An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>

Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
extreme horizontal branch star (EHB)
  ستاره‌ی ِ شاخه‌ی ِ افقی ِ استوم   
setâre-ye šâxe-ye ofoqi-ye ostom

Fr.: étoile de la branche horizontale extrême   

The hottest variety of stars on the → horizontal branch with temperatures ranging from 20,000 to 40,000 K. EHB stars are distinguished from normal horizontal branch stars by having extremely thin, inert hydrogen envelopes surrounding the helium-burning core. They are hot, dense stars with masses in a narrow range near 0.5 Msun. These stars have undergone such extreme mass loss during their first ascent up the giant branch that only a very thin hydrogen envelope survives. Stars identified as EHB stars are found in low metallicity globular clusters as an extension of the normal HB.

extreme; → horizontal; → branch; → star.

extreme infrared
  فروسرخ ِ استوم   
forusorx-e ostom

Fr.: infrarouge extrême   

A portion of the far infrared radiation, including wavelengths between 100 and 1,000 microns.

extreme; → infrared.

extreme mass ratio inspiral (EMRI)
  فروپیچه با وابر ِ استوم ِ جرم   
forupicé bâ vâbar-e ostom-e jerm

Fr.: orbite plongeante d'un trou noir binaire, au rapport de masse extrême   

A compact stellar remnant (e.g., a → white dwarf, → neutron star, or → black hole) that undergoes → inspiral into a much more massive object (→ supermassive black hole found → galactic centers). EMRIs are potential sources of low-frequency → gravitational waves. Predictions of the EMRI event rates span a wide range, from ~ 10-9 to 10-6 yr-1 per galaxy (Merritt et al. 2011, Physical Review D 84, 044024). See also → resonant relaxation.

extreme; → mass; → ratio; → inspiral.

extreme ultraviolet (EUV)
  فرابنفش ِ استوم   
farâbanafš-e ostom

Fr.: ultraviolet extrême   

A part of the ultraviolet radiation with wavelengths between 50 and 300 Angstöms.

extreme; → ultraviolet.

extremely metal-poor star (EMPS)
  ستاره‌ی ِ اُستومانه کم‌فلز   
stâre-ye ostomâné kamfelez

Fr.: étoile extrêmement pauvre en métaux   

A star with an iron abundance [Fe/H] < -3 found in a → galactic halo. These stars, whose → metallicity is typically less than one thousandth of the solar value, are believed to have formed shortly after the → Big Bang, 13.7 billion years ago. The number of such stars depends on the primordial → initial mass function. If the IMF were steep, there could, in principle, be a lot of EMPSs formed at high → redshifts. Thus many of them could have ended up in the halos of galaxies. See also → Population III star.

extreme; → metal; → poor; → star.

extremophile
  استومدوست   
ostomdust

Fr.: extrêmophile   

A → microorganism with the ability to thrive in extreme environmental conditions that would kill other species. These conditions include high temperatures, very low temperatures, high pressures, high levels of radiation, and high concentrations of salt in water.

extreme; → -phile.

extremum
  استومه   
ostomé

Fr.: extrémum   

A maximum or minimum value of a function in a specified interval.

From L. extremus, → extreme.

Ostomé, from ostom, → extreme + noun suffix , from Mid.Pers. -ag.

extrinsic
  برونگین   
borungin

Fr.: extrinsèque   

Not essential or inherent; not forming part of or belonging to a thing. → intrinsic.

Extrinsic, from L.L. extrinsecus "outward," from extrim- + secus "beside," from sequi "to follow."

Borungin, from borun "out, the outside" (Mid.Pers. bêron, from "outside, out, away" + rôn "side, direction;" Av. ravan- "(course of a) river") + -gin adj. suffix, contraction of âgin "filled."

extrinsic photoconductivity
  شیدهازندگی ِ برونگین   
šidhâzandegi-ye borungin

Fr.: photoconductivité extrinsèque   

Photoconductivity due to the addition of impurities or external causes.

extrinsic; → photoconductivity.

Šidhâzandegi, → photoconductivity; borungin, → extrinsic.

extrinsic semiconductor
  نیم‌هازا‌ی ِ برونگین   
nimhâzâ-ye borungin

Fr.: semiconducteur extrinsèque   

A semiconductor, such as silicon, whose responsive properties can be altered by the addition of impurities. Copper- and mercury-doped germanium are both examples of this semiconductor material.

extrinsic; → semiconductor.

extrinsic variable star
  ستاره‌ی ِ ورتنده‌ی ِ برونگین   
setâre-ye vartande-ye borungin

Fr.: étoile variable extrinsèque   

A star whose variation in apparent brightness is not due to changes in the star itself but to some external cause, such as eclipsing by a companion.

extrinsic; → variable; → star.

eye
  چشم   
cašm (#)

Fr.: œil   

The organ of vision that detects light.

O.E. ege (Mercian), eage (W. Saxon), from P.Gmc. *augon, from PIE *okw- "to see;" cf. Av. aši- "(both) eyes;" Skt. áksi- "eye;" Gk. osse "(both) eyes;" Goth. augo; O.C.S. oko; Lith. akis; L. oculus; Arm. ac-kh "eye."

Cašm, from Mid.Pers. cašm, Av. cašman- "eye," ākas- "to look," from prefix ā- + Proto-Iranian *kas- "to look, appear," cf. Skt. cáksus- "seeing."

eye relief
  چشم‌نهاد   
cašm nehâd

Fr.: dégagement oculaire   

The distance between the eyepiece of a telescope and the location of the exit pupil. This is where the observer's eye should be positioned to see the entire field of view of the eyepiece. Also termed eye distance.

eye; relief, from M.E. relef, from O.Fr. relief "assistance," from relever "to raise," from L. relevare "to raise, alleviate," from re- intensive prefix, + levare "to lift up, lighten."

Cašm nehâd "eye position," from cašm, → eye, + nehâd "position, placing, posture," contracted form of nehâdan "to place, put;" Mid.Pers. nihâtan; Av. ni- "down; into," → ni-, + dā- "to put; to establish; to give," dadāiti "he gives;" cf. Skt. dadāti "he gives;" Gk. didomi "I give;" L. do "I give;" PIE base *do- "to give."

eye safety
  گزند ِ چشم، زیلگی ِ ~   
gazand-e cašm, zilegi-ye ~

Fr.: sécurité oculaire   

The necessary precautions that must be taken in order to avoid damaging the eyes when watching a → solar eclipse. The only time that the Sun can be viewed safely with the naked eye is during a → total eclipse, when the Moon completely covers the disk of the Sun. It is never safe to look at a → partial eclipse or → annular eclipse, or the partial phases of a total solar eclipse, without the proper equipment and techniques. Even when 99% of the Sun's surface (the → photosphere) is obscured during the partial phases of a solar eclipse, the remaining crescent Sun is still intense enough to cause permanent retinal damage, especially when viewed through binoculars or other optical aids (F. Espenak, NASA).

eye; safety, M.E. sauvete, from O.Fr. salvetet, from M.L. salvitatem "safety," from L. salvus, cognate with Pers. har "all, each, every," → holo-.

Gazand "damage, injury," Mid.Pers. wizend, ultimately from *ui-jan-, from *ui- "apart, away from," → expand, + *jan- "to beat, strike," cf. Pers. zan-, zadan "to beat, strike," → beat; cašm, → eye
Zilegi, → security.

eyeglasses
  عینک   
eynak (#)

Fr.: lunettes   

A device consisting of a pair of glass or plastic lenses worn in a frame in front of the eyes to help correct imperfect vision or protect the eyes from light, dust, and the like. Also called glasses, spectacles.

eye; → glass.

Eynak, probably related to âyené "mirror," âbginé "glass" (Mid.Pers. êwênag "mirror," from *âdênak, from Proto-Iranian *ādayanaka-, from prefix ā- + the root of Av. dā(y)- "to see," didāti "sees" (cf. Mod.Pers. didan "to see," Mid.Pers. ditan "to see, regard, catch sight of, contemplate, experience;" O.Pers. dī- "to see;" Skt. dhī- "to perceive, think, ponder; thought, reflection, meditation," dādhye; Gk. dedorka "have seen") + suffix -ak). Other obsolete Pers. equivalents for eyeglasses are cešm-e farangi "Frank/European eye" and âyene-ye farangi "Frank/European glass." And it seems that the oldest mention of eyeglasses in Pers. is by the poet Jâmi (1414-1492), who calls it farangi šišé "Frank/European glass." These paradigms support the relation between eynak and âyené. As for the more recent term sam'ak "hearing aid," which is invoked to relate eynak to eyn (Ar. 'ayn "eye"), it may have been coined on the model of eynak supposing that eyn means "eye."

eyepiece
  چشمی   
cašmi (#)

Fr.: oculaire   

A → lens system, also known as an → ocular, used to → magnify the → image formed by the → objective of a → telescope.

eye; → piece.

Cašmi "ocular," adj. of cašmeye + -i adj. suffix.

F corona
  تاج ِ F   
tâj-e F

Fr.: couronne F   

The exterior part of the → solar corona, illuminated by solar light scattered or reflected by dust particles. The same phenomenon also produces the → zodiacal light, much farther away from the Sun. The dust particles are at most several microns in size and make up a disk stretching over almost 1 solar radius (700,000 km) from the Sun's surface. Unlike electrons, which are responsible for the → K corona, the dust particles move relatively slowly. Thus, the light scattered by them has the same spectrum as the → photosphere and shows the → Fraunhofer lines. The F corona is the most luminous part of the corona at 1.5 solar radii from the Sun's surface (M.S.: SDE).

F referring to the Fraunhofer lines; → corona.

f mode
  ترز ِ f، مُد ِ ~   
tarz-e f, mod-e ~

Fr.: mode f   

Waves that propagate only on the stellar surface. See also: → oscillation mode; → g mode; → p mode.

f referring to → fundamental; → mode.

F ring
  حلقه‌ی ِ F   
halqe-ye F

Fr.: anneau F   

The → Saturn's ring, with a width of 30-500 km, lying just outside of the → A ring, at 140,210 km from the center of Saturn.

ring.

f(R) gravity
  گرانی ِ (R)f   
gerâni-ye f(R)

Fr.: gravité f(r)   

An extension of Einstein's → general relativity derived from relaxing the hypothesis that the → Hilbert-Einstein action for the → gravitational field is strictly linear. This was done by replacing the → Ricci scalar, R, with a non-linear function of R:
S = (1/2κ)∫d4x (-g)1/2f(R) + Sm,
where κ ≡ 8πG and Sm is the matter part of the action. The case of f(R) = R represents the simplest type of f(R) gravity theories. The discovery of → dark energy in 1998 stimulated the idea that → cosmic acceleration today may originate from some modification of gravity to general relativity. Dark energy models based on f(R) theories have been extensively studied as the simplest modified gravity scenario to realize the late-time acceleration. There are three versions of f(R) modified gravity: metric (or second order) formalism, Palatini (or first order) formalism, and metric-affine gravity.

f(R), function of the → Ricci scalar; → gravity.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>