An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12982 Search : far
Fourier analysis
  آنالس ِ فوریه   
ânâlas-e Fourier

Fr.: analyse de Fourier   

The process of decomposing any function of time or space into a sum of sinusoidal functions using the → Fourier series and → Fourier transforms. In other words, any data analysis procedure that describes or measures the fluctuations in a time series by comparing them with sinusoids. Fourier analysis is an essential component of much of modern applied and pure mathematics. It forms an exceptionally powerful analytical tool for solving various problems in many areas of mathematics, physics, engineering, biology, finance, etc. and has opened up new realms of knowledge.

After the French mathematician Baron Jean Baptiste Joseph Fourier (1768-1830), whose work had a tremendous impact on the physical applications of mathematics; → analysis.

Fourier coefficient
  همگر ِ فوریه   
hamgar-e Fourier

Fr.: coefficient de Fourier   

One of the coefficients an or bn of cos (nx) and sin (nx) respectively in the → Fourier series representation of a function. They are expressed by:
an = (1/π) ∫f(x) cos nx dx, for n≥ 0, summed over 0 to 2π
bn = (1/π) ∫f(x) sin nx dx, for n≥ 1, summed over 0 to 2π.

Fourier analysis; → series.

Fourier integral
  درستال ِ فوریه   
dorostâl-e Fourier

Fr.: intégrale de Fourier   

An integral used in the → Fourier transform.

Fourier analysis; → integral.

Fourier series
  سری ِ فوریه   
seri-ye Fourier

Fr.: séries Fourier   

A mathematical tool used for decomposing a → periodic function into an infinite sum of sine and cosine functions. The general form of the Fourier series for a function f(x) with period 2π is:
(1/2) a0 + Σ (an cos (nx) + bn sin (nx), summed from n = 1 to ∞,
where an and bn are the → Fourier coefficients, measuring the strength of contribution from each harmonic. The functions cos (nx) and sin (nx) can be used in this way because they satisfy the → orthogonality conditions. For the problem of convergence of the Fourier series see → Dirichlet conditions. The Fourier series play a very important role in the study of periodic phenomena, because they allow one to decompose a large number of complex problems into simpler ones. The generalization of this method, called the → Fourier transform, makes it possible to also decompose non-periodic functions into harmonic components. See also → complex Fourier series, → Parseval's theorem.

Fourier analysis; → series.

Fourier theorem
  فربین ِ فوریه   
farbin-e Fourier

Fr.: théorème de Fourier   

Any finite periodic motion may be analyzed into components, each of which is a simple harmonic motion of definite and determinable amplitudes and phase.

Fourier analysis; → theorem.

Fourier transform
  ترادیس ِ فوریه   
tarâdis-e Fourier

Fr.: transformée de Fourier   

A powerful mathematical tool which is the generalization of the → Fourier series for the analysis of non-periodic functions. The Fourier transform transforms a function defined on physical space into a function defined on the space of frequencies, whose values quantify the "amount" of each periodic frequency contained in the original function. The inverse Fourier transform then reconstructs the original function from its transformed frequency components. The integral F(α) = ∫ f(u)e-iαudu is called the Fourier transform of F(x) = (1/2π)∫ f(α)eiαxdx, both integrals from -∞ to + ∞.

Fourier analysis; → transform.

fourth contact
  پرماس ِ چهارم   
parmâs-e cahârom

Fr.: quatrième contact   

The end of a solar eclipse marked by the disk of the Moon completely passing away from the disk of the Sun.

From M.E. fourthe, O.E. féowertha, from four, from O.E. feower, from P.Gmc. *petwor- (cf. Du. and Ger. vier, O.N. fjorir, Dan. fire, Sw. fyra), from PIE *qwetwor (cf. Mod.Pers. cahâr, Av. caθwar-, catur-, Skt. catvarah, Gk. tessares, L. quattuor) + -th a suffix used in the formation of ordinal numbers, from M.E. -the, -te, O.E. -tha, -the; cf. O.N. -thi, -di; L. -tus; Gk -tos; → contact.

