An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou cra cre cro cru cub cur cyc Cyn dar dat day de- dec dec dec def def deg del den dep Des det deu dex die dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom Dor dou Dra duc dus dwa dyn e-t ear ecl eco eff Ein Ein ele ele ele ele ele elv emi emp ene enr epa epo equ equ Err Eta Eul eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai fan fau fel fer fic fil fin fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fro fun fuz Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel hep Her hex hig Him hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ini inp ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion Iri irr iso iso ite jel Jou JUp Kan Kep Kil kin Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nou nuc nuc num O-p obl obs obs oce Of? ohm omn opa Oph opt opt or orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Prz pul pum Pyx qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rhy rif Rin rob Rom rot rot rum S s Sak San sav sca Sch Sch scr sec sec SED sei sel sem seq sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto sto str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn syz tan tea tem ten ter the the the the thi thr tid til tip tom tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ ult umb unc uni uni unk upp urg uvb val var Veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>

Number of Results: 12942 Search : far
gegenschein
  پادفروغ   
pâdforuq

Fr.: gegenschein, lueur anti-solaire   

A faint glow of light in the night sky seen exactly opposite the Sun. The gegenschein is sunlight back-scattered off millimeter-sized dust particles along the ecliptic. In comparison with zodiacal light (forward-scattered sunlight), which is triangular in shape and found near the horizon, the gegenschein is roughly circular. Same as counterglow.

Gegenschein, from Ger. gegen "counter, opposed to" (O.H.G. gegin, gagan, M.Du. jeghen, E. against, again) + Schein "glow, shine" (M.H.G. schinen, O.H.G. skinan, P.Gmc. *skinanan; E. shine; cf. Mod.Pers. sâyé "shadow;" Mid.Pers. sâyak "shadow;" Av. a-saya- "throwing no shadow;" Skt. chāya- "shadow;" Gk. skia "shade;" Rus. sijat' "to shine;" PIE base *skai- "bright").

Pâdfrouq "counterglow," from pâd- "agaist, contrary to" (from Mid.Pers. pât-; O.Pers. paity "agaist, back, opposite to, toward, face to face, in front of;" Av. paiti; cf. Skt. práti "toward, against, again, back, in return, opposite;" Pali pati-; Gk. proti, pros "face to face with, toward, in addition to, near;" PIE *proti) + foruq "light, brightness" (related to rôšan "light; bright, luminous;" ruz "day," afruxtan "to light, kindle;" Mid.Pers. payrog "light, brightness," rošn light; bright," rôc "day;" O.Pers. raucah-; Av. raocana- "bright, shining, radiant," raocah- "light, luminous; daylight;" cf. Skt. rocaná- "bright, shining, roka- "brightness, light;" Gk. leukos "white, clear;" L. lux "light" (also lumen, luna; E. light, Ger. Licht, and Fr. lumière; PIE base *leuk- "light, brightness").

Geiger counter
  شمارگر ِ گایگر   
šomârgar-e Geiger (#)

Fr.: compteur Geiger   

A device for detecting ionizing radiations, whether corpuscular (α-, β-particles), or electromagnetic (X- and gamma-rays). It consists essentially of a fine wire anode (e.g., tungsten) surrounded by a coaxial cylindrical metal cathode, mounted in a glass envelope containing gas at low pressure. A large potential difference (800 to 2000 volts) is maintained between the anode and the cathode. The ionizing particle can enter through a thin glass or mica window. The particle produces ionization of gas molecules. The ions are accelerated by the electric field and produce more ions by collisions, causing the ionization current to build up rapidly. The current, however, decays quickly since the circuit has a small time constant. There is therefore a momentary potential surge which may be amplified and made to actuate a relay to advance a mechanical counter, or to produce a click in a loudspeaker. Same as Geiger-Mulle counter.

