffix -in.

elementary time
  زمان ِ بنیادین   
zamân-e bonyâdin

Fr.: temps élémentaire   

The time required for → light to cross the classical radius of the electron (→ electron radius): te = re/c ≅ 10-23 s.

elementary particle; → time.

elements of the orbit
  بن‌پارهای ِ مدار، عنصرهای ~   
bonpârhâ-ye madâr, onsorhâ-ye ~ (#)

Fr.: éléments orbitaux   

orbital element.

element; → orbit.

elephant trunk
  خرطوم ِ فیل   
xortum-e fil

Fr.: trompe d'éléphant   

An elongated structure of → interstellar dust and gas which absorbs the radiation from background stars in an → H II region. These structures are the denser remnants of → molecular clouds from which → massive stars are formed. Elephant trunks are eventually dissipated by the action of the → ionizing radiation and → stellar wind of the associated massive stars. A remarkable example of these structures is displayed by the → HST image of the → Eagle Nebula as → pillars of obscuring matter protruding from the interior wall of a dark molecular cloud. Some → Bok globules may represent the remaining densest fragments of elephant trunks.

M.E. elephant, from O.Fr. olifant, from L. elephantus, from Gk. elephas "elephant, ivory," probably from a non-I.E. language, likely via Phoenician; trunk, from M.E. trunke, O.Fr. tronc, from L. truncus "stem, trunk, stump."

Xortum "the proboscis of an elephant," loanword from Ar. xartum; fil, pil "elephant," from Mid.Pers. pil "elephant;" O.Pers. piru- "ivory."

Elephant's Trunk Nebula
  میغ ِ خرطوم ِ فیل   
miq-e xortum-e fil

Fr.: Nébuleuse de la trompe d'éléphant   

An elongated dark structure of gas and dust in the → H II region IC 1396. It spans about 5 degrees on the sky in the constellation → Cepheus, about 2400 → light-years from the Earth. The Elephant Trunk Nebula is believed to be site of star formation, containing several very young stars. It is an example of → elephant trunks associated with star forming regions.

elephant trunk; → nebula.

elevate
  بالاییدن   
bâlâyidan

Fr.: élever   

1) To move or raise to a higher place or position; lift up.
2) To raise to a higher state, rank, or office; exalt; promote (Dictionary.com).

From L. elevatus, p.p. of elevare "to lift up, raise," from → ex- "out" + levare "lighten, raise," from levis "light" in weight, → lever.

Bâlâyidan, from bâla "up, above, high, elevated, height," related to boland "high," borz, "height, → magnitude."

elevating floor
  کف ِ بالارو   
kaf-e bâlârow (#)

Fr.: plancher mobile   

The floor below a telescope used to lift observers to the level of the telescope's eyepiece, since the telescope is tilted at varying angles when it is in use.

Elevating, adj. of → elevate; → floor.

elevation
  بالایش   
bâlâyeš

Fr.: élevation   

1) The height to which something is elevated or to which it rises.
2) An elevated place, thing, or part; an eminence (Dictionary.com).

Verbal noun of → elevate; → -tion.

Eley-Rideal mechanism
  ساز-و-کار ایلی-ردیل   
sâzokâr-e Eley-Rideal

Fr.: mécanisme de Eley-Rideal   

A → chemical reaction on solid surfaces in which one atom or molecule is → adsorbed on the catalyst surface, and another reacts directly from the gas phase. This type of mechanism may occur preferentially on very small → dust grains, where transient heating events prevent weakly bound species from remaining and in larger grains at high temperatures. Compare with the → Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism.

Proposed in 1938 by D. D. Eley (1914-2015), a British chemist and Professor of Physical Chemistry and E. K. Rideal (1890-1974), an English physical chemist.

eliminate
  اساندن   
osândan

Fr.: éliminer   

1) To remove or get rid of, especially as being in some way undesirable.
2) Math.: To remove (an unknown variable) from two or more simultaneous equations (Dictionary.com).

L. eliminatus, p.p. of eliminare "to thrust out of doors, expel," from ex limine "off the threshold," from → ex- "off, out" + limine, ablative of limen "threshold."

Osândan, from Tabari uzitan, huzənniyən, hozənniyan "to expel," from os- "out," → ex-, + -ândan suffix of transitive verbs.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mom moo mor mov mul mur Na nar nat nea neg Nes neu New New Nic nod non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort OSI out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rak ran rat Ray rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sid sil sim sin sit sky slo Sne Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel Z C zer ZZ > >>