An Etymological Dictionary of Astronomy and Astrophysics
English-French-Persian

فرهنگ ریشه شناختی اخترشناسی-اخترفیزیک

M. Heydari-Malayeri    -    Paris Observatory

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Number of Results: 12948 Search : far
grand unified theory (GUT)
  نگره‌ی ِ یگانش ِ بزرگ   
negare-ye yegâneš-e bozorg (#)

Fr.: théorie de la grande unification   

Any physical theory that unites the strong, electromagnetic, and weak interactions at high energy. It is hoped that GUTs can ultimately be extended to incorporate gravity. → theory of everything.

M.E. graunt, from O.Fr. grant, grand, from L. grandis "big, great," also "full-grown;" unified, p.p. of → unify; → theory.

Negâré, → theory; yegâneš, verbal noun of yegânestan, → unify; bozorggreat.

granite
  گرانیت   
gerânit (#)

Fr.: granite   

A very hard, granular, → igneous rock of visibly crystalline texture consisting mainly of → quartz, → mica, and → feldspar that constitutes the bulk of the → continental crust.

From Fr. granit(e) or directly from It. granito "granite," originally "grained," p.p. adj. from granire "granulate, make grainy," from grano "grain," from L. granum, → grain.

granulation
  دانه‌بندی   
dâne-bandi

Fr.: granulation   

The mottled appearance of the solar → photosphere, caused by → convective cells, resembling → granules, which rises from the interior of the Sun. Each granule has a mean size of about 1,000 km and an upward velocity of about 0.5 km/sec. Granules are separated by intergranular walls about 400 K colder. They emerge from the fragments of the preceding granules and their lifetimes are about 20 minutes.

From → granule + -ation a combination of -ate and -ion, used to form nouns from stems in -ate.

Dâne-bandi, from dâné, → grain, + bandi verbal noun of bastan, vastan "to bind, shut;" O.Pers./Av. band- "to bind, fetter," banda- "band, tie" (cf. Skt. bandh- "to bind, tie, fasten;" PIE *bhendh- "to bind;" Ger. binden; E. bind).

granule
  دانول   
dânul

Fr.: granule   

A tiny grain; a small particle.
One of the convective cells constituting the solar → granulation.

From L.L. granulum "small grain," from → gain + → -ule.

grape
  انگور   
angur (#)

Fr.: raisin   

The edible, pulpy, smooth-skinned berry or fruit that grows in clusters on vines of the genus Vitis, and from which wine is made (Dictionary.com).

M.E., from O.Fr. grape "bunch of grapes, grape."

Angur "grape," from Mid.Pers. angur "grape;" cf. Khwarazmi 'nkyδ, Yidgha agidro, Munji aglero, Shughni angûrδ, related to quré "unripe grape."

graph
  نگاره   
negâré (#)

Fr.: diagramme, graphique, graphe   

1) A visual representation of data that displays the relationship among variables, usually cast along X and Y axes.
2) In → graph theory, a graph G = (V, E) consists of a set of objects V called vertices and a set E which contains unordered pairs of distinct elements of V called edges.

Short for graphic (formula), from L. graphicus "of painting or drawing," from Gk. graphikos "able to draw or paint," from graph(ein) "to draw, write" + -ikos, → ic.

Negâré, from negâr "picture, figure" (verb negârdan, negâštan "to paint"), from prefix ne-, O.Pers./Av. ni- "down; into," → ni-, + gâr, from kar-, kardan "to do, to make" (Mid.Pers. kardan; O.Pers./Av. kar- "to do, make, build;" Av. kərənaoiti "he makes;" cf. Skt. kr- "to do, to make," krnoti "he makes, he does," karoti "he makes, he does," karma "act, deed;" PIE base *kwer- "to do, to make").

graph theory
  نگره‌ی ِ نگاره   
negare-ye negâré

Fr.: théorie des graphes   

The branch of → mathematics dealing with → graphs. In particular, it involves the ways in which sets of points (→ vertex) can be connected by lines or arcs (→ edge).

graph; → theory.