Parmâs, → contact; cahârom cardinal form from cahâr "four," cognate with E. four, as above.

fovea
  لکه‌ی ِ زرد   
lake-ye zard (#)

Fr.: fovéa   

A small depression, approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter, at the back of the → retina. It forms the area of the most acute vision.

Contraction of fovea centralis, from L. fovea "small pit," of unknown origin.

Lake-ye zard, literally "yellow spot," from laké, → spot, zard, → yellow.

fractal
  برخال   
barxâl (#)

Fr.: fractal   

A geometrical or physical structure that repeats itself or nearly repeats itself on many different scales of magnification.

From Fr. fractale, term coined by Benoit Mandelbrot (1975), from frac(tus) "broken, uneven", → fraction, + -ale-al.

Barxâl, from barx, → fraction, + -âl-al.

fractal cosmology
  کیهانشناخت ِ برخالی   
keyhânšenâxt-e barxâli

Fr.: cosmologie fractale   

The postulate that the concentrations of matter in the Universe follow a → fractal structure over a wide range of scales.

fractal; → cosmology.

fractal structure
  ساختار ِ برخالی   
sâxtâr-e barxâli

Fr.: structure fractale   

A → hierarchial structure that can be likened to fractals.

fractal; → structure

fraction
  برخه   
barxé (#)

Fr.: fraction   

A rational number of the form a/b where a is called the numerator and b is called the denominator.

From L.L. fractionem (nom. fractio) "a breaking in pieces," from frangere "to break," from PIE base *bhreg- "to break" (cf. Goth. brikan, O.E. brecan "to break;" Lith. brasketi "crash, crack").

Barxé, from barx "lot, portion," variant bahr, from Mid.Pers. bahr "lot, share, portion," Av. baxəδra- "portion."

fractional
  برخه‌ای   
barxe-yi

Fr.: fractionnaire, fractionné, partiel   

1) Math.: Pertaining to fractions; constituting a fraction.
2) Chemistry: Of or relating to any process by which parts of a mixture are separated by exploiting differences in their physical properties, such as their boiling points, solubility, or other characteristics.

fraction; → -al.

fractional sky coverage
  پوشش ِ برخه‌ای ِ آسمان   
pušeš-e barxe-yi-ye âsmân

Fr.: couverture partielle du ciel   

The portion of the 4π → steradians of the sky that a radiotelescope can observe from a given location on Earth over a 24-hour time interval.

fractional; → sky; → coverage.

fractionate
  برخاندن   
barxândan

Fr.: fractionner   

1) To break something up into smaller parts.
2) To separate a mixture into ingredients or portions having different properties, as by distillation or otherwise.

From → fraction + -ate a suffix forming verbs or nouns, from L. -atus, -ata, -atum.

Barxândan, from barx, barxé, → fraction, + -ândan suffix of transitive verbs.

fractionation
  برخانش   
barxâneš

Fr.: fractionnement   

1) Any of various methods of separating the components of a mixture into fractions of different properties.
2) → isotope fractionation

Verbal noun from → fractionate.

fragment
  ۱) لته، لت، پاره؛ ۲) لتپار شدن؛ ۳) لتپاریدن   
1) latté (#), latt (#), pâré (#); 2) latpâr šodan (#); 3) latpâridan

Fr.: 1) fragment; 2) se fragmenter; 3) fragmenter   

1) (n.) A part broken off or detached.
2) (v.intr.) To collapse or break into pieces.
3) (v.tr.) To break something into pieces.

From L. fragmentum, from frangere "to break."

1) Latté, lat, variant laxt, laxté "piece, part;" pâré "piece, part, portion, fragment;" Mid.Pers. pârag "piece, part, portion; gift, offering, bribe;" Av. pāra- "debt," from par- "to remunerate, equalize; to condemn;" PIE *per- "to sell, hand over, distribute; to assigne;" cf. L. pars "part, piece, side, share," portio "share, portion;" Gk. peprotai "it has been granted;" Skt. purti- "reward;" Hitt. pars-, parsiya- "to break, crumble."
2) and 3) Verbal forms.

fragmentation
  لتپارش   
latpâreš

Fr.: fragmentation   

Generally, the process of breaking up into smaller parts. In particular, the splitting of a large molecular cloud into smaller, denser clumps. → cloud fragmentation.

