An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12982 Search : far
exact differential
  دگرسانه‌ی ِ رزین   
degarsâne-ye razin

Fr.: différentielle exacte   

If N(x,y) is a → function of two → independent variables, then dN = (∂N/∂x)dx + (∂N/∂y)dy is the exact differential.

exact; → differential.

exact differential equation
  هموگش ِ دگرسانه‌ای ِ رزین   
hamugeš-e degarsâneyi-ye razin

Fr.: équation différentielle exacte   

A → differential equation composed of → continuous  → differentiable functions for which certain conditions are fulfilled. The equation M(x,y)dx + N(x,y)dy = 0 is called exact if M(x,y) and N(x,y) are continuous differentiable functions for which the following relationship is fulfilled: ∂M/∂y = ∂N/∂x, and ∂M/∂y and ∂N/∂x are continuous in some region.

exact; → differential; → equation.

exact number
  عدد ِ رزین   
adad-e razin

Fr.: nombre exact   

A value that is known with complete certainty. Examples of exact numbers are defined numbers, results of counts, certain unit conversions. Some examples: there are exactly 100 centimeters in 1 meter, a full circle is exactly 360°, and the number of students in a class can exactly be 25.

exact; → number.

exact science
  دانش ِ رزین   
dâneš-e razin

Fr.: science exacte   

A field of study that admits especially precise predictions and rigorous methods of testing hypotheses, especially reproducible experiments involving quantifiable predictions and measurements.

exact; → science.

examination
  بررسی   
barrasi (#)

Fr.: examen   

1) The act of examining; inspection; inquiry; investigation.
2) The state of being examined.
3) The act or process of testing pupils, candidates, etc., as by questions (Dictionary.com).

Noun from → examine.

examine
  بررسیدن   
barrasidan (#)

Fr.: examiner   

1) To inspect or scrutinize carefully.
2) To inquire into or investigate.
3) To test the knowledge, reactions, or qualifications of (a pupil, candidate, etc.), as by questions or assigning tasks (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from M.Fr. examiner "interrogate, question," from L. examinare "to test or try; consider," literally "to weigh," from examen "a means of weighing or testing," probably ultimately from exigere "weigh accurately," → exact.

Barrasidan, from bar- "up; upon; on; in; into; at; forth; with; near; before; according to," → on-, + rasidan "to attain; to arrive," → access.

example
  نمونه   
nemuné (#)

Fr.: exemple   

One of a number of things, or a part of something, taken to show the character of the whole.

From O.Fr. essample, from L. exemplum "a sample," literally "that which is taken out," from eximere "to take out, remove," from → ex- + emere "to obtain, buy," originally "to take," from PIE base *em- "to take" (cf. Av. yam-, yās- "to hold, take hold of," apayeiti (with apa) "taking away a thing from;" O.Pers. āyasa- "to take as one's own;" Skt. yam- "to hold, sustain," yamati "holds, subdues;" O.C.S. imo "to take;" Lith. imti, ima, émé "to take").

Nemuné, from nemun "index; guide," from nemudan "to show, display," from Mid.Pers. nimūdan, from ne- "down; into;" O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; below; into," → ni-, + mun, Av. māy- "to measure," → display.

excellent
  پهرم   
pahrom (#)

Fr.: excellent   

Possessing outstanding quality or superior merit; remarkably good (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. excellent "outstanding," from L. excellentem (nominative excellens) "towering, prominent, superior," pr.p. of excellere "to surpass, be superior,"from → ex- "out from" + cellere "to rise high, tower," related to celsus "high, great," from PIE root *kel- "to be elevated; hill;" from which are derived L. collis "hill," columna "projecting object," culmen "top, summit," cellere "raise;" Gk. kolonos "hill," kolophon "summit;" Lithuanian kalnas "mountain," kalnelis "hill;" E. hill; Pers. dialects (Gilân) kol, kulâ "hill," (Dâmqân) kalut, kolut "successive soil hills, hill," (Tabari) keti "hill," (Jâsk) kit "hill."

Mid.Pers. pahrom "excellent," variant pahlom, ultimately from *parθama- "the highest, the most elevated," literally "Parthian," adj. from Parθa(va)-; cf. pahlavân "hero," another similar respect word related to Parthia (Nyberg 1974).

excenter
  اسمرکز، برون-مرکز   
osmarkaz, borun-markaz

Fr.: excentre   

The center of an → excircle.

ex-; → center.

except
  ۱) سگرت، به سگرت ِ؛ ۲) سگرتیدن   
1) sogert, bé sogert-e; 2) sogertidan

Fr.: excepté, à l'exception de, sauf, hormis   

1) With the exclusion of; excluding.
2) To exclude; leave out.

From M.Fr. excepter , from L. exceptus, p.p. of excipere  "to take out," from → ex- "out" + capere "to take," → concept.

Sogert, from so-, variants zo- and os-, → ex- "out," + gert- "to take," → concept; cf. Mid.Pers. Parthian zgirw- "to take out," from uz- "ex-" + girw- "to take."

exception
  سگرتش   
sogerteš

Fr.: exception   

1) The act of excepting or the fact of being excepted.
2) Something excepted. 