graphic
  نگاریک   
negârik

Fr.: graphique   

(Adj.) Pertaining to the use of diagrams, graphs, mathematical curves, or the like.
Math.: Pertaining to the determination of values, solution of problems, etc., by direct measurement on diagrams instead of by ordinary calculations.
(n.) A product of the graphic arts, as a drawing or print. A computer-generated image.

graph + → -ic.

graphite
  گرافیت   
gerâfit (#)

Fr.: graphite   

A particular crystalline form of → carbon occurring as a soft, black, lustrous mineral. The carbon atoms in graphite are strongly bonded together in sheets. Because the bonds between the sheets are weak, other atoms can easily fit between them, causing graphite to be soft and slippery to the touch. Graphite conducts electricity and is used in lead pencils and electrolytic anodes, as a lubricant, and as a moderator in nuclear reactors. If graphite is subjected to high pressure, it will be transformed into → diamond.
Graphite is present in the → interstellar medium; it forms in circumstellar shells and supernova ejecta. In particular, the 2175 Å interstellar extinction feature is accounted for by small graphite grains.

From Ger. Graphit, from Gk. graph(ein) "to write, draw," so called because it was used for pencils, → graph + -it a suffix of chemical compounds, equivalent to E. -ite.

grating
  توری، ~ ِ پراش   
turi, ~ -e parâš (#)

Fr.: réseau   

Same as → diffraction grating.

M.E. grating, M.L. grata "a grating," variant of crata, from crat-, stem of cratis "wickerwork."

Turi, from tur "fishing net, net, snare," variants târ "thread, warp, string," tâl "thread" (Borujerdi dialect), cognate with tanidan, tan- "to spin, twist, weave" (Mid.Pers. tanitan; Av. tan- to stretch, extend;" Skt. tan- to stretch, extend;" tanoti "stretches," tantram "loom;" tántra- "warp; essence, main point;" Gk. teinein "to stretch, pull tight;" L. tendere "to stretch;" Lith. tiñklas "net, fishing net, snare," Latv. tikls "net;" PIE base *ten- "to stretch").

grating angle
  زاویه‌ی ِ توری   
zâviye-ye turi (#)

Fr.: angle de réseau   

The angle between the incident optical beam and the normal to the grating. It is the angle to which the grating must be set to place the desired wavelength at the center of the detector.

grating; → angle.

grating efficiency
  کار‌آیی ِ توری   
kârâyi-ye turi (#)

Fr.: efficacité de réseau   

The measure of the light intensity diffracted from a grating.

grating; → efficiency.

grating groove
  شیار ِ توری   
šiyâr-e turi (#)

Fr.: trait du réseau, sillon ~ ~   

One of thousands of long, narrow indentations in the surface of a → diffraction grating.

grating; → groove.

gravitate
  گرانیدن   
gerânidan (#)

Fr.: graviter   

To move or tend to move under the influence of gravitational force.

From L. gravitatus, p.p. of gravitâre, from gravis "heavy," → gravity.

Gerânidan, infinitive of gerân, → gravity.

gravitation
  گرانش   
gerâneš (#)

Fr.: gravitation   

1) The universal phenomenon of attraction between material bodies. → Newton's law of gravitation.
2) The act or process of moving under the influence of this attraction.

Verbal noun of → gravitate.

gravitational
  گرانشی   
gerâneši (#)

Fr.: gravitationnel   

Of or relating to or caused by → gravitation.

Adj. of → gravitation.

gravitational acceleration
  شتاب ِ گرانشی   
šetâb-e gerâneši (#)

Fr.: accélération gravitationnelle   

The acceleration caused by the force of gravity. At the Earth's surface it is determined by the distance of the object form the center of the Earth: g = GM/R2, where G is the → gravitational constant, and M and R are the Earth's mass and radius respectively. It is approximately equal to 9.8 m s-2. The value varies slightly with latitude and elevation. Also known as the → acceleration of gravity.

gravitational; → acceleration.

gravitational attraction
  درکشش ِ گرانشی   
darkešeš-e gerâneši

Fr.: attraction gravitationnelle   

The force that pulls material bodies toward one another because of → gravitation.

gravitational; → attraction.

gravitational collapse
  رمبش ِ گرانشی   
rombeš-e gerâneši (#)

