An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12942 Search : far
exception
  سگرتش   
sogerteš

Fr.: exception   

1) The act of excepting or the fact of being excepted.
2) Something excepted. 

Verbal noun of → except.

exceptional
  سگرتشی   
sogerešti

Fr.: exceptionnel   

Forming an exception; not ordinary.

exception; → -al.

excess
  فزونی، فرهبود   
fozuni (#), ferehbud

Fr.: excès   

The state or an instance of surpassing usual, proper, or specified limits. → color excess; → infrared excess.

From L. excessus "going beyond bounds," from stem of excedere "to go beyond," from → ex- "out" + cedere "to go, yield;" cf. Gk. hodos "way;" PIE base *ked- "to go, yield."

Fozuni, from afzuni "excess," afzuni kardan "to exceed bounds," from afzudan "to add, increase," from Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;" O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Sk. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens."
Ferehbud "excess" (Mid.Pers. frehbūd "excess"), from Mod.Pers. fereh, firih "much; more" + bud "to be." The first component fereh, from Mid.Pers. frây "more, much," from Av. frāyah- "more; too much, very much" (frāyô.humata- "rich in good thoughts"). The second component bud, budan "to be," from Mid.Pers. budan, from O.Pers./Av. bav- "to be; become, take place;" Av. buta- perf. ptcpl. pass., bavaiti "becomes" (cf. Skt. bhavati "becomes, happens," bhavah "becoming; condition, state;" PIE *bheu- "to be, come into being, become;" Gk. phu- "become," phuein "to bring forth, make grow;" L. fui "I was" (perf. tense of esse), futurus "that is to be, future;" Ger. present first and second person sing. bin, bist; E. to be; O.Ir. bi'u "I am;" Lith. bu'ti "to be;" Rus. byt' "to be").

exchange
  ۱) گهولیدن؛ ۲) گهول، گهولش   
1) gahulidan (#); 2) gahul, gahuleš

Fr.: 1) échanger; 2) échange   

1) To give and receive reciprocally.
2) The act, process, or an instance of exchanging. → exchange force, → exchange particle, → Prevost's law of exchanges.

O.Fr. eschangier, from V.L. *excambiare, from L. → ex- "out" + cambire "barter."

Mod.Pers. gahulidan "to exchange," Kurd. guhartin/guhêr- "to exchange," Mid.Pers. wihir "to change," wihirišn "change," Manichean Mid.Pers. hr'g; Buddhist Mid.Pers. hlg "duty, tribute; work, effort;" Arm. loanword hark "duty, tribute;" Ar. loanword xarj "expense," xarâj "land, property tax;" Proto-Iranian *har- "to barter, trade; to pay tribute;" IE cognates: Gk. elein "to take (by force)," elor "loot, booty, catch;" Goth. saljan "to bring, to sacrifice;" O.E. sellan "to hand over, sell;" O.H.G. sala "delivery of goods."

exchange force
  نیروی ِ گهولی   
niru-ye gahuli

Fr.: force d'échange   

The force that governs the exchange of particles in the interaction between bodies. → exchange particle.

exchange, → force.

exchange particle
  ذره‌ی ِ گهولی   
zarre-ye gahuli

Fr.: particule d'échange   

In quantum field theory, a particle that transfers momentum and energy between interacting objects, and is said to mediate the interaction. All four of the fundamental forces involve the exchange of one or more particles. For example, photon is the exchange particle of the electromagnetic force.

exchange, → particle.

excimer
  اکسی‌مر   
eksimer

Fr.: excimère   

Chemistry: A complex formed from combination of a molecule with another molecule of the same type but in an → excited state. In other words, a → dimer in an electronically excited state. See also → exciplex.

From exci-, from → excited, + -mer, from → dimer.

exciplex
  اکسی‌پلکس   
eksipleks

Fr.: exciplexe   

Chemistry: A complex formed by association of a molecule in an → excited state and another molecule of a different type. See also → excimer.

From exci-, from → excited, + -plex, from → complex.

excircle
  اسپرهون   
osparhun

Fr.: excercle   

For a → triangle with two sides extended in the direction opposite their common → vertex, a circle that lies outside the triangle and is tangent to the three sides (two of them extended). The center of the excircle, called the → excenter, is the point of intersection of the bisector of the interior angle and the bisector of the exterior angles at the other two vertices.

ex-; → circle.

excise
  اسوندن   
osundan

Fr.: exciser   

To cut out or off; to remove

M.E., from M.Fr. exciser, from L. excisus, p.p. of excidere "cut out, cut down, cut off," from → ex- + caedere "to cut," → precise.

Osunidan, from os-, → ex- + sun "cut," → precise.

excision
  اسونش   
osuneš

Fr.: excision   

The act of removal; an excising. The surgical removal of a foreign body or of tissue.