Verbal noun of → except.

exceptional
  سگرتشی   
sogerešti

Fr.: exceptionnel   

Forming an exception; not ordinary.

exception; → -al.

excess
  فزونی، فرهبود   
fozuni (#), ferehbud

Fr.: excès   

The state or an instance of surpassing usual, proper, or specified limits. → color excess; → infrared excess.

From L. excessus "going beyond bounds," from stem of excedere "to go beyond," from → ex- "out" + cedere "to go, yield;" cf. Gk. hodos "way;" PIE base *ked- "to go, yield."

Fozuni, from afzuni "excess," afzuni kardan "to exceed bounds," from afzudan "to add, increase," from Mid.Pers. abzudan "to increase, grow;" O.Pers. abijav- "to increase, add to, promote," from abi-, aiby- "in addition to; to; against" + root jav- "press forward;" Av. gav- "to hasten, drive;" Sk. jav- "to press forward, impel quickly, excite," javate "hastens."
Ferehbud "excess" (Mid.Pers. frehbūd "excess"), from Mod.Pers. fereh, firih "much; more" + bud "to be." The first component fereh, from Mid.Pers. frây "more, much," from Av. frāyah- "more; too much, very much" (frāyô.humata- "rich in good thoughts"). The second component bud, budan "to be," from Mid.Pers. budan, from O.Pers./Av. bav- "to be; become, take place;" Av. buta- perf. ptcpl. pass., bavaiti "becomes" (cf. Skt. bhavati "becomes, happens," bhavah "becoming; condition, state;" PIE *bheu- "to be, come into being, become;" Gk. phu- "become," phuein "to bring forth, make grow;" L. fui "I was" (perf. tense of esse), futurus "that is to be, future;" Ger. present first and second person sing. bin, bist; E. to be; O.Ir. bi'u "I am;" Lith. bu'ti "to be;" Rus. byt' "to be").

exchange
  ۱) گهولیدن؛ ۲) گهول، گهولش   
1) gahulidan (#); 2) gahul, gahuleš

Fr.: 1) échanger; 2) échange   

1) To give and receive reciprocally.
2) The act, process, or an instance of exchanging. → exchange force, → exchange particle, → Prevost's law of exchanges.

O.Fr. eschangier, from V.L. *excambiare, from L. → ex- "out" + cambire "barter."

Mod.Pers. gahulidan "to exchange," Kurd. guhartin/guhêr- "to exchange," Mid.Pers. wihir "to change," wihirišn "change," Manichean Mid.Pers. hr'g; Buddhist Mid.Pers. hlg "duty, tribute; work, effort;" Arm. loanword hark "duty, tribute;" Ar. loanword xarj "expense," xarâj "land, property tax;" Proto-Iranian *har- "to barter, trade; to pay tribute;" IE cognates: Gk. elein "to take (by force)," elor "loot, booty, catch;" Goth. saljan "to bring, to sacrifice;" O.E. sellan "to hand over, sell;" O.H.G. sala "delivery of goods."

exchange force
  نیروی ِ گهولی   
niru-ye gahuli

Fr.: force d'échange   

The force that governs the exchange of particles in the interaction between bodies. → exchange particle.

exchange, → force.

exchange particle
  ذره‌ی ِ گهولی   
zarre-ye gahuli

Fr.: particule d'échange   

In quantum field theory, a particle that transfers momentum and energy between interacting objects, and is said to mediate the interaction. All four of the fundamental forces involve the exchange of one or more particles. For example, photon is the exchange particle of the electromagnetic force.

exchange, → particle.

excimer
  اکسی‌مر   
eksimer

Fr.: excimère   

Chemistry: A complex formed from combination of a molecule with another molecule of the same type but in an → excited state. In other words, a → dimer in an electronically excited state. See also → exciplex.

From exci-, from → excited, + -mer, from → dimer.

exciplex
  اکسی‌پلکس   
eksipleks

Fr.: exciplexe   

Chemistry: A complex formed by association of a molecule in an → excited state and another molecule of a different type. See also → excimer.

From exci-, from → excited, + -plex, from → complex.

excircle
  اسپرهون   
osparhun

Fr.: excercle   

For a → triangle with two sides extended in the direction opposite their common → vertex, a circle that lies outside the triangle and is tangent to the three sides (two of them extended). The center of the excircle, called the → excenter, is the point of intersection of the bisector of the interior angle and the bisector of the exterior angles at the other two vertices.

ex-; → circle.

excise
  اسوندن   
osundan

Fr.: exciser   

To cut out or off; to remove

M.E., from M.Fr. exciser, from L. excisus, p.p. of excidere "cut out, cut down, cut off," from → ex- + caedere "to cut," → precise.

Osunidan, from os-, → ex- + sun "cut," → precise.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cow cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg dam dar dat de deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ Equ esc eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iro irr iso iso ite jel Jou Jup kao Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam lan lar las law lea leg Leo lex lig lim lin lin lin lit Loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met met mic mic Mik min min mis mob mod mol mon moo mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ odd OH Ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho pi pip Pla pla pla pla ple poa pol Pol pol pol pop pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sh2 sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unp upp urg V20 Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Vol Vul wan wat wav WC4 wea wel whi Wil wis WNL wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>