Fr.: effondrement gravitationnel   

Collapse of a mass of material as a result of the mutual → gravitational attraction of all its constituents.

gravitational; → collapse.

gravitational constant
  پایای ِ گرانشی   
pâyâ-ye gerâneši (#)

Fr.: constante gravitationnelle   

A fundamental constant that appears in → Newton's law of gravitation. It is the force of attraction between two bodies of unit mass separated by unit distance: G = 6.673 x 10-8 dyn cm2 g-2 or 6.673 x 10-8 cm3s-2g-1, or 6.673 x 10-11 N m2 kg-2 or 6.673 x 10-11 m3s-2kg-1. It was first measured in 1798 by Henry Cavendish (1731-1810), 71 years after Newton's death. Same as the → Newtonian constant of gravitation.

gravitational; → constant.

<< < -es -iv -ti 21- A r abe abs abs acc acc acc act act ada adi adu aff age alc Alf ali all alp alt ama amp ana ang ang ann ano ant ant ape apo app aps arc Arg ari art ass ast ast ast atm ato att aur aut axi B r bac Bal Bar Bar Bay bec Ber Bet Bie bij bin bio bis bla bla blu blu bol Bor bou Bra bre bro Bug C-s cal Cam can car Car Cas cat cav cel cen cer Cha cha cha che cho cir cir cir cla clo clo clu coa coe coh col col col com com com com com com com com com con con con con con con con con con con con coo cor cor cor cos cos cos Cou cou Cra Cre cri cro cub cur cyc cyl dar dat daw de- Deb dec dec dee def deg del Den dep der det deu dew dic dif dif dil dip dir dis dis dis dis dis div dog Dop dou dra dua dus dwa dyn e-m ear ecl eco eff ein Ein elb ele ele ele ele Els emi emp ene enr env epi equ equ Eri est Euc eva evo exc exc exh exo exp exp ext ext f-n Fah fam fau fee Fer fib fil fin fir fix fle flu foc for for for fra fre fre fri fun fuz gal gal gal Gan gau GCN gen geo geo geo geo Gl glo gra gra gra gra gra gre gro GW1 hab hal han HAR haz hea hel hel Hen Her heu Hig Hil hol hop hor hou Hub Hum Hyd hyd hyd hyp hys ide ign ima imp imp inc inc ind ine inf inf inf inh INP ins ins int int int int Int int int int inv ion iri irr iso iso iso Jea Jos Jun K2 Kep key kin Kol lag lam Lan lar las lav lea leg len lev lig lim lin lin lin lis lob loc log lor low lum lun lun Lym Mac mag mag mag mag mag mai Mal mar mas mas mat max mea mea mee Men mer met met met mic mid Mil min Mir mix mod mod mol mon Mor mou mul muo mys nan nat nav nec Nep neu New New NGC nob nom non non nor not nuc nuc num Nyq obj obs obs oce oen OH omn opa ope opt opt opt orb ord Ori ort osc out ove oxy pal pan par Par par par pas pea Pen per per per per per pet pha pho pho pho phy pie Pit Pla pla pla pla ple Poi pol pol pol pol pop pos pos pow pre pre pre Pre pri pri pri pro pro pro pro pro pro Pro pub pul pyr qua qua qua qua Qui rad rad rad rad rad rad ram ran rat rea rec rec rec red ref ref reg reg rel rel rem rep res res res ret rev rho Rie rim riv rol Ros rot rul S a Sah san Sat sca Sch Sch scr sec sec sec sei sel sem sep set sha she sho sid sig sil sim sin sit sky slu sno sof sol sol sol sol sou sou spa spa spe spe spe sph spi spl spr sta sta sta sta sta ste ste sti sto str str sub sub sub sug sun sup sup sup sup sur syl syn sys tal Tay tel ten ter tex the the the thi tho thu tid tim tod top tot tra tra tra tra tri tri tro tru tur twi Typ UFO ult unc uni uni uni upg ura uti val var vec vel ver ver vig vir vis voc von wak Was wav wax wea wei whi Wie win WN6 wom X-r yel you zer zod > >>