Named after Hans Geiger (1882-1945), the German physicist, who invented the instrument. He is also known for his work on atomic theory and cosmic rays; → counter.

geld
  اختن   
axtan (#)

Fr.: hongrer, castrer, châtrer   

To castrate (an animal, especially a horse).

M.E. gelden, from O.Norse gelda, ultimately from PIE *ghel- "to cut."

Axtan, variant of âxtan, âhixtan, âhiz- "to draw out; castrate, geld," → object.

gelding
  اخته   
axté (#)

Fr.: hongre, castré, castration   

A castrated male animal, especially a horse.

geld; → -ing.

Geminga
  گمینگا   
Geminga

Fr.: Geminga   

A bright → gamma-ray source discovered in 1973 in the constellation → Gemini with instruments aboard NASA's first γ-ray satellite SAS-2. It was known only as a γ-ray source until it was detected in X-rays by the Einstein Observatory and associated with an optical counterpart of apparent magnitude 25. Because its luminosity outside of the γ-ray region is extremely low, the nature of this object remained a mystery until the discovery of pulsed emission, by the → ROSAT satellite in 1992, showed that it is a → pulsar. The pulsar period (~237 milliseconds) and its → period derivative (~1.1 × 10-14 s s-1) correspond to a → spin-down age of ~340,000 years. Also called PSR J0633+1746 (see Bignami & Caraveo 1996, ARA&A 34, 331 for a review).

An abbreviation for the Gemini gamma ray source. More amusingly, Geminga has been related to the Italian dialectal ghè minga spoken by the involved astronomers. This, in Milanese, means "it's not there," referring to the fact that the source could not be detected in the radio frequencies, one of the ongoing enigmas.

Gemini
  دوپیکر   
dopeykar (#)

Fr.: Gémeaux   

The Twins. A prominent constellation of the northern hemisphere and the third (and northernmost) of the → Zodiac. It lies south and east of → Auriga, west of → Cancer, and north and east of → Orion, at 7h right ascension and +22° declination. Its brightest stars are → Castor and → Pollux. Abbreviation: Gem; genitive: Geminorum.

Gemini, from M.E., from L. gemini, plural of geminus "twin; double;" cf. Av. yəma- "twin;" Skt. yamá-, yamala- "twin, paired;" Persian dialects Kermâni jomoli "twin," Qâyeni jamal "twin," Tabari da-cembali "twin;" PIE base *iem- "to hold."

Dopeykar, from do "two" (Mid.Pers. do, Av. dva-; Skt. dvi-; Gk. duo; L. duo ( Fr. deux); E. two; Ger. zwei) + peykar "figure, form, body" (from Mid.Pers. pahikar "picture, image;" from O.Pers. patikara- "picture, (sculpted) likeness," from patiy "against" (Av. paiti; Skt. prati; Gk. poti/proti) + kara- "doer, maker," from kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kar-; Skr. kr-; cf. Skt. pratikrti- "an image, likeness, model; counterpart").

Geminids
  دوپیکریان   
dopeykariyân (#)

Fr.: Géminides   

A → meteor shower that occurs in the first half of December, with its → radiant in the → constellation → Gemini. Geminids are pieces of debris from the extinct comet → 3200 Phaethon. The shower appears when Earth runs into a stream of the debris every year in mid-December, causing → meteors to fly from that constellation.

Gemini + → -ids.

Gemma
  الفکه   
Alfakké (#)

Fr.: Alphekka   

The brightest star in the constellation → Corona Borealis. Same as → Alphekka.

Gemma, from L. gemma "precious stone, jewel," originally "bud," from the root *gen- "to produce", → generate.

Alfakké, → Alphekka.

gender
  ژانه   
žâné

Fr.: genre   

In some languages (not in English, nor in Persian) a set of two or more grammatical categories (called → masculine, → feminine, and → neuter) into which nouns, pronouns, and adjectives are divided. For example, French, Spanish, and Italian have two genders, masculine and feminine (shown, for example, in French by the use of le and la, respectively); German and Russian have three genders, masculine, feminine, and neuter. Ancient Iranian languages had three genders, like Sanskrit and Greek.