Verbal noun of → excise.

excitation
  بر انگیزش   
barangizeš (#)

Fr.: excitation   

1) The addition of → energy to an → atomic or → molecular system, → transferring it from its → ground state to an → excited state.
2) A property of an → emission nebula usually expressed by the ratio [O III] 5007Å/Hβ.

Verbal noun of → excite; → -tion.

excitation energy
  کاروژ ِ بر انگیزش   
kâruž-e barangizeš

Fr.: énergie d'excitation   

Amount of energy (usually measured in → electron-volts) required to bring an electron from its → ground state to a given → excited state.

excitation; → energy.

excitation potential
  توند ِ بر‌انگیزش   
tavand-e barangizeš

Fr.: potentiel d'excitation   

In quantum mechanics, the energy that is necessary to change a system from a → ground state to a given → excited state; also called excitation energy.

excitation; → potential.

excitation temperature
  دمای ِ بر‌‌انگیزش   
damâ-ye barangizeš

Fr.: température d'excitation   

Of a gas or plasma, the temperature deduced from the → populations of atomic → excited states, as expressed by the Boltzmann formula: Nu/Nl = (gu/gl) exp (-ΔE/kTex), where Nu and Nl are the upper level and lower level populations respectively, gu and gl the statistical weights, ΔE = hν the energy difference between the states, k is → Boltzmann's constant, and hPlanck's constant. The higher the energy of the occupied states, the higher the excitation temperature.

excitation; → temperature.

excite
  بر‌انگیختن   
barangixtan (#)

Fr.: exciter   

Verb of → excitation.

From L. excitare "to rouse, produce," freq. of exciere "to call forth, instigate," from → ex- "out" + ciere "to move, set in motion;" PIE base *kei- "to move to and fro" (cf. Av. šiyav-, š(ii)auu- "to move, go," šiyavati "goes," šyaoθna- "activity; action; doing, working;" O.Pers. šiyav- "to go forth, set," ašiyavam "I set forth;" Mod.Pers. šodan, šow- "to go; to become;" cf. Skt. cyu- "to move to and fro, shake about; to stir," cyávate "stirs himself, goes;" Gk. seuo "I start quickly after," kinein "to move;" Goth. haitan "call, be called;" O.E. hatan "command, call").

Barangixtan, from intensive prefix bar- "on, upon, up," → on-, + angixtan, angizidan "to excite, stimulate," from Mid.Pers. hangêxtan, hangêz- "to arouse, stimulate, stir up," from Proto-Iranian *hamgaiz-, from ham-, → com-, + *gaiz- "to disturb, stir, excite." The Mod.Pers. gij, giž "confused, astonished, dizzy" is from this stem (Cheung 2007).

excited atom
  اتم ِ بر‌انگیخته   
atom-e barangixté (#)

Fr.: atome excité   

An atom in which one or more of its bound electrons are at → energy levels higher than their normal level.

Excited p.p. of → excite; → atom.

excited state
  حالت ِ بر‌انگیخته   
hâlat-e barangixté (#)

Fr.: état excité   

The condition of a particle or system of particles (especially an atom, nucleus, molecule) after absorbing energy from outside and transiting to a higher → energy level than that of its → ground state. Excited states are transitory as they lose energy through emissions or collisions and return to ground state.

Excited, p.p. of → excite; → state.

exciting star
  ستاره‌ی ِ بر انگیزنده   
setâre-ye barangizandé

Fr.: étoile excitatrice   

A star associated with an interstellar ionized nebula (→ H II region or → planetary nebula) whose energetic → ultraviolet, → photons → ionize the nebula.

Exciting, verbal adj. of → excite; → star.

exclude
  سکلاندن   
sokolândan

Fr.: exclure   

To shut or keep out; to hinder from being included, considered, or accepted. → exclusion.

From L. excludere "to keep out, shut out, hinder," from → ex- "out" + claudere "to close, shut," → include.

Sokolândan, from so-, variant os-, → ex-, + kolândan "to shut," → include.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou cra cre cro cru cub cur cyc Cyn dar dat day de- dec dec dec def def deg del den dep Des det deu dex die dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom Dor dou Dra duc dus dwa dyn e-t ear ecl eco eff Ein Ein ele ele ele ele ele elv emi emp ene enr epa epo equ equ Err Eta Eul eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai fan fau fel fer fic fil fin fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fro fun fuz Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel hep Her hex hig Him hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ini inp ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion Iri irr iso iso ite jel Jou JUp Kan Kep Kil kin Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nou nuc nuc num O-p obl obs obs oce Of? ohm omn opa Oph opt opt or orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Prz pul pum Pyx qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rhy rif Rin rob Rom rot rot rum S s Sak San sav sca Sch Sch scr sec sec SED sei sel sem seq sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto sto str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn syz tan tea tem ten ter the the the the thi thr tid til tip tom tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ ult umb unc uni uni unk upp urg uvb val var Veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>