An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
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فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mom moo mor mov mul mur Na nar nat nea neg Nes neu New New Nic nod non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort OSI out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rak ran rat Ray rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sid sil sim sin sit sky slo Sne Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel Z C zer ZZ > >>

Number of Results: 13003 Search : far
Forbush decrease
  کاهش ِ فورباش   
kâheš-e Forbush

Fr.: effet Forbush   

A decrease in the Galactic cosmic flux around sunspot maximum as a consequence of Solar flare activity. When sunspots explode, they often hurl massive clouds of hot gas away from the Sun, a phenomenon called → coronal mass ejections (CME). The CMEs contain not only gas but also magnetic fields. So when a CME sweeps past Earth, it also sweeps away many of the electrically-charged cosmic rays.

After Scott E. Forbush, American physicist who studied cosmic rays in the 1930s and 40s; → effect; decrease, from O.Fr. stem of descreistre, from L. decrescere, from → de- "away from" + crescere "to grow."

Kâheš, verbal noun of kâstan, kâhidan "to decrease," from Mid.Pers. kâhitan, kâstan, kâhênitan "to decrease, diminish, lessen;" Av. kasu- "small, little" (Mod.Pers. keh), Proto-Iranian *kas- "to be small, diminish, lessen."

force
  نیرو   
niru (#)

Fr.: force   

1) The cause of a change in motion or shape of a body.
2) A → vector quantity defined by → Newton's second law as the rate of change of → momentum or, equivalently, as the product of → mass and → acceleration. A force is completely specified by giving its magnitude, direction, and point of application. In mechanics, force represents the quantitative measure of the mechanical interaction of material bodies.

From O.Fr. force, from L.L. fortia, from neut. pl. of L. fortis "strong," from forctus, from PIE base *bhergh- "high" (cf. Av. barəz- "high, mount," barezan- "height;" O.Pers. baršan- "height;" Mod.Pers. borz in (the mountain chain) Alborz, and borz "height, magnitude," bâlâ "up, above, high, elevated, height," Lori dialect berg "hill, mountain;" Skt. bhrant- "high;" O.E. burg, burh "castle, fortified place," from P.Gmc. *burgs "fortress;" Ger. Burg "castle," Goth. baurgs "city," E. burg, borough, Fr. bourgeois, bourgeoisie, faubourg).

Niru, from Mid.Pers. nêrok, Av. nairya- "manly, male" (cf. Skt. nárya-), from nar- "man, male" (Mid./Mod.Pers. nar- "male," Skt. nár- "male").

force field
  میدان ِ نیرو   
meydân-e niru (#)

Fr.: champ de force   

Same as → field of force.

force; → field.

force multiplier parameter
  پارامون ِ بستاگر ِ نیرو   
pârâmun-e bastâgar-e niru

Fr.: paramètre de multiplicateur de force   

One of the three quantities (k, α, and δ) which are used in the → radiation-driven wind theory to express the radiation pressure due to spectral lines. These coefficients parametrize the radiation acceleration as: grad≅ k(dv/dr)αge, where ge = σeL/4πcR*2 is the radiative acceleration by electron scattering. The parameter k is dependent on the number of lines that produce the radiation pressure. The parameter α depends on the optical depth of the driving lines and varies between 0 (optically thin) and 1 (optically thick). The parameter δ describes the dependence of k on the density with k ≅ ρδ. The velocity law of radiation-driven winds depends on α and δ, but not on k. The → mass loss rate depends on k, α, and δ (Castor et al. 1975, ApJ 195, 157; Lamers et al., 1995, ApJ 455, 269 and references therein).

force; → multiplier; → parameter.

force system
  راژمان ِ نیروها   
râžmân-e niruhâ

Fr.: système de forces   

Any set of forces acting on a → rigid body.

force; → system.

force-free magnetic field
  میدان ِ مغناتیسی ِ بی‌نیرو   
meydân-meqnâtisi-ye bi-niru

Fr.: champ magnétique sans force   

The condition in a plasma when the → Lorentz force is zero, that is when the electric current flows along the magnetic field. Force-free magnetic fields are encountered in astrophysical plasmas with negligible gas pressure. The solar corona is the best available example of such fields in action in a plasma.

force; → free; → magnetic; → field.

forced
  زوری   
zuri (#)

Fr.: forcé   

1) Physics: Caused by an external force. → forced oscillation.
2) General: Subjected to force, compulsory.

Adjective from → force.