From M.E. gendre, from O.Fr. gendre, from stem of L. genus "race, stock, family; kind, rank, order; species."

Žâné "race, species," ultimately from Proto-Ir. *zan- "to be born," cf. Av. za(n)- "to give birth; to be born;" related to Pers. zâdan, akin to L. genus, as above, → generate; the transformation of z into ž, as in nežâd, → race.

gene
  ژن   
žen (#)

Fr.: gène   

The basic unit of hereditary that is an ordered sequence of nucleotides located in a particular position of a particular chromosome. It is the means by which characteristics are transmitted from parents to offsprings.

From Ger. Gen, coined 1905 by Danish scientist Wilhelm Ludvig Johannsen (1857-1927), from Gk. genos "race, kind," genesis "origin," genea "generation, race;" cognate with L. genus "race, stock;" generare "to bring forth;" Pers. zâdan "to bring forth;" → generate.

Žen, loanword from Fr., as above.

general
  هروین   
harvin

Fr.: général   

(Adj.) 1) Not limited to one class, field, product, service, etc. 2) Relating to the whole or to the all or most. 3) Dealing with overall characteristics, universal aspects, or important elements.
See also:
general precession, → general relativity, → generalization, → generalize, → generalized, → generalized coordinates, → generalized forces, → generalized momenta, → generalized velocities, → New General Catalogue (NGC).

From L. generalis "relating to all, of a whole class," from genus "race, stock, kind," akin to Pers. zâdan, Av. zan- "to bear, give birth to a child, be born," infinitive zazāite, zāta- "born;" Mod.Pers. zâdan, present stem zā- "to bring forth, give birth" (Mid.Pers. zâtan; cf. Skt. jan- "to produce, create; to be born," janati "begets, bears;" Gk. gignomai "to happen, become, be born;" L. gignere "to beget;" PIE base *gen- "to give birth, beget."

Harvin, from Mid.Pers. harvin "all," from har(v) "all, each, every" (Mod.Pers. har "every, all, each, any"); O.Pers. haruva- "whole, all together;" Av. hauruua- "whole, at all, undamaged;" cf. Skt. sárva- "whole, all, every, undivided;" Gk. holos "whole, complete;" L. salvus "whole, safe, healthy," sollus "whole, entire, unbroken;" PIE base *sol- "whole."

general precession
  پیشایان ِ هروین   
pišâyân-e harvin

Fr.: précession générale   

The secular motions of the → celestial equator and → ecliptic. In other words, the sum of → lunisolar precession, → planetary precession, and → geodesic precession.

general; → precession

general precession in longitude
  پیشایان ِ هروینِ درژنا   
pišâyân-e harvin-e derežnâ

Fr.: précession générale en longitude   

The secular displacement of the → equinox on the → ecliptic of date.

general; → precession; → longitude.

general precession in right ascension
  پیشایان ِ هروین ِ راست‌افراز   
pišâyân-e harvin-e râst afrâz

Fr.: précession générale en ascension droite   

The secular motion of the → equinox along the → celestial equator.

general; → precession; → right ascension.

general relativistic
  بازانیگی‌مند ِ هروین   
bâzânigimand-e harvin

Fr.: de relativité générale   

Of, relating to, or subject to the theory of → general relativity.

general; → relativistic.