From → fragmenta + -ation, a combination of -ate and -ion, used to form nouns from stems in -ate.

Latpâreš, verbal noun from latpâridan, → fragment.

fragmentation process
  فراروند ِ لتپارش   
farâravand-e latpâreš

Fr.: processus de fragmentation   

The succession of physical events that results in the breaking of a → molecular cloud into several → fragments.

fragmentation; → process.

frame
  ۱) چارچوب؛ ۲)، ۳) تصویرک   
1) cârcub (#); 2), 3) tasvirak

Fr.: 1) cadre; 2), 3) image   

1) A border or case for enclosing a picture, mirror, etc.; a structure for admitting or enclosing something.
2) One of the successive pictures on a roll of movie film or videotape.
3) In computers, the information or image on a screen or monitor at any one time.

Frame, from M.E. verb framen "to prepare (timber)," from O.E. framian "to avail, profit."; cf. O.H.G. (gi)framon "to do."

1) Cârcub "frame," from câr, contraction of cahâr "four" (→ four) + cub "stick, satff, beam," Mid.Pers. côp "wood, stick." 2) Tasvirak from Ar. tasvir "image" + -ak suffix of relation and similarity (as in poštak, dastak, nâxonak), → fibril.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- a p abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi ads aes Age Alb Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app app arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att Aur aut axi azi bac Bal Bar Bar Bay Bec Ber bet bic bij bin bio Bir bla Bla blu blu bol Boo bou bra Bre bro bug C r cal Cal can car Car Cas cat cau cel cen cer Cha cha Cha che chl cir cir cir Cla cli clo clu co- coc coh col col col com com com com com com com com Com con con con con con con con con con con con con Cop Cor cor cor cos cos Cou cou cow cre cri cro cry cur cut Cyg dam dar dat de deb dec dec ded def deg del dem den dep des det dev dia dif dif dig dio Dir dis dis dis dis dis dis div don dou dow dro dur dwa dyn Dys ear ebb ecl edg egg Ein Ela ele ele ele ele ell eme emp enc eng ent epi equ equ Equ esc eth Eur eve exa exc exe exi exp exp ext ext eye fac fal Far fed fer fer fie fin fir fit fla flo flu fol for for Fou fra fre Fre fro fuz gai Gal Gal gam gas Gau gen gen geo geo geo gia glo gol gra gra gra gra gre gri gui H I hai Ham har Hau hea hec hel hel her HES hie hig his hom hor hot Hub hum Huy hyd hyd hyl hyp ice ide ima imp imp imp inc ind ind ine inf inf inf ini ins ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iro irr iso iso ite jel Jou Jup kao Kep kil Kip Kra Lag Lam lan lar las law lea leg Leo lex lig lim lin lin lin lit Loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met met mic mic Mik min min mis mob mod mol mon moo mou mul mul mys nan Nat nau nec neo neu nev New NGC no nom non non nor not nuc nuc num nut obj obs obs occ odd OH Ome Oor ope opp opt opt orb ord ori ort osc out ove oxi pai Pan par par par par pas pea pen per per per per Per per pha phl pho pho pho pi pip Pla pla pla pla ple poa pol Pol pol pol pop pos pos pot pra pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro pro Pto pul puz qua qua qua qua qui rad rad rad rad rad rad rai ran rar Ray rea Rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rel rel rel rep res res res res ret Rhe rid rig ris Roe Ros rot rub rut Sag sam sat sca sca Sch sci sea sec sec see sel sem sen ser Sh2 sha shi sho sid sig sim sin Sir ske sli Smo soc sol sol sol sol sol sou spa spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo Squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto str str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn T d tap tec tem ten tes the the the the thi thr tid tim tip ton tor tow tra tra tra tra tri tri tru tub tur two Typ ult un- und uni uni unp upp urg V20 Van var veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Vol Vul wan wat wav WC4 wea wel whi Wil wis WNL wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>