Adjective from zur, → strength.

forced flow
  تچان ِ زوری   
tacân-e zuri

Fr.: écoulement forcé   

A fluid flow generated when external forces cause the fluid to flow, for example when a flow is caused by a pump. It contrasts with → free flow.

forced; → flow.

forced oscillation
  نوش ِ زوری   
naveš-e zuri

Fr.: oscillation forcée   

The oscillation of a system or object induced by an external periodic force. See also → free oscillation.

forced; → oscillation.

forearm
  ارش   
araš (#)

Fr.: avant bras   

The part of the arm between the → elbow and the → wrist.

From fore- a prefix meaning "before; front; superior," related to → per-; → arm.

Araš, variant ârenj "elbow;" Mid.Pers. âranj; O.Pers. arašan- "cubit;" Av. arəθnâ- "elbow;" Skt. aratni- "elbow," Iranian stem aratan-, araθn-, borrowed from Iranian into General Slavic as aršin "ell."

foreground
  پیش-زمینه   
pišzaminé

Fr.: avant-plan   

The ground or parts situated, or represented as situated, in the front; the portion of a scene or stellar field nearest to the viewer. → background.

From fore, from O.E. fore (prep.) "before, in front of;" (adv.) "before, previously" (cf. O.H.G. fora, Ger. vor, Goth. faiura); from PIE *per-/*pr- (cf. Skt. pura "before, formerly;" Av. paro "before;" Hittite para- "on, forth;" Gk. paros "before," para "from beside, beyond," peri "around, about, toward," pro "before;" L. pro "before, for, instead of," prae "before," per "through, for") + ground, from M.E., from O.E. grund; akin to O.H.G. grunt "ground."

Pišzaminé, from piš- "before; in front," from Mid.Pers. pêš "before, earlier;" O.Pers. paišiya "before; in the presence of" + ziminé "ground," from zamin "earth, ground" → earth.

foreground absorption
  درشم ِ پیش-زمینه   
daršam-e pišzaminé

Fr.: absorption d'avant-plan   

Loss of radiant energy received from an astronomical object due to the presence of absorbing matter situated between the object and observer.

foreground; → absorption.

forest
  جنگل   
jangal (#)

Fr.: forêt   

1) A large tract of land covered with trees and underbrush; woodland (Dictionary.com).
2) In → graph theory, a → graph which contains no → cycles. The connected components of a forest are → trees.

M.E., from O.Fr. forest, probably from L.L. forestis (silva) "the outside woods," from L. foris "outside."

Jangal "a wood, forest, a vast land with plenty of trees;" cf. Skt. jangala- "arid , sparingly grown with trees and plants."

fork
  دوشاخ، دوشاخه؛ چنگال   
došâx, došâxé; cangâl

Fr.: fourche; forchette   

1) An instrument having two or more prongs or tines, for holding, lifting, etc., as an implement for handling food or any of various agricultural tools (dictionary.com).
2) Something resembling or suggesting this in form. → fork mounting.

Fork, from O.E. forca, from L. furca "pitchfork," of uncertain origin; → mounting.

Došâx, došâxé "two-pronged; fork," from do "two" (Mid.Pers. do, Av. dva-, Skt. dvi-, Gk. duo, L. duo, E. two, Ger. zwei, Fr. deux) + šâx "branch; horn," from Mid.Pers. šâk "branch;" cf. Lith. šaka "branch;" O.S. soxa "plough;" Gothic hoha "plough."
Cangâl "claws, fingers," from cang "claws, fingers," + -al, → -al.

fork mounting
  برنشاند ِ دوشاخه   
barnešând-e došâxé

Fr.: monture à fourche   

A type of → equatorial mounting consisting of a two-pronged fork, which forms the → polar axis, with the → telescope pivoted between the prongs of the fork on a → declination axis.

fork; → mounting.

form
  ۱) دیس، دیسه؛ ۲) دیسیدن؛ ۳) دیساندن   
1) dis, disé (#); 2) disidan (#); 3) disândan (#)

Fr.: 1) forme; 2) se former; 3) former   

1) (n.) General: The shape and structure of something as distinguished from its material.
Philosophy: The structure, pattern, organization, or essential nature of anything. Structure or pattern as distinguished from matter.
Logic: The abstract relations of terms in a proposition, and of propositions to one another.
2) (v.intr.) of form.
3) (v.tr.) of form.

From O.Fr. forme, from L. forma "form, mold, shape, case," origin unknown.

1) Dis, disé "form, appearance," variants -diz, -diš (tandis "body form, like a body; effigy;" mâhdis "moon-like;" šabdiz "night color; a horse of dark rusty color;" andiš- "to think, contemplate"), from Mid.Pers. dêsag "form, appearance," dêsidan "to form, build;" Av. daēs- "to show," daēsa- "sign, omen;" cf. Skt. deś- "to show, point out;" PIE *deik- "to show" (cf. Gk. deiknumi "to show," dike "manner, custom;" L. dicere "to utter, say;" O.H.G. zeigon, Ger. zeigen "to show;" O.E. teon "to accuse," tæcan "to teach").
2) and 3) corresponding infintives of dis, as above.

formal
  دیسه‌ای، دیسه‌ور   
diseyi, disevar

Fr.: formel   

1) According to, or following established or prescribed forms, conventions, etc.
2) Math., logic: Of a proof, in strict logical form with a justification for every step.
3) Math., logic: Of a calculation, correct in form; made with strict justification for every step; of or pertaining to manipulation of symbols without regard to their meaning.
4) → formal language.
5) → formal logic.

M.E. formal, formel, from L. formalis, from → form + → -al.

Diseyi, desevar, from dis, → form, + adj. suffixes -i and -var.

formal language
  زبان ِ دیسه‌ور   
zabân-e disevar

Fr.: langage formel   

A language designed for use in situations in which natural language is unsuitable, as for example in → mathematics, → logic, or → computer  → programming. The symbols and formulas of such languages stand in precisely specified syntactic and semantic relations to one another (Dictionary.com).

formal; → language.

formal logic
  گوییک ِ دیسه‌ای، ~ دیسه‌ور   
guyik-e diseyi, ~ disevar

Fr.: logique formelle   

The traditional or → classical logic in which the → validity or → invalidity of a conclusion is deduced from two or more statements (→ premises). Based on Aristotle's (384-322 BC) theory of → syllogism, systematized in his book "Organon," its focus is not on what is stated (the content) but on the structure (form) of the → argument and the validity of the inference drawn from the premises of the argument; if the premises are true then the logical consequence must also be true. Formal logic is → bivalent, that is it recognizes only two → truth values: → true and → false. The basic principles of formal logic are: 1) → principle of identity, 2) → principle of excluded middle, and 3) → principle of non-contradiction. See also → symbolic logic, → fuzzy logic.

formal; → logic.

formal system
  راژمان ِ دیسه‌ور   
râžmân-e diseyi, ~ disevar

Fr.: système formel   

In logic and mathematics, a system in which statements can be constructed and manipulated with logical rules.

formal; → system.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arb are ari art ass ast ast ast Atl ato ato Aug aut awa azi bac bal Bar Bar Bay bea Bep Bet BIC bij bin bio bir bla bla blu blu bol Boo bou Bq bre bri bub B[e cal cal can car car Cas cat cau cel cen Cer cha cha cha che chi CI cir cir cla cle clo clu co- cob coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos cou cov cra cri cro cry cum cur cyc d'A dar dat DC dea dec dec dec def def deh Del den dep des det deu dia dif dif dif dim dip Dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom dos dou dri Dum dus dyn dyn ear eas ecl Edd eff Ein eje ele ele ele ele eli emb emi Enc ene ens eph epo equ equ eru eth Eul eve evo exc exc exi exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai Fan fea fem fer fie fil fir fir fla flo flu foc For for fos fra fre fre fro fun g m Gal gal gal gas gau gel gen geo geo geo gho gla gno gra gra gra gra Gre Gre gro gyr had hal har Har HD hea hel hel Her Her Hic hig hip hol hor hos hov Hub hun hyd hyd Hyd hyp IC ide ill ima imp imp inc inc ind ind inf inf inf inf inj ins ins int int int int int int int int inv Io ion iro isl iso iso Jal JHK Jul jur Kel Kep kin kne L2 Lag lam Lap lar lat law Lec len Lep lib lig lin lin lin liq lit loc log lon los low lum lun lux Lyr mac mag mag mag mag mag maj man Mar mas mas mat May mea mec mel mer mes met met met mic mid mil Min Mir mix mod mod mom moo mor mov mul mur Na nar nat nea neg Nes neu New New Nic nod non non non Nor nov nuc nul num OB obl obs occ Ock off Ohm on- ope opi opt opt orb orb ord Ori ort OSI out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pix Pla pla pla pla Pli Poi pol pol pol pol por pos pos pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rak ran rat Ray rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev Rho Rie ril riv rog Ros rot rul S A Sag sam sat sca sca Sch Sco Sec sec sec seg sel sem sen set sha SHB sho sib sid sil sim sin sit sky slo Sne Soc sol sol sol sol son sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni uno upp urg UX Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r yel Z C zer ZZ > >>