general relativity
  بازانیگی ِ هروین   
bâzânigi-ye harvin

Fr.: relativité générale   

The theory of → gravitation developed by Albert Einstein (1916) that describes the gravitation as the → space-time curvature caused by the presence of matter or energy. Mass creates a → gravitational field which distorts the space and changes the flow of time. In other words, mass causes a deviation of the → metric of space-time continuum from that of the "flat" space-time structure described by the → Euclidean geometry and treated in → special relativity. General relativity developed from the → principle of equivalence between gravitational and inertial forces. According to general relativity, photons follow a curved path in a gravitational field. This prediction was confirmed by the measurements of star positions near the solar limb during the total eclipse of 1919. The same effect is seen in the delay of radio signals coming from distant space probes when grazing the Sun's surface. Moreover, the space curvature caused by the Sun makes the → perihelion of Mercury's orbit advance by 43'' per century more than that predicted by Newton's theory of gravitation. The → perihelion advance can reach several degrees per year for → binary pulsar orbits. Another effect predicted by general relativity is the → gravitational reddening. This effect is verified in the → redshift of spectral lines in the solar spectrum and, even more obviously, in → white dwarfs. Other predictions of the theory include → gravitational lensing, → gravitational waves, and the invariance of Newton's → gravitational constant.

general; → relativity.

general secretary
  هروین دبیر   
harvin dabir

Fr.: secrétaire général   

secretary-general.

general; → secretary.

generalization
  هروین‌کرد، هروینش   
harvinkard, harvineš

Fr.: généralisation   

The act or process of generalizing; → generalize.
A result of this process; a general statement, proposition, or principle.

Verbal noun of → generalize.

generalize
  هروین کردن، هروینیدن   
harvin kardan, harvinidan

Fr.: généraliser   

To make general, to include under a general term; to reduce to a general form.
To infer or form a general principle, opinion, conclusion, etc. from only a few facts, examples, or the like.

general; → -ize.

generalized
  هروینیده   
harvinidé

Fr.: généralisé   

Made general. → generalized coordinates; → generalized velocities.

P.p. of → generalize

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor Cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou cra cre cro cru cub cur cyc Cyn dar dat day de- dec dec dec def def deg del den dep Des det deu dex die dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dom Dor dou Dra duc dus dwa dyn e-t ear ecl eco eff Ein Ein ele ele ele ele ele elv emi emp ene enr epa epo equ equ Err Eta Eul eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext Fab fai fan fau fel fer fic fil fin fir fla fli flu foc for for for fra fre fre fro fun fuz Gal gal gal Gar gau geg gen geo geo geo ger gla gly gra gra gra gra gra Gre gro GYR Had Hal hap Har HD hea hel hel hep Her hex hig Him hol hor hos hov Hub Hun hyd hyd hyd hyp IC ide ill Ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf ini inp ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion Iri irr iso iso ite jel Jou JUp Kan Kep Kil kin Kra Lag Lam Lan Lar las law lea Leg Leo lev lig lim lin lin lin lit loc loc log Lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mec meg men mer met met Met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon mor mov mul mur n-b nan nat nea neg Ner neu new New NGC noc nom non non nor nou nuc nuc num O-p obl obs obs oce Of? ohm omn opa Oph opt opt or orb ord Ori ort osc out ove ozo pal pan par par par par pat pec pen per per per per per Pfu pha pho pho pho phy pie pla Pla pla pla pla plu poi pol pol pol pol por pos pot pow pre pre pre pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro Pro pro Prz pul pum Pyx qua qua qua qua R A rad rad rad rad rad rad Ram Ran rat rea rea rec rec red red ref ref reg rei rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rhy rif Rin rob Rom rot rot rum S s Sak San sav sca Sch Sch scr sec sec SED sei sel sem seq sex Sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin siz sla Sma SNR Sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spe spe spe spe sph spi spo squ sta sta sta sta ste ste ste sto sto str str sub sub sub sum sup sup sup sup sur sus sym syn syz tan tea tem ten ter the the the the thi thr tid til tip tom tor tou tra tra tra tra Tri tri tru tsu tur two Typ ult umb unc uni uni unk upp urg uvb val var Veg vel ver vib vio vir vis Voi vow wan wat wav WC wea wel whi Wil wir WNh wor X-r Yer Z s zer [